فهرست مطالب

Pathology - Volume:11 Issue:2, 2016
  • Volume:11 Issue:2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/01/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • Alireza Abdollahi, Hana Saffar Pages 89-96
    It is estimated that the number of HIV infected children globally has increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 3.3 million in 2012. The number of children below 15 years of age living with HIV has increased worldwide. Published data from recent studies confirmed dramatic survival benefit for infants started anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as early as possible after diagnosis of HI. Early confirmation of HIV diagnosis is required in order to identify infants who need immediate ART. WHO has designed recommendations to improve programs for both early diagnoses of HIV infection and considering ART whenever indicated? It is strongly recommended that HIV virologocal assays for diagnosis of HIV have sensitivity of at least 95% and ideally greater than 98% and specificity of 98% or more under standardized and validated conditions. Timing of virological testing is also important. Infants infected at or around delivery may take short time to have detectable virus. Therefore, sensitivity of virological tests is lower at birth. In utero HIV infection, HIV DNA or RNA can be detected within 48 h of birth and in infants with peripartum acquisition it needs one to two weeks. Finally it is emphasized that all laboratories performing HIV tests should follow available services provided by WHO or CDC for quality assurance programs. Both clinicians and staffs providing laboratory services need regular communications, well-defined SOPs and nationally validated algorithms for optimal use of laboratory tests. Every country should use assays that have been validated by national reference laboratory.
    Keywords: Diagnosis, HIV infection, infants, Children
  • Parya Bameni Moghaddam, Fatemeh Mahjoub, Amirhossein Emami, Alireza Abdollahi Pages 97-103
    Background
    Automatic Cell Counter devises make the CBC differential very easy and delivering the results in few second. However, the problem with this device is facing a flag requires a time-consuming microscopic review of the specimen which causes unacceptable wait times for patient as well as costs for laboratories. In this study, we calculated the validity of WBC diff flags in Sysmex XT-1800i. In addition, we verified the correlation between manual and automated samples.
    Methods
    Overall, 1095 flagged samples were selected in the period of 6 weeks (Imam Hospital complex, Tehran Iran, 2014). The results of both automated and manual counting of the samples were carefully studied and compared. Totally, 624 NRBC flags, 450 Blast flags, 155 abnormal WBC Scatter gram flags, 140 Eosinophilia flags and 468 Monocytosis flags were identified.
    Results
    Considering NRBC and blast flags there was a significant difference between our manual counted and automated counted NRBCs and blasts (P
    Conclusion
    We propose the NRBC flags to be ignored and report negative except for the neonatal ward, and the Blasts flags to be ignored and report negative in all the cases. The WBC Scatter gram should be report positive. For eosinophilia and monocytosis flags, we propose, the Sysmex results should be considered correct and the manual checking would not be necessary.
    Keywords: WBC differentiation, Sysmex cell count, WBC flags, NRBC, Blasts
  • Shahriar Dabiri, Mohammadmehdi Moeini Aghtaei, Jahanbano Shahryari, Manzume Shamis Meymandi, Sahar Amirpour, Rostami, Reza Foutohi, Ardekani Pages 104-111
    Background
    The breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women, on the other hand absence of myoepithelial cells play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of this cancer. Thus we aimed to investigate the possible abilities of the molecular assay technique to find a relationship between mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) gene expression possibly secreted by myoepithelial cells, grade of breast cancer and other prognostics factors (ER, PR, and c-erb-B2).
    Methods
    Paraffin embedded blocks of 31 breast cancer patients together with two normal breast tissues were used for IHC staining and Maspin gene RNA detection uses the real-time PCR method. Applying QIAGEN kit, we were able to measure Maspin RNA and Extract the cDNA of different samples for evaluating the Maspin RNA level.
    Results
    We found that the RNA level was considerably lowerin these cancer samples compared with normal samples. In addition, different grades of breast cancer in the obtained results adopt some distinguishable values. The Maspin expression in samples with grades II and III is much lower than the ones in normal group (P
    Conclusion
    Maspin expression was reduced in samples with grade II& III of invasive ductal carcinoma. Based on expression of Maspin Inc-erb-B2, it seems that more expression happened in normal group comparing with different scores of it. We could suggest that there was a reverse relationship between tumor formation and Maspin gene expression. These results showed possible role of Maspin as prognostic factor.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, Maspin gene, Prognostic factor, Real, time PCR, Iran
  • Samira Rashidian, Roghayeh Teimourpour, Zahra Meshkat Pages 112-119
    Background
    Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major cause of death around the world. Construction of a new vaccine against tuberculosis is an effective way to control it. Several vaccines against this disease have been developed. The aim of the present study was to cloning of tb10.4 gene in pcDNA3.1 plasmid and evaluation of its expression in eukaryotic cells.
