فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:21 Issue:3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/04/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Saied Pahlavanzadeh, Zohreh Asgari, Nasrollah Alimohammadi Pages 213-218
    Background
    High level of stress in intensive care unit nurses affects the quality of their nursing care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a stress management program on the quality of nursing care of intensive care unit nurses.
    Materials And Methods
    This study is a randomized clinical trial that was conducted on 65 nurses. The samples were selected by stratified sampling of the nurses working in intensive care units 1, 2, 3 in Al‑Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran and were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group underwent an intervention, including 10 sessions of stress management that was held twice a week. In the control group, placebo sessions were held simultaneously. Data were gathered by demographic checklist and Quality Patient Care Scale before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention in both groups. Then, the data were analyzed by Student’s t‑test, Mann–Whitney, Chi‑square, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS software version 18.
    Results
    Mean scores of overall and dimensions of quality of care in the intervention group were significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to pre‑intervention (P
    Conclusions
    As stress management is an effective method to improve the quality of care, the staffs are recommended to consider it in improvement of the quality of nursing care.
    Keywords: Intensive care units, Iran, nurses, personnel management, quality of care, quality of health care, stress, stress management
  • Nahid Shahgholian, Shahrzad Khojandi Jazi, Jahangir Karimian, Mahboubeh Valiani Pages 219-224
    Background
    Restless leg syndrome prevalence is high among the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Due to several side effects of medicational treatments, the patients prefer non-medicational methods. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among patients undergoing hemodialysis.
    Materials And Methods
    This study is a randomized clinical trial that was done on 90 qualified patients undergoing hemodialysis in selected hospitals of Isfahan, who were diagnosed with restless leg syndrome through standard restless leg syndrome questionnaire. They were randomly assigned by random number table to three groups: Reflexology, stretching exercises, and control groups through random allocation. Foot reflexology and stretching exercises were conducted three times a week for 30–40 min within straight 4 weeks. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t-test, and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test].
    Results
    There was a significant difference in the mean scores of restless leg syndrome severity between reflexology and stretching exercises groups, compared to control (P
    Conclusions
    Our obtained results showed that reflexology and stretching exercises can reduce the severity of restless leg syndrome. These two methods of treatment are recommended to the patients.
    Keywords: Hemodialysis, Iran, massage, muscle stretching exercises, patients undergoing hemodialysis, reflexology massage, restless leg syndrome, stretching exercises
  • Mahbobe Firoozi, Elham Azmoude, Negar Asgharipoor Pages 225-231
    Background
    Women’s sexual self‑esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women’s sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self‑concept aspects such as sexual self‑esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual performance. The aim this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and sexual self‑esteem.
    Materials And Methods
    This correlation study was performed on 127 married women who referred to selected health care centers of Mashhad in 2014–2015. Data collection tools included NEO personality inventory dimensions and Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self‑esteem questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient test and stepwise regression model.
    Results
    The results of Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between neuroticism personality dimension (r = −0.414), extroversion (r = 0.363), agreeableness (r = 0.420), and conscientiousness (r = 0.364) with sexual self‑esteem (P 0.05). In addition, based on the results of the stepwise regression model, three dimensions of agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion could predict 27% of the women’s sexual self‑esteem variance.
    Conclusions
    The results showed a correlation between women’s personality characteristics and their sexual self‑esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at‑risk group or the women having low sexual self‑esteem in premarital and family counseling.
    Keywords: Iran, personality, self‑concept, sexual behavior, sexual self‑esteem, women
  • Masoud Fallahi, Khoshknab, Fatemeh Oskouie, Fereshteh Najafi, Nahid Ghazanfari, Zahra Tamizi, Shahla Afshani Pages 232-238
    Background
    Workplace violence is a serious and problematic phenomenon in health care settings. Research shows that health care workers are at the highest risk of such violence. The aim of this study was to address the frequency of physical violence against Iranian health personnel, their response to such violence, as well as the contributing factors to physical violence.
