- سال دوازدهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/22
- تعداد عناوین: 10
- علمی - پژوهشی
صفحات 1-26مشارکت اجتماعی به عنوان صورتی فعالانه از شرکت در حیات اجتماعی شناخته می شود. مشارکت مالی یکی از انواع مشارکت اجتماعی است. معمولا نظام آموزش و پرورش از مشارکت مردم در کمک به تامین هزینه های مالی در زمینه ساخت وساز، توسعه و تجهیز واحدهای آموزشی استقبال می کند. هدف اصلی مقاله حاضر، شناسایی و معرفی مفهوم مشارکت از نگاه مشارکت کنندگان در برنامه های توسعه و تجهیز فضاهای آموزشی بود. واکاوی انتظارات خیران مدرسه ساز از سازو کارهای کنونی مشارکت در مدرسه سازی برای حفظ و ارتقای سطح مشارکت، هدف دیگر این مقاله بود. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی، با استفاده از مصاحبه های عمیق نیمه ساخت یافته صورت گرفت و متن مصاحبه به روش تحلیل تماتیک تحلیل شد. یافته ها نشان می دهند که مشارکت کنندگان برداشتی معنوی و اجتماعی از فعالیت خود به عنوان خیر دارند. برداشت معنوی با درون مایه هایی از جنس باقیات الصالحات، کسب رضای خدا، برکت در زندگی، کسب آرامش و احساس لذت، تبلور ارجحیت معنویات بر مادیات، ارزش ساخت بنای خیر و ضرورت مشارکت در امور خیر طرح شد و برداشت اجتماعی با درون مایه های تبلور حس تعلق به مکان، کسب منزلت، تلاش در رفع نیاز ادراک شده، بیان احساس مسوولیت، خدمت به جامعه و مردم، ارزش آموزش، علم و آگاهی مطرح شد. همچنین انتظارات خیران در دو وجه سخت افزاری و نرم افزاری مشارکت در مدرسه سازی، طبقه بندی و مفهوم پردازی شد. وجوه سخت افزاری در قالب «مدیریت فرآیند ساخت وساز» و «جنبه های حقوقی مدرسه-سازی» و وجوه نرم افزاری آن در قالب «مدیریت تعاملات» و «مشوق ها» بازشناسی شدند.کلیدواژگان: مشارکت، آموزش و پرورش، خیران مدرسه ساز، نیکوکاری، مدرسه
اعتماد اجتماعی و تشکل های دانشجویی: تبیین تجربی اعتماد اجتماعی دانشجویان عضو و غیر عضو تشکل های دانشجویی دانشگاه مازندرانصفحات 27-51هدف اصلی تحقیق حاضر، بررسی عوامل موثر بر اعتماد اجتماعی دانشجویان دانشگاه مازندران است. سوال اساسی تحقیق این است: چه عوامل اجتماعی بر افزایش و کاهش میزان اعتماد اجتماعی دانشجویان دانشگاه مذکور تاثیرگذار است؟ چارچوب نظری پژوهش حاضر مبتنی بر تئوری های پاتنام درباره تاثیر استفاده از رسانه های جمعی و مشارکت در انجمن های مدنی بر اعتماد اجتماعی و نظریه رزستین و استول در مورد تاثیر تجربه تبعیض و احساس امنیت بر اعتماد می باشد. برای سنجش پایایی ابزار پژوهش از آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. جامعه آماری تحقیق، دانشجویان دانشگاه مازندرن هستند که تعدادشان 9670 نفر و حجم نمونه نیز 375 نفر را شامل می شود. نتایج رگرسیون خطی چند متغیره نشان می دهد که تمامی شش متغیر مستقل در مدل نهایی باقی ماندند. ضرایب تاثیر مدل نهایی متغیرهای مستقل تبیین کننده اعتماد اجتماعی نشان می دهد که به ترتیب، متغیرهای احساس امنیت، استفاده از رسانه های داخلی، امید به آینده، استفاده از رسانه های خارجی، تجربه تبعیض و عضویت در تشکل ها بر اعتماد اجتماعی دانشجویان دانشگاه مازندران اثرگذار هستند. شایان ذکر است که از بین متغیرهای مطرح شده، تاثیر متغیرهای تجربه تبعیض و استفاده از رسانه های خارجی بر متغیر وابسته مذکور منفی می باشد. مدل مذکور می تواند 8/50 درصد از تغییرات اعتماد اجتماعی را تبیین کند. همچنین، تحلیل مسیر مدل علی تحقیق نشان می دهد که میزان تاثیرگذاری متغیرهای مستقل مطرح شده (بنابر اثرات مستقیم و غیر مستقیم) بر متغیر اعتماد اجتماعی متفاوت است.کلیدواژگان: اعتماد اجتماعی، عضویت در تشکل های دانشجویی، استفاده از رسانه های جمعی، امید به آینده، تجربه تبعیض، احساس امنیت