    Methods
    Firstly, tb10.4 fragment was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was digested with restriction enzymes. Next, it was cloned into pcDNA3.1 plasmid. Following that, pcDNA3.1ﻖ.4 recombinant plasmid was transfected into eukaryotic cells.
    Results
    5700 bp band for pcDNA3.1ﻖ.4 recombinant plasmid and 297 bp fragment for tb10.4 were observed. Cloning and transfection were successful and designed recombinant vector was confirmed by sequencing.
    Conclusion
    Successful cloning provides a basis for the development of new DNA vaccines against tuberculosis. In the current study, the aim was cloning of tb10.4 gene in pcDNA3.1 plasmid and transfection into eukaryotic cells.
    Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tb10.4, DNA Vaccine
  • Maliheh Khoddami, Yassaman Khademi, Maryam Kazemi Aghdam, Haleh Soltanghoraee Pages 120-126
    Background
    Presence of discordance between the Gleason score on needle biopsy and the score of radical prostatectomy specimen is common and universal. In this study, we determined the accuracy of Gleason grading of biopsies in predicting histological grading of radical prostatectomy specimens and the degree of overgrading and undergrading of prostatic adenocarcinoma in our center, which is one of the referral centers in Tehran.
    Methods
    In this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of prostate needle biopsies and subsequent prostatectomies diagnosed at the Pathobiology Laboratory Center, Tehran, Iran in 45 patients between 2002 and 2013. Preoperative clinical data and theinformation from biopsy and prostatectomy specimens were collected.The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of different grades and groups were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to determine the relation of different variables.
    Results
    The biopsy Gleason score was identical to the scores in prostatectomy specimens in 68.2% cases, while 31.8% were discrepant by 1 or 2 Gleason score. We had 9.1% downgrading and 22.7% cases upgraded after prostatectomy. The sensitivity and positive predictive value was 86% and 79% for low grade, 67% and 75% for moderate grade, and 80% and 80% for high-grade tumors, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Overall, the reliability of Gleason grading of needle biopsies in predicting final pathology was satisfavory. Moderate grade group was the most difficult to diagnose in needle biopsy.
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma, Gleason, Overgrading, Prostatic neoplasms, Undergrading
  • Seyed Ali Asghar Fakhrmousavi, Azar Hadadi, Seyed Hamed Hosseini, Maryam Rahbar, Reza Hamidian, Amitis Ramezani, Gholamreza Pourmand, Effat Razeghi Pages 127-132
    Background
    Hepatitis B virus potentially accelerates graft rejection and mortality in renal transplantation population. Vaccination of graft candidates without prior immunization against HBV seems essential before transplantation but some candidates of transplantation have not received HBV vaccine at the time of receiving graft. We aimed to evaluate immunogenicity of an enhanced regimen (4 doses of double-strength intramuscular shots) after kidney transplantation in candidates without history of prior HBV vaccination.
    Methods
    This quasi-experimental study was conducted, 49 renal graft recipients in Sina Hospital (Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran) of age >18, receiving graft within past 6 months and negative history of hepatitis B vaccination from 2010-2011. Participants received 40 μg intramuscular (IM) shots of a recombinant vaccine in the months 0, 1, 2 and 6. The titer of HBsAb was measured 8 weeks after the 3rd and 4th injections. Cases with HBsAb titers less than 10 mIu/ml were considered as non-responder while antiHBs≥10 mIu/ml was considered protective.
    Results
    The overall response rate was 57.14% (28/49 patients). Protective HBsAb titers were detected in 44.89% patients following 3rd dose and reached to 57.14% after injecting the 4th shots. The mean HBsAb titers were 50.00 (±88.35) mIu/ml and 229.45 (±356.56) mIu/ml after the 3rd and 4th shots respectively. Responders showed significantly younger age in comparison to non-responders (P=0.013). The vaccine was well tolerated in all patients with no side effects.
    Conclusions
    Regarding the relative good response rate following HBV vaccination in graft recipients, we suggest a post-transplantation enhanced regimen of 4-dose double-strength IM shots against HBV in patients without prior immunization.
    Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, Kidney transplantation, Immunogenicity, Double, strength, Intramuscular
  • Bhushan Warpe, Av Shrikhande, Sv Poflee Pages 133-137
    Background
    Until now, trimodal distribution of HbS has been seen by six different studies in the world when associated with alpha-thalassemia with confirmation by corresponding alpha-genotyping studies. The RBC indices reduce as alpha-globin genes reduce in sickle cell trait (SCT) patients, which decreases the extent of intra-vascular sickling and thus betters the clinical course of the patients. This is a pioneer study conducted on Central Indian poor population to use the already proven six studies to screen associated alpha-thalassemia in SCT patients thus, circumventing the much costlier alpha-genotyping studies. Moreover, it aimed to study the haematological parameters in such cases.
    Methods
    The study was performed at RHDMC, IGGMC, Nagpur, India from 2003 to 2012. The sample population was suspected cases of haemolytic anaemia. CBC and RBC indices were obtained by a cell analyzer. The sickle solubility test positively screened cases were confirmed by agar-gel haemoglobin electrophoresis at pH 8.6. Finally, quantitative assessment of haemoglobin variants was performed by HPLC.
    Results
    Out of total 5819 cases over ten years, 933 cases were sickle heterozygotes. Overall, 180/933 subjects were predicted to be homozygous alpha-thalassemia and 338/933 were heterozygous alpha-thalassemia, based on trimodal distribution of HbS.
    Conclusion
    Genotyping is costlier for majority of the poor non-affording patients in Indian government set-ups, so this study is suitable to screen for associated alpha-thalassemia in SCT patients.
    Keywords: Trimodal distribution, HbS, alpha, thalassaemia, Sickle cell trait, MCH, MCV, MCHC
  • Gholamreza Irajian, Mehri Sharifi, Shiva Mirkalantari, Reza Mirnejad, Mohammad Reza Jalali Nadoushan Pages 138-143
    Background
    In most cases, prostatitis can be caused by a bacterial agent such as Ureaplasma urealyticum. Considering to the cumbersome of the culture method for the detection of Ureaplasma species in clinical samples such as prostate; PCR method that is faster and more appropriate than the cultivation methods, can be utilized for the detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum. PCR-RFLP method can differentiate both biovars and assist in studies of the clinical diagnosis, epidemiology and pathology of this species in human. The aim of this study was to molecular detection of U. urealyticumin in prostate tissue samples based on PCR- RFLP.
    Methods
    Two hundred prostate tissue samples were collected from patient suffering from prostatitis. The PCR assay was used to amplify a 559 bp fragment of 16S-23SRNA interspace region of Ureaplasma. After sequencing, PCR products from positive samples were digested with TaqI restriction enzyme.
    Results
    Seven cases (3.5%) out of 200 prostate tissue samples were positive for U. urealyticum. Results of PCR products sequencing demonstrated that all isolates were U. parvum biovar. PCR-RFLP results shown that there was not any differentiation in pattern of enzymatic digestion, in addition, all isolates were U. parvum, serovar 3.
    Conclusion
    U. urealyticum can be one of the causing agents of prostatitis. Using PCR-RFLP with specific primer and restriction enzyme is a rapid and cost-effect method for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma from clinical samples.
    Keywords: Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, PCR, RFLP, Prostatitis, Prostate tissue
  • Sharareh Mohammad Hasani, Reza Mirnejad, Vahhab Piranfar, Jafar Amani, Mohammad Javad Vafadar Pages 144-150
    Background
    Rapid diagnosis and differentiation of Brucella is of high importance due to the side effects of antibiotics for the treatment of brucellosis. This study aimed to identify and compare PCR-ELISA as a more accurate diagnositc test with other common molecular and serological tests.
    Methods
    In this experimental and sectional study, during March 2014 to Sep 2015, 52 blood samples of suspected patients with clinical symptoms of brucellosis were evaluated in medical centers all over Iran with serum titers higher than 1:80. Using two pairs of specific primers of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis and DIG-dUTP, Fragment IS711 (The common gene fragment in B. melitensis and B. abortus) was amplified. DIG-ELISA was performed using specific probes of these 2 species of Brucella and patterns were subsequently analyzed, then positive responses were compared by detecting gel electrophoresis.
    Results
    PCR-ELISA method detected all 28 samples from 52 positive samples. Its sensitivity was 6.0 pg concentration of genomic DNA of Brucella. In gel electrophoresis method, 22 samples of all positive samples were detected. PCR-ELISA was more efficient than PCR and bacterial culture method at P-value.