    Materials And Methods
    A cross‑sectional study was conducted in 2011, in which 6500 out of 57,000 health personnel working in some teaching hospitals were selected using multi‑stage random sampling. Data were collected using the questionnaire of “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector” developed by the International Labor Organization, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International.
    Results
    The findings revealed that 23.5% of the participants were exposed to physical violence in the 12 months prior to the study. Nurses were the main victims of physical violence (78%) and patients’ families were the main perpetrators of violence (56%). The most common reaction of victims to physical violence was asking the aggressor to stop violence (45%). Lack of people’s knowledge of employees’ tasks was the most common contributing factor to physical violence (49.2%).
    Conclusions
    Based on the results, legislating appropriate laws in order to prevent and control violence in the workplace is necessary. Moreover, developing educational programs to manage the incidence of physical violence should be on health centers’ agenda.
    Keywords: Health care worker, health personnel, Iran, physical violence, workplace violence
  • Tahereh Boryri, Noor Mohammad Noori, Alireza Teimouri, Fariba Yaghobinia Pages 239-246
    Background
    Natural delivery is the most painful event that women experience in their lifetime. That is why labor pain relief has long been as one of the most important issues in the field of midwifery. Thus, the present study aims to explore the perception of primiparous mothers on comfortable resources for labor pain.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, qualitative content analysis technique was used. The participants had singleton pregnancy with normal vaginal delivery. These women referred to the Imam Javad Health Center within 3–5 days after delivery for screening thyroid of their babies.
    Results
    During the content analysis process, five themes emerged that indicated the nature and dimensions of the primiparous mothers’ perception of comfortable resources. These themes were: “religious and spiritual beliefs,” “use of analgesic methods” (medicinal and non‑medicinal), “support and the continuous attendance of midwife and delivery room personnel,” “family’s and husband’s support during pregnancy and in vaginal delivery encouragement,” and finally “lack of familiarity with the delivery room and lack of awareness about structured delivery process.”
    Conclusions
    The results showed that mothers received more comfort from human resources than from the environment and modern equipment. Despite the need for specialized midwife with modern technical facilities, this issue shows the importance of highlighting the role of midwife and humanistic midwife care. Therefore, considering midwives and the standardization of human resources in health centers are more important than physical standardization. This will result in midwife interventions being performed with real understanding of the patients’ needs.
    Keywords: Comfortable resources, experiences, Iran, labor pain, perception, qualitative study
  • Ali Bikmoradi, Mehdi Harorani, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Shirin Moradkhani, Golam Hossein Falahinia Page 247
  • Pegah Matourypour, Zohreh Vanaki, Zahra Zare, Valiolah Mehrzad, Mojtaba Dehghan, Mehdi Ranjbaran Pages 255-260
    Background
    Nausea and vomiting are the worst and the most prevalent complications experienced by 70–80% of patients. Complementary treatments including therapeutic touch are cost‑effective and low‑risk, independent nursing interventions. Present research aims at investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy‑induced vomiting in these patients.
    Materials And Methods
    As a single‑blind, randomized clinical trial, the present research was carried out on women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into three groups of control, placebo, and intervention. The intervention was applied to each patient once for 20 min on the aura (human energy field) focusing on solar chakra. Data gathering instruments included demographic questionnaire and acute vomiting intensity scale.
    Results
    There was a significant difference among the three groups (and also after the intervention) (P
    Conclusions
    Therapeutic touch was effective in reducing vomiting in the intervention group. However, the patients experienced lower‑intensity vomiting which may be because of presence of a therapist and probably the reduced anxiety related to an additional intervention. So, further research is recommended considering the placebo group and employing another person in addition to the therapist, who is not skilled for this technique.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, chemotherapy, nursing, therapeutic touch, vomiting
  • Hossein Ebrahimi, Efat Sadeghian, Naeimeh Seyedfatemi, Eesa Mohammadi, Maureen Crowley Pages 261-270
    Background
    Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient‑centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals.