صفحات 53-76مطالعه حاضر به بررسی تاثیر حمایت شبکه های اجتماعی غیر رسمی و قوت پیوند (صمیمیت) بر رضایت از اوقات فراغت زنان متاهل شاغل می پردازد. برای بررسی این رابطه، از مدل تاثیر مستقیم حمایت اجتماعی و نظریه منابع اجتماعی استفاده شده است. این مطالعه با روش پیمایش و با استفاده از پرسش نامه انجام گرفته است. جامعه آماری را زنان متاهل شاغل (55- 20) شهر اردبیل در سال 1390 تشکیل می دهند. حجم نمونه 356 نفر است که با روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایانتخاب شد. ضریب آلفای 0.69 برای متغیر رضایت از اوقات فراغت و 0.73 برای متغیر حمایت اجتماعی نشان دهنده پایایی مناسب برای این ابزارها بوده و این متغیرها از اعتبار صوری (نظر اساتید) برخوردار هستند. یافته ها نشان می دهد که میزان رضایت زنان از اوقات فراغتشان نزدیک به حد متوسط، میزان قوت پیوند در حد متوسط و میزان حمایت دریافتی پایین تر از حد متوسط است. در ارتباط با انواع شبکه ها، خویشاوند و دوست، بیشترین میزان و همسایگی، کمترین میزان حمایت را داشته اند. علاوه بر آن، در میان انواع حمایت ها، حمایت اطلاعاتی بیشترین تاثیر را بر روی متغیر وابسته داشته است. نتایج رگرسیون نیز نشان می دهد که متغیرهای پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی، قوت پیوند و حمایت اجتماعی متغیرهای تاثیرگذار بر رضایت شغلی زنان متاهل شاغل می باشند.کلیدواژگان: شبکه های اجتماعی غیر رسمی، حمایت اجتماعی، رضایت از اوقات فراغت
تعیین وضعیت شاخص روابط خانواده به عنوان یکی از شاخص های سلامت خانواده و تاثیر آن بر کیفیت عملکرد کارکنان نیروی انتظامی استان یزدصفحات 77-106تحقیق حاضر با هدف تعیین وضعیت شاخص روابط خانواده به عنوان یکی از شاخص های نیم رخ سلامت خانواده های نیروی انتظامی استان یزد و رابطه آن ها با کیفیت عملکرد کارکنان انجام شد. پژوهش حاضر در قالب یک طرح پیمایشی و به صورت مقطعی انجام شد. برای انتخاب نمونه از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایاستفاده شد. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها عبارت بودند از پرسش نامه عملکرد شغلی پاترسون (PJPQ) و شاخص روابط خانواده (IFR). نرخ شیوع نارسایی در شاخص روابط خانواده بالا بود (59%). تفاوت معناداری میان خانواده های دارای مشکل در روابط خانواده و خانواده های فاقد مشکل در روابط خانواده از نظر کیفیت عملکرد کارکنان وجود داشت (05/0 < P). وضعیت نیم رخ سلامت خانواده های منتخب نیروی انتظامی استان یزد از نظر شاخص روابط خانواده، مطلوب و رضایت بخش نبوده و نرخ شیوع نارسایی در شاخص روابط خانواده نسبتا بالا بوده است. با توجه به این که شاخص کیفیت روابط در خانواده تاثیر بسزایی بر کیفیت عملکرد شغلی کارکنان نیروی انتظامی استان یزد دارد. بنابراین، اقدامات مداخله ای با هدف ارتقای شاخص های سلامت خانواده ها به منظور بهبود کیفیت عملکرد شغلی کارکنان ضروری به نظر می رسد.کلیدواژگان: سلامت خانواده، عملکرد شغلی، روابط خانواده، نیروی انتظامی
توان مندسازی مبتنی بر کارآفرینی اجتماعی: ارائه یک نظریه زمینه ای (مطالعه موردی ستاد توان مندسازی زنان سرپرست خانوار شهرداری تهران)صفحات 107-136توان مندسازی زنان سرپرست خانوار فقیر با توجه به رشد فزاینده آمار آن ها در سال های اخیر تبدیل به چالشی مهم در ایران شده است. در بین تجربه های متعددی که در این راستا صورت گرفته است، توجه به کارآفرینی به طور عام و کارآفرینی اجتماعی به طور خاص در حال افزایش است. این پژوهش پیرامون بررسی یکی از این تجارب و با هدف تبیین شرایط لازم برای موفقیت چنین تجاربی انجام شده است. روش انجام پژوهش کیفی و مبتنی بر نظریه زمینه ای بوده است. داده های مورد نیاز نیز عمدتا از طریق بحث های گروهی متمرکز و مصاحبه