    Conclusion
    PCR-ELISA molecular method is more sensitive than other molecular methods, lack of mutagenic color and also a semi-quantitative ability. This method is more effective and more accurate compared to PCR, serology and culture of bacteria. PCR-ELISA does not have false responses. The limitation of this method is detection of bacteria in the genus compared to Multiplex PCR and Gel Electrophoresis.
    Keywords: Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, PCR, ELISA
  • Vikram Narang, Harsimran Kaur, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Neena Sood, Aminder Singh Pages 151-154
    Background
    Quality assurance in the hematology laboratory is a must to ensure laboratory users of reliable test results with high degree of precision and accuracy. Even after so many advances in hematology laboratory practice, pre-analytical errors remain a challenge for practicing pathologists. This study was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the types and frequency of preanalytical errors in hematology laboratory of our center.
    Methods
    All the samples received in the Hematology Laboratory of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India over a period of one year (July 2013-July 2014) were included in the study and preanalytical variables like clotted samples, quantity not sufficient, wrong sample, without label, wrong label were studied.
    Results
    Of 471,006 samples received in the laboratory, preanalytical errors, as per the above mentioned categories was found in 1802 samples. The most common error was clotted samples (1332 samples, 0.28% of the total samples) followed by quantity not sufficient (328 sample, 0.06%), wrong sample (96 samples, 0.02%), without label (24 samples, 0.005%) and wrong label (22 samples, 0.005%)
    Conclusion
    Preanalytical errors are frequent in laboratories and can be corrected by regular analysis of the variables involved. Rectification can be done by regular education of the staff.
    Keywords: Quality control, Preanalytical, Hematology
  • Dian Cahyanti, Lisnawati Rachmadi, Vally Wulani, Marlinda Adham Pages 155-160
    Background
    Overexpression of Rad51 protein in many tumor cells has been proven to increase radioresistance and can be related to the resistance of chemosensitivity of tumor cells. This preliminary study was conducted to determine the relationship between the Rad51 expression level in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the response of the treatment based on the measurement of the tumor reduction.
    Methods
    Thirteen cases of the NPCs were analyzed. The expression levels of the Rad51 were examined from the pretreatment biopsies. Furthermore, tumor reductions were determined based on the change in sum longest diameter of the nasopharyngeal CT-scan before and after therapy.
    Results
    The expression level of the Rad51 was associated with the reduction of tumor mass. The P value was 0.049 and the correlation coefficient was 0.479.
    Conclusion
    The tumor cells Rad51 expression levels may affect the tumor reduction of NPC after the therapy.
    Keywords: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Rad51 expression, Tumor reduction
  • Manisha Sharma, Manas Madan, Mridu Manjari, Harleen Kaur Pages 161-166
    Chondrosarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor composed of tumor cells producing cartilage. It is more common in older age and often affects the axial skeleton. We report a rare case of chondrosarcoma mimicking a sellar and suprasellar mass with parasellar extension. A 40 yr woman presented with decreasing visual acuity and headache. Magnetic resonance (MR) image revealed a cystic sellar and suprasellar mass with parasellar extension showing mild enhancing solid component. It favored the diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal partial resection of the tumor resulting in removal of the sellar mass. However, the suprasellar mass could not be excised completely due to limited surgical field. The pathologic diagnosis was chondrosarcoma. Eight months after the operation, pterional approach was performed to remove the remaining mass. Intraoperative findings confirmed that the mass originated from dorsum sellae.
    Keywords: Sellar, Suprasellar, Chondrosarcoma
  • Debjani Mallick, Aniruna Dey, Sonia Gon, Gayatri Ghoah Pages 167-170
    Malignant papillary neoplasms of the breast comprise a number of microscopically distinct lesions, where apocrine metaplasia is commonly found in papillomas compared to other papillary lesions including papillary carcinomas. However, association of apocrine metaplasia in papilloma with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is not very well defined. The lesions with apocrine metaplasia are not only difficult to categories, but also there is controversy regarding their relative risk of subsequent carcinoma development. A case of extensive apocrine differentiation in duct papilloma with DCIS developing in the background of papillomatosis, posing a diagnostic dilemma for the pathologist and a therapeutic challenge for the surgeon, is hereby reported for its uniqueness and rarity. Awareness of this association should be kept in mind by both the pathologist as well as clinician for optimal therapeutic intervention.