    Materials And Methods
    This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty‑four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi‑structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA‑10 software.
    Results
    Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints.
    Conclusions
    In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals.
    Keywords: Autonomy, chronic disease, hospitals, inpatients, Iran, nursing ethics, patient, personal autonomy, qualitative research, qualitative study
  • Omid Sadeghi, Gholamreza Askari, Zahra Maghsoudi, Reza Ghiasvand, Fariborz Khorvash Pages 271-277
    Background
    Migraine is a primary headache disorder that affects the neurovascular system. Recent studies have shown that migraine patients with general obesity have higher characteristics of migraine attacks compared with normal weight patients, but data on central obesity are scarce. This study was done to assess the relationship between central obesity and the characteristics of migraine attacks in migraine patients.
    Materials And Methods
    This cross‑sectional study was conducted on 129 migraine patients (28 men and 101 women), aged 15–67 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist–hip ratio (WHR) and waist–height ratio (WHtR), as well as characteristics of migraine attacks such as severity, frequency, duration, and headache diary result (HDR) was determined for each participant. Linear regression was used to examine the association between anthropometric measurements and characteristics of migraine attacks. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
    Results
    WC, WHR, and WHtR were positively associated with the severity (P‑value: WC: 0.002, WHR: 0.002, WHtR: 0.001) and frequency (P‑value: WC: 0.006, WHR: 0.01, WHtR: 0.002) of migraine attacks. Moreover, we found a significant association between WC (P = 0.001), WHR (P = 0.004), and WHtR (P
    Conclusions
    Central obesity indicators were positively associated with the severity and frequency of migraine attacks as well as HDR, but not with duration of attacks. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that weight loss may decrease the characteristics of migraine attacks.
    Keywords: Abdominal obesity, central obesity, duration, frequency, headache diary result, migraine, severity, waist circumference
  • Arya Hamedanchi, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Reza Fadayevatan, Robab Teymouri, Robab Sahaf Pages 278-283
    Background
    It is predicted that over the next 30 years, there will be a significant increase in the number of elderly parents who care for their children with intellectual disability. This paper is part of a larger qualitative study which investigated the unpleasant experiences of these parents.
    Materials And Methods
    A phenomenological approach was adopted and data were collected through unstructured in‑depth interviews with elderly parents of children with intellectual disability. The data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven‑step method.
    Results
    “Bitterness” is one of the four emergent themes extracted in this study which has five theme clusters: inappropriate behavior toward the child in the society, the society’s failure to support the child with intellectual disability, sorrows experienced by parents, the child’s problems, and barriers in the care of the child with intellectual disability. One significant barrier in the last theme cluster is limitations due to aging.
    Conclusions
    The findings of this study suggest that the elderly parents of children with intellectual disability experience many sorrows and unpleasant feelings, but they mostly consider the social factors as the cause of problems and not the presence of the child. The results also indicate that older parents cannot look after the child as before in their old age; so, future well‑designed studies are required for identification of the process of supporting them.
    Keywords: Child, children with intellectual disabilities, elderly parents, intellectual disability, Iran, parents, phenomenology, qualitative research
  • Mohammad Ali Soleimani, Nasim Bahrami, Ameneh Yaghoobzadeh, Hedieh Banihashemi, Hamid Sharif Nia, Ali Akbar Haghdoost Pages 284-290
    Background
    Due to increasing recognition of the importance of death anxiety for understanding human nature, it is important that researchers who investigate death anxiety have reliable and valid methodology to measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS) in family caregivers of cancer patients.
    Materials And Methods
    A sample of 326 caregivers of cancer patients completed a 15‑item questionnaire. Principal components analysis (PCA) followed by a varimax rotation was used to assess factor structure of the DAS. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Convergent and discriminant validity were also examined. Reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and construction reliability.