های انفرادی نیمه ساختار یافته با نیروهای ذی نفع در سازمان شامل مدیران، کارشناسان و کارآفرینان گردآوری شده است. پس از پیمودن مراحل سه گانه کدگذاری مطابق الگوی پیشنهادی اشتروس و کوربین، پدیده مرکزی تحقیق با عنوان «توان مندسازی مبتنی بر کارآفرینی اجتماعی به مثابه یک رویکرد سازمانی» شناسایی و مدل پارادایمی متناظر با آن تدوین شد. پدیده مذکور در زمینه ای مشتمل بر ویژگی های نظام مدیریتی کشور، به ویژه سازوکارهای رایج برای حمایت از اقشار آسیب پذیر و نیز خصوصیات فضای کسب و کار در کلان شهر تهران رخ داده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد مدیریت تحول خواه، نیروی انسانی توان مند، ساختار سازمانی انعطاف پذیر، حاکمیت اخلاق حرفه ای و روحیه کارآفرینی مهم ترین شرایط علی موثر بر پدیده مذکور هستند. همچنین، سه پیامد اصلی رخداد پدیده مورد اشاره توان مندسازی مقتصدانه، توان مندسازی باثبات و توان مندسازی متقابل بوده است.کلیدواژگان: توا ن مندسازی، کارآفرینی اجتماعی، زنان سرپرست خانوار
دین و سلامت اجتماعی: بررسی رابطه دین داری با سلامت اجتماعی (مطالعه موردی: دانشجویان دانشگاه پیام نور مرند)صفحات 137-168هدف اصلی این مقاله، بررسی رابطه بین دین داری با سلامت اجتماعی دانشجویان است. این پژوهش با روش پیمایشی و با نمونه ای به حجم 345 نفر با ابزار پرسش نامه در بین دانشجویان دانشگاه پیام نور مرند انجام گرفت. پایایی و اعتبار پرسش نامه نیز با استفاده از روش آلفای کرونباخ و اعتبار صوری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. بر اساس یافته ها، میزان سلامت اجتماعی اکثریت دانشجویان در سطح متوسط و میزان دین داری آن ها در سطح بالا است. یافته های حاصل از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین دین داری و سلامت اجتماعی دانشجویان و همچنین، بین دین داری و ابعاد سلامت اجتماعی (یک پارچگی، پذیرش، مشارکت، انسجام و شکوفایی اجتماعی) رابطه معنی دار و مستقیمی وجود دارد که بیشترین شدت همبستگی با بعد انسجام اجتماعی و کمترین همبستگی با بعد شکوفایی اجتماعی می باشد. میزان سلامت اجتماعی دانشجویان برحسب جنسیت آن ها دارای تفاوت معنی داری است؛ اما این تفاوت با دیگر متغیرهای جمعیتی، معنی دار نیست. همچنین، بین سن افراد با سلامت اجتماعی، رابطه معنی داری وجود ندارد. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون دو متغیره نیز نشان داد که متغیر دین داری 3/27 درصد بر میزان سلامت اجتماعی دانشجویان تاثیر دارد.کلیدواژگان: دین داری، سلامت اجتماعی و ابعاد آن، دانشجویان
بازسازی معنایی تجربه فرآیند منتهی به طلاق در میان زنان مطلقه شهر مشهد با استفاده از رویکرد نظریه مبناییصفحات 169-195پژوهش حاضر با هدف بازسازی معنایی تجربه طلاق از نگاه زنان مطلقه و به روش نظریه مبنایی انجام شده است و می کوشد تا با به کارگیری یک سلسله رویه های سیستماتیک، نظریه ای مبتنی بر استقراء درباره پدیده طلاق ایجاد کند. یافته های آن، شامل یک تنظیم نظری از واقعیت تحت بررسی است. در این روش نه تنها مفاهیم و رابطه بین آن ها ایجاد می شوند؛ بلکه به طور موقتی نیز مورد آزمایش قرار می گیرند. پژوهش حاضر سعی می کند از منظری جدید به درک اشخاص نزدیک شود و درک آن ها درباره عوامل تاثیرگذار بر طلاق را بکاود و شناخت درستی از آن به دست آورد. از این رو، درصدد یافتن شرایط علی و میانجی طلاق، راهبردهای کنش و کنش متقابل و پیامدهای طلاق از این دیدگاه هستیم. داده های پژوهش از طریق مصاحبه عمیق با 22 زن مطلقه در شهر مشهد، به دست آمده است. برای گرد آوری داده ها، از شیوه نمونه گیری نظری و هدف مند استفاده شده است. داده ها با استفاده از کدگذاری نظری تحلیل شده اند. نتیجه پژوهش، دست یابی به پنج مقوله عمده