    Keywords: Apocrine metaplasia, Papillary lesion breast, Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
  • Bushra Siddiqui, Shahbaz Habib Faridi, Veena Maheshwari, Mohammad Aslam, Kafil Akhtar Pages 171-175
    Granulomatous response in association with breast cancer and within the cancer draining lymph nodes is an extremely rare phenomenon. Granulomatous inflammation is an immune response commonly seen against infectious agents and certain non-neoplastic conditions. The etiopathogenesis of granulomas associated with malignancies is not clear but it may be because of an immunologic reaction to tumour antigens. We hereby report a 50-yr-old postmenopausal female presented to Surgical Outpatient Department, Aligarh Muslim University, India, with complaints of lump and pain in her left breast for 6 months. We have also discussed about its etiopathogenesis, final diagnosis, treatment & patient outcome.
    Keywords: Granulomatous response, Breast cancer, India
  • Tamgadge Avinash, Tamgadge Sandhya, Shashibhushan Dodal, Mayura Chande, Treville Pereira Pages 176-180
    Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve sheath Schwann cells. One of the variants of neurilemmoma is the ancient type of neurilemmoma characterized by degenerative features such as cystic degeneration, calcification, hemorrhage and hyalinization which could be easily misdiagnosed. Their occurrence in oral cavity is extremely rare and intraosseous type occurring in maxilla is exceedingly rare with very few cases being published in literature. A 38 year old male patient reported with a chief complaint of swelling over the left cheek and left upper back region since 10 months. The case is of recurrent intraosseous ancient neurilemmoma in the maxilla in the patient which is distinctive for the lesion. This unique case presented with distinct histologic architectural pattern of ancient neurilemmoma showing degenerative changes such as cystic degeneration and recurred within a short duration of time.
    Keywords: Recurrent, Ancient neurilemmoma, Schwannoma, Neural tumor, Maxilla, Cystic, Intraosseous
  • David Rosero, Ramiro Alvarez, Paula Gambomaria Alastuey, Alberto Valero, Nerea Torrecilla, A. Belen Roche, Sara Simon Pages 181-185
    Acinic cell carcinoma arising in salivary glands is a rare tumor, accounting for 2% to 5% of the primary neoplasms of the parotid gland. When these tumors are well-differentiated, the neoplasia has innocuous aspect, due to the similarity to normal parotid tissue. This makes the diagnosis difficult. Initially the malignancy of this tumor was uncertain; however, recent studies have declared it as malignant. The female / male ratio is 3:2. The nodule usually presents as solitary and well defined shape. Several authors have used different terms to describe histomorphological patterns of these tumors. Four descriptive categories (solid, microcystic, papillary-cystic and follicular) are useful for pathologists. Here we report a case of a 49 yr old man with a left parotid nodule of 5 cm. Parotidectomy was performed at the Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, in Zaragoza (Spain). The microscopy showed a tumor with acinic semblance, having the four morphologic patterns previously described. The morphological and immunohistochemical study was consistent with the diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma.
    Keywords: Acinic cell carcinoma, Morphologic patterns, Salivary gland
  • Moeinadin Safavi, Shahriar Dabiri Pages 186-188
    Leishmaniasis include several clinical manifestations, mostly cutaneous, visceral and mucosal (1, 2). Various species can lead to diverse clinical presentations. Thus species identification contribute to proper management (3). Localized Leishmania Lymphadenitis (LLL) is a distinct entity in clinicopathologic field presenting with isolated lymphadenitis and possible cocomitant cutaneous lesion in the absence of systemic visceral involvement (4). Species identification has been acceptable by conventional microscopic evaluation, serologic methods such as isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody detection and particularly PCR. However, definite identification and confirmation of parasite without gene sequencing have always been doubted (5).
    Keywords: Localized Leishmania Lymphadenitis, gene sequence
  • Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit Pages 189-190
    Ebola virus disease is the important emerging disease in Africa. This infection is deadly and has the main clinical feature as an acute hemorrhagic fever. The main hematological alteration in this infection is the platelet change. However, the change in other hematological parameters should be mentioned.
    Keywords: anemia, hospitalization, ebola, infection
  • Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit Pages 191-193
    Diabetes mellitus is the common endocrine problem that affects millions of world population. The disease can be seen in every country around the world. It is recorded as one of the most common noninfectious disease at present. In the era of the new emerging diseases, the concern on the effect of new diseases on diabetes should be discussed. For example, in the case of new emerging zoonotic influenza infections, the effect of the new diseases on the clinical course of diabetes mellitus is mentioned (1). In addition, the interesting observation of the prevalence and severity of new emerging infections in the cases that has diabetes mellitus, as a concomitant disorder is also available in the literatures.
    Keywords: Diabetes, ebola