    Results
    Based on the results of the PCA and consideration of the meaning of our items, a three‑factor solution, explaining 60.38% of the variance, was identified. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) then supported the adequacy of the three‑domain structure of the DAS. Goodness‑of‑fit indices showed an acceptable fit overall with the full model {χ2(df) = 262.32 (61), χ2/df = 2.04 [adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.922, parsimonious comparative fit index (PCFI) = 0.703, normed fit Index (NFI) = 0.912, CMIN/DF = 2.048, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.055]}. Convergent and discriminant validity were shown with construct fulfilled. The Cronbach’s alpha and construct reliability were greater than 0.70.
    Conclusions
    The findings show that the Persian version of the TDAS has a three‑factor structure and acceptable validity and reliability.
    Keywords: Cancer, caregiver, death anxiety, reliability, validity
  • Zohreh Oliaee, Alireza Jabbari, Soheila Ehsanpour Pages 291-296
    Background
    Quality of care is of great importance in health services as these services have the important mission to preserve health, and to give care to the society. The present study aimed to investigate the quality of midwifery services from the viewpoint of the clients, under coverage of health care centers in Isfahan, through SERVQUAL model.
    Materials And Methods
    This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 218 subjects in 2014. Study population comprised the women referring to midwifery services clinics in health care centers in Isfahan. Data of the subjects (n = 218) were collected by SERVQUAL model containing the dimensions of tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Data were analyzed by paired t‑test, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, and independent t‑test through SPSS 20.
    Results
    There was a negative gap in all five relevant dimensions of giving services. The widest gap was in the mean of dimension of tangibles (−1.5), and the narrowest gap was in the dimension of assurance (−0.9). There was no significant association between the scores of expectations and perceptions, and age, education level, occupation, and marital status.
    Conclusions
    The obtained negative gap showed that the level of service receivers’ perception from existing condition was far from their expectation, and there was a wide gap between attaining their satisfaction with midwifery services and their expectation and reaching their appropriate level of services.
    Keywords: Expectations, Iran, perceptions, services quality, SERVQUAL model
  • Azar Darvishpour, Soodabeh Joolaee, Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, Nasrin Mokhtari, Lakeh Pages 297-305
    Background
    In most countries, one of the main reasons for developing more advanced roles for nurses is to improve access to care in the context of limited number of doctors. It is considered that the introduction of major policy initiatives, such as nurse prescribing, requires high-level discussion and policy development to ensure successful implementation. This study aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing based on policymakers’ views in Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    This qualitative study was based on conventional content analysis approach. A purposeful sample of 14 participants were recruited, including 6 members of the Nursing Board, 6 members of the Iranian Nursing Organization, and 2 senior employees of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim.
    Results
    The four emerged categories as facilitators of nurse prescribing were labeled “positive views of health policymakers,” “human resources capabilities,” “non-medical prescribing experiences,” and “governmental and non-governmental organizational activities.” The four extracted categories as barriers of nurse prescribing were “socio-cultural factors,” “organizational factors,” “educational barriers,” and “human barriers.”
    Conclusions
    Barriers and facilitating factors should be considered in order to bring about organizational policy changes and improve perspectives. Nurse prescribing requires the efforts of involved managers and authorities for development and modernization. The results of this study can serve as a compressed resource for policymakers and managers to identify the effective issues on nurse prescribing and can help them to plan for the implementation of nurse prescribing.
    Keywords: Barriers, drug prescriptions, facilitators, Iran, nurse, nurse administrators, nurse prescribing, policymakers
  • Mohammad Babaeipour‑, Divshali, Fatemeh Amrollahimishavan, Zohre Vanaki, Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad, Mohammadreza Firouzkouhi Pages 306-309
    Background
    Job satisfaction of nurses is an important concept in nursing profession because it influences nursing care. Head nurses play a crucial role in the job satisfaction of nurse staffs. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effect of Head Nurse Empowerment Program (HNEP) on job satisfaction of nurses.