است. مقوله محوری که تمام مقولات را پوشش می دهد، «ارتباطات از درون تهی شده» می باشد. نظریه مبنایی و به تبع آن، مدل پارادایمی در قالب شرایط علی و میانجی، استراتژی ها و پیامدها ارایه شده است. در این پژوهش با دو مقوله اصلی یا به عبارتی، پدیده مواجه شدیم؛ پدیده اول «ارتباطات از درون تهی شده» است که مفهومی است که تقریبا تمام مشارکت کنندگان در مورد آن صحبت کردند. پدیده دوم «اداره و کنترل پدیده طلاق» می باشد که در واقع به نوعی، پیامد پدیده اول است؛ اما از آن جا که برای زنان از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است، به عنوان پدیده مستقلی معرفی می شود.کلیدواژگان: نظریه زمینه ای، تجربه طلاق، زنان مطلقه، مشهد
صفحات 197-220در جامعه شناسی ایران چند سالی است که روش شناسی جدید «تحلیل فازی» مورد توجه و استفاده برخی دانش پژوهان قرار گرفته است. با این وجود، در برخی از آثار پژوهشی جامعه شناسان ایرانی نارسایی های مهمی در کاربرد این روش شناسی نوین به چشم می خورد. این مقاله، ضمن مقایسه تحلیل فازی با تحلیل رگرسیون (به عنوان رایج ترین رویه تحلیلی محققان علوم اجتماعی) نشان داده است که تحلیل فازی در علوم اجتماعی اساسا برای احراز و وارسی روابط نامتقارن مجموعه ای که بنیانش بر منطق مجموعه ها است، صورت می پذیرد و نه برای بررسی روابط متقارن تابع های آماری(مثل مدل رگرسیون خطی) جهت تحلیل کوواریانس یا هم تغییری متغیرها که بنیانش بر منطق ریاضی و تئوری احتمالات است. در حقیقت، هدف اصلی از تحلیل فازی در علوم اجتماعی انجام تحلیل مجموعه ای برای گره گشایی و حل مشکلاتی است که مدل های آماری متعارف (از جمله تحلیل رگرسیون) به سادگی قادر به حل آن ها نبوده اند؛ یعنی احراز و وارسی تجربی مدعیات نظری از نوع علل لازم ویا کافی و همچنین بررسی علیت ناکازم و هم غایتی که در میان پدیده های اجتماعی عمومیت دارند. در بخش پایانی مقاله، تفاوت نتایج آزمون فرضیه در دو تکنیک تحلیل رگرسیون و تحلیل فازی با ذکر مثال هایی تشریح شده است تا به طور مستند نشان داده شود که شواهد تجربی یا داده هایی که برای توابع خطی از نوع مدل های متعارف رگرسیون برازش پیدا می کند، نمی توانند ارزیابی مناسبی برای فرضیات از نوع روابط مجموعه ای (شرط لازم و یا کافی) محسوب شوند.کلیدواژگان: تحلیل رگرسیون، تحلیل فازی، شرط لازم، شرط کافی، رابطه متقارن و نامتقارن
صفحات 221-246در دهه های اخیر برخی جامعه شناسان؛ مانند پیربوردیو سعی کرده اند ارتباط انواع سرمایه را با طبقه اجتماعی مورد توجه قرار دهند. مطالعات انجام گرفته در ایران نیز نشان می دهند که هیچ کدام از این پژوهش ها در سنجش طبقه اجتماعی (طبقه-منزلت) ترکیب انواع سرمایه ها را در نظر نگرفته اند. برخی از این پژوهش ها نیز با اهداف پژوهشی دیگر صورت گرفته و صرفا به ارتباط انواع سرمایه ها با یک دیگر و یا با طبقه اجتماعی پرداخته اند. بر این اساس، نوشتار حاضر با هدف طرح ارایه یک مدل جدید، سنجش مفهوم طبقه اجتماعی (طبقه-منزلت) را با ترکیب سه نوع سرمایه اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی مورد مطالعه قرار داده و با استفاده از روش پیمایش و نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای، تعداد 334 پرسش نامه محقق ساخته در بین سرپرستان خانوار مناطق شهر اصفهان، توزیع و جمع آوری شد. در نهایت، نوعی رتبه بندی در پنج طبقه اجتماعی کلی شامل طبقه بسیار پایین، طبقه پایین، طبقه متوسط، طبقه بالا و طبقه بسیار بالا ارایه شد. مبنای عمده این رتبه بندی علاوه بر تاکید بر نقش سرمایه اقتصادی و اجتماعی، نقش تعیین کننده و تمایز بخش سرمایه فرهنگی و تفاوت بارز آن بین طبقات اجتماعی است.کلیدواژگان: طبقه - منزلت، سرمایه اقتصادی، سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه فرهنگی
صفحات 247-270جامعه پذیری فرآیندی جدی و قطعی در هر اجتماع انسانی است که افراد خواسته و ناخواسته از بدو زندگی در معرض آن قرار می گیرند و شیوه زندگی خود را می آموزند. یکی از حوزه های جامعه پذیری، جامعه پذیری اقتصادی است. با توجه به اهمیت رفتارهای اقتصادی خصوصا اهمیت پس انداز شخصی جهت رفاه و اقتصاد، اقتصاددانان، روان-شناسان و جامعه شناسان به مطالعه چگونگی شکل گیری رفتارهای اقتصادی از جمله رفتار پس انداز در افراد پرداختند، اما رفتار پس انداز در کودکان نادیده گرفته شده است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر به مطالعه ادراک ها یا برداشت های کودکان از پول پرداخته و بر آن است که برداشت کودکان از مفاهیم اقتصادی چگونه شکل می گیرد و تکامل و توسعه می-یابد؛ زیرا گرایش های اقتصادی اعضای جامعه بر سایر جهت گیری ها و ارزش های آن ها تاثیرگذار است و از این رو بررسی این حیطه از جامعه پذیری در علوم اجتماعی مفید و موثر است؛ بنابراین هدف از پژوهش حاضر مطالعه رفتار پس انداز کودکان و چگونگی و چرایی این رفتار در بین آن ها است. برای این امر از سه نظریه روان شناسی اجتماعی، جامعه شناسی و اقتصاد بهره گرفته شده است. این پژوهش با استفاده از روش کیفی و رویکرد نظریه زمینه ای و با استفاده از مصاحبه عمیق از 40 کودک دختر و پسر همدانی در دوره ابتدایی و والدین آن ها به مطالعه انگیزه، نگرش و چگونگی رفتار پس انداز در بین کودکان پرداخته است. مصاحبه با والدین جهت بررسی تاثیرپذیری کودکان از رفتارهای پس انداز والدین است. طبق نتایج به دست آمده پنج مقوله از پژوهش استخراج شد. مقوله «طبقه اجتماعی و رفتارهای اقتصادی کودکان» به عنوان شرایط زمینه ای، مقوله «سبک زندگی والدین و گرایش به پس انداز» به عنوان شرایط مداخله گر، مقوله « آموزش اقتصادی با دادن پول توجیبی» به عنوان استراتژی استفاده شده جهت یادگیری پس انداز و مقوله های «تفاوت های رفتاری جنسیتی» و «تفاوت های رفتاری سنی»، به عنوان مقوله های رفتاری استفاده شد. در نتیجه مقوله هسته با نام «انگیزه های پس انداز» استخراج شد.کلیدواژگان: رفتارهای اقتصادی، پس انداز، کودکان، گروندتئوری
Looking For Participation: Understanding Educational Donor's Experience (A Case Study of Mashhad, Iran)Pages 1-26IntroductionSocial participation is known as an active form of participation in the creation of the social life. Financial participation is a type of social participation. It seems finding financial sources is the most serious concern for educational organizations in many countries including Iran. So the educational system often is interested in volunteer citizen's financial participation in building, developing and equipping educational spaces. In modern Iran there is a relatively successful history of several decades of Iranian donor's participation in financing physical space of education.
This paper aims to understand the meaning of participation in the participant's viewpoint. The second aim is the exploration of educational donor's expectation of participation mechanisms in school construction, and retaining or upgrading participation level.