    Materials And Methods
    This quasi‑experimental study was conducted at two educational hospitals in Rasht, Iran. Of 160 staff nurses who were working in eight medical‑surgical wards and two Intensive Care Units, 60 were recruited using simple random sampling method. The samples were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The HNEP was applied to promote the management skills among nurses, which included technical, communicational, perceptional, and diagnostic skills. The data were collected using nurses’ job satisfaction questionnaire and analyzed using the Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon Singed Ranks tests. P
    Results
    There was a significant difference in the job satisfaction of nurse staff within the experimental group on comparing pre‑ and post‑HNEP phases [78 (65.50) vs. 78 (65.50); P
    Conclusions
    The HNEP can be used as a promoting tool in the nursing profession. Increasing head nurses’ management skills can result in job satisfaction among the staff nurses.
    Keywords: Empowerment, empowerment program, head nurse, Iran, job satisfaction, nurse's performance evaluation, nursing, staff
  • Somaye Nosraty, Mojtaba Rahimi, Shahnaz Kohan, Margan Beigei Pages 310-316
    Background
    Maternal mortality rate is among the most important health indicators. This indicator is a function of factors that are related to pregnant women; these factors include economic status, social and family life of the pregnant woman, human resources, structure of the hospitals and health centers, and management factors. Strategic planning, with a comprehensive analysis and coverage of all causes of maternal mortality, can be helpful in improving this indicator.
    Materials And Methods
    This research is a descriptive exploratory study. After needs assessment and review of the current situation through eight expert panel meetings and evaluating the organization’s internal and external environment, the strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities of maternal mortality reduction were determined. Then, through mutual comparison of strengths/opportunities, strengths/threats, weaknesses/opportunities, and weaknesses/threats, WT, WO, ST, and SO strategies and suggested activities of the researchers for reducing maternal mortality were developed and dedicated to the areas of education, research, treatment, and health, as well as food and drug administration to be implemented.
    Results
    In the expert panel meetings, seven opportunity and strength strategies, eight strength and threat strategies, five weakness and threat strategies, and seven weakness and opportunity strategies were determined and a strategic plan was developed.
    Conclusions
    Dedication of the developed strategies to the areas of education, research, treatment, and health, as well as food and drug administration has coordinated these areas to develop Ministry of Health indicators. In particular, it emphasizes the key role of university management in improving the processes related to maternal health.
    Keywords: Iran, maternal mortality, pregnancy, strategic plan, strategy
  • Azam Biabanakigoortani, Mahboobeh Namnabati, Zahra Abdeyazdan, Zohreh Badii Pages 317-321
    Background
    Advancements in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) science and technology have increased the survival rate of preterm infants. Despite these advances, they are still facing with neurobehavioral problems. Noise level in NICU is a potential source of stress for preterm infants. It should be decreased to the standard level as much as possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of peer education on the performance of staff in noise management in the NICU.
    Materials And Methods
    A pre‑post test quasi‑experimental design was used. Fifty‑eight staff members (nurses and physicians) participated in this study. Sound pressure levels were measured before and after the intervention. Peer education program formed the intervention. The staff performance in noise management was evaluated before and after the intervention by using a questionnaire. Data analysis was done by using t‑test.
    Results
    The results of the study showed that the mean sound level in different environments significantly decreased after the intervention. It reached from 86.7 to 74.9 dB in the center of unit and from 68.2 to 48.50 dB in the infants’ bedside (P
    Conclusions
    Peer education was found to be successful in noise management because behavioral changes were done to avoid generating unnecessary noise by the staff.
    Keywords: Education, infants, intensive care unit, Iran, neonatal, noise, peer education, peer group
  • Vahid Saidkhani, Marziyeh Asadizaker, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Sayed Mahmoud Latifi Pages 322-330
    Background
    Pressure ulcer is one of the main concerns of nurses in medical centers around the world, which, if untreated, causes irreparable problems for patients. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an effective method for wound healing. This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitric oxide on pressure ulcer healing.