Theoretical framework: In symbolic interactionism paradigm in social science, values and meanings of participatory action for social actors has essential importance. Socio-psychological readiness defined by meaning system and values and norms in actor's mind form actor's intention for participation.MethodologyAdopting qualitative approach, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted to catch and reconstruct the perception and expectation of donors. Participants were educational donors of Khorasan Razavi province1. According to the definition "Educational donors" were people who donate money or their property (including building or land), without expectation to returning their capital in any form. This donation had been done under the rules of an official contract with "Schools Renovation, Development and Outfitting Organization(SRDOO) of Khorasan Razavi province to be expended in developing educational spaces. Theoretical sampling performed and it continued until data saturation was reached. Six women and 22 men participated in the study. They aged between 43 and 82. Interviews were recorded and converted to text. Then thematic analysis was conducted.ResultsResults showed that donors had a spiritual and social perception of their action as philanthropists. Spiritual perception themes include everlasting good action, God-satisfaction, blessing, attaining peace and delight, preferring spiritual values to materialist values, and necessity of benevolence. These spiritual perceptions mainly came from Islamic teachings. Therefore, religion is the main source for providing meaning in this field. Attaining peace and delight were secular motivations among benefactor's reasons for participation.
Social perception themes include sense of belonging to the place, prestige, putting effort into meeting perceived needs, feeling responsibility for society's needs, serving the society, importance of constructing buildings for valuable goals, and importance of education and knowledge.
Some donors felt a sense of belonging to their hometown and had a strong desire to improve people's life. So they decided to donate SRDOO for building schools. Awareness of educational shortages made them attempt to meet needs. Most of participants believed that nurturing deprived children's potential talents is a priority. They thought the educated people are agents of social development and they can serve their country. Donors believed that science and knowledge hindered delinquency and social problems. So providing educational opportunities for children was a valuable action in donor's mind. One of the most important side functions of school construction was creation or increase of prestige for donors. They mainly stressed the importance of leaving a good name and reputation for themselves or their kin, especially their fathers. Constructing a physical structure like school, with their names inscribed on its gate, was an effective strategy to achieve this goal.
Answering the second research question, donor's expectations were classified and conceptualized in two aspects: soft and hard expectations.
Hard aspects include construction project management and legal considerations. In project management, donors expected that qualified materials be used in construction, project time duration and budget would be reasonable and according to primary contract. Benefactors expected that school location and maintaining management would be more optimal and effective such that schools would not be abandoned or damaged.