    Materials And Methods
    In this clinical trial, 58 patients with pressure ulcer at hospitals affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences were homogenized and later divided randomly into two groups of treatment (nitric oxide cream; n = 29) and control (placebo cream; n = 29). In this research, the data collection tool was the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH). At the outset of the study (before using the cream), the patients’ ulcers were examined weekly in terms of size, amount of exudates, and tissue type using the PUSH tool for 3 weeks. By integrating these three factors, wound healing was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS.
    Results
    Although no significant difference was found in terms of the mean of score size, the amount of exudates, and the tissue type between the two groups, the mean of total score (healing) between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.04).
    Conclusions
    Nitric oxide cream seems to accelerate wound healing. Therefore, considering its easy availability and cost-effectiveness, it can be used for treating pressure ulcers in the future.
    Keywords: Cream, healing, nitric oxide, pressure ulcer, wound healing
  • Mahboobeh Aalami, Farzaneh Jafarnejad, Morteza Modarresgharavi Pages 331-336
    Background
    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are the main cause of maternal and fetal mortality; however, they have no definite effective treatment. The researchers aimed to study the effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy.
    Materials And Methods
    This three‑group clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad health centers and governmental hospitals. Sixty pregnant (after 20 weeks of gestational age) women with systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg were assigned to three groups. Progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control exercises were administered to the two experimental groups once a week in person and in the rest of the days by instructions given on a CD for 4 weeks. BP was checked before and after the interventions. BP was measured before and after 15 min subjects’ waiting without any especial intervention in the control group.
    Results
    After 4 weeks of intervention, the systolic (by a mean of 131.3 to 117.2, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 131.05 to 120.5, P = 0.004, respectively) and diastolic (by a mean of 79.2 to 72.3, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 80.1 to 76.5, P = 0.047, respectively) BPs were significantly decreased in progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control groups, but they were not statistically significant in the control group.
    Conclusions
    The interventions were effective on decreasing systolic and diastolic BP to normal range after 4 weeks in both the groups. The effects of both the interventions were more obvious on systolic BP compared to diastolic BP.
    Keywords: Blood pressure, breathing exercises, hypertensive disorders, muscle relaxation, pregnancy complications, pregnancy‑induced hypertension
  • Farkhondeh Yousefnia, Darzi, Farideh Hasavari, Tahereh Khaleghdoost, Ehsan Kazemnezhad, Leyli, Malahat Khalili Pages 337-342
    Background
    Accumulation of secretions in the airways of patients with an endotracheal tube and mechanical ventilation will have serious consequences. One of the most common methods of airway clearance is endotracheal suctioning. In order to facilitate discharge of airway secretion resulting in promotion of gas exchange, chest physiotherapy techniques can be used at the time of expiration before suction.
    Materials And Methods
    In this clinical trial with a cross‑over design, 50 mechanically ventilated patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) were randomly divided into two groups of thoracic squeezing. In each patient, two interventions of endotracheal suctioning were conducted, one with and the other without thoracic squeezing during exhalation, with a 3 h gap between the two interventions and an elapse of three respiratory cycles between the number of compressions. Sputum secreted was collected in a container connected to a suction catheter and weighed. Data were recorded in data gathering forms and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Wilcoxon and independent t‑test, Chi‑square) in SPSS version 16.
    Results
    Findings showed that the mean weight of the suction secretions removed from airway without thoracic squeezing was 1.35 g and that of suction secretions removed by thoracic squeezing was 1.94 g. Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference regarding the rate of secretion between the two techniques (P = 0.003).
    Conclusions
    According to the study findings, endotracheal suction with thoracic squeezing on expiration helps airway secretion discharge more than suction alone in patients on mechanical ventilators and can be used as an effective method.
    Keywords: Endotracheal suctioning, intensive care unit, intubation, Iran, mechanical, mechanical ventilation, secretion removal, thoracic squeezing, thorax, ventilators
  • Mahmoud Kohan, Nahid Mohammad‑Taheri Page 343