Soft aspects include interaction management and incentives. Donors expected that SRDOO fulfilled its commitments, was responsible, followed transparent regulation and procedures, gave enough information to donors, had empathy with them, and was trustworthy and reliable before and after the contract. Donors also expected other organizations such as power supply office etc. to cooperate more with the project. Although the educational donors society (EDS) as a NGO was one of the contract observers, some donors did not evaluate EDS successful in communicating with donors and following and meeting donor's demands. They knew EDS as a formal NGO without a real functional role.
Incentives include holding formal opening ceremony of schools, holding annual festival for educational donors and tax exemptions. Donors were satisfied with opening ceremonies, but they believed educational donor's festival was just a ceremony planed for attracting more financial aids. Most of donors did not believe that tax exemptions had an important role in their decision making for educational donations.ConclusionThis study showed that to attract more donors to participate in financing and sponsorship of educational spaces, SRDOO should communicate with them through their special language, meanings and perceptions of their action and their understanding of the contract and construction process and incentives. Any change or modification in SRDOO procedures should be according to these understandings.Keywords: participation, education, donor, donation, school
Social Trust and Student Organizations: Experimental Explanation of Social Trust in Member and Non-Member Students of Student Organizations in Mazandaran UniversityPages 27-51IntroductionThe problem of student trust is that the formation of trust in all aspects in them has been subject to profound transformations, which is much more sensible in universities due to implementation of contemporary scientific and cultural data as well as adaptation of current social conditions with those in other parts of the world. The students do not limit their confidence in institutions and forums to restricted debates in their family and friends sphere and shape their confidence by reconsidering provided to them via information and communication tools (such as the Internet and satellite). The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting social trust Mazandaran University. The main research question is: What social factors influencing university students is increasing and decreasing the level of social trust?
Theoretic framework: According to Putnam (2005), it can be stated that membership in student organizations, which provides a platform for further interaction between the students, can increase the level of social trust in them. In addition, he stresses the role of media, particularly television, in explanation of the reasons for a decline in confidence since TV drives people into their homes and takes away them from social interaction.
Rothstein and Stolle (2008) also believe that the institutions for law and order are responsible to identify and punish the traitors who commit crime, theft and other non-cooperative manners undermining trust. If citizens know that these institutions act fairly and efficiently, they can believe that there is a poor chance of the treacherous and untrustworthy people to escape from the clutches is law. As a result, citizens conclude that people have a good reason to avoid such behaviors and that the majority of people are trustworthy. According to Rothstein and Stolle (2008), it is the efficiency and justice of these institutions that is important for this generalized trust. In general, if the citizens believe in efficiency and justice of institutions, especially the judicial system and police, they trust other people with more ease. In explaining the generalized trust, they state that the institutions may cause a feeling of discrimination and injustice in citizens who are in direct contact with them, which results in loss of social trust in people. Consequently, according to the theory of Rothstein and Stolle, we can say that a personal sense of security with respect to other citizens in the society and actual discrimination experienced by citizens (in relation to institutions) in life can affect the social trust of individuals.MethodologyThis study was a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The study sample included all the students of Mazandaran University in the spring of 2011 amounting to 9670 subjects as declared by Information Office of Education, University of Mazandaran. The sample size in this study was 370 according to Morgan Table. In order to reduce the error due to sampling and the potential inadequacy of some questionnaires, the sample size was raised to 380 but was reduced to 375 cases by elimination of incomplete questionnaires. Simple random sampling method was used in this study, and Cronbach's alpha was applied to assess the reliability of research instruments.ResultsMultivariate linear regression analysis indicated that all the six mentioned variables remained in the final model. Impact coefficients of final model of independent variables explaining the social trust showed that the variables of feeling secure, the use of local media, hope for the future, the use of foreign media, experienced discrimination and membership in associations are effective upon social trust among students of Mazandaran University. It should be noted that from the variables under consideration, the impact of variables of discrimination experience and use of foreign media is negative upon the mentioned dependent variable. The mentioned model can explain 50.8% of changes in public trust. Furthermore, course analysis of the causal model of research shows that the effectiveness of the independent variables (according to direct and indirect effects) on social trust variable is different.ConclusionAccording to Putnam (2005), it can be said that membership in student organizations, which provides a platform for boosting the engagement of students, can increase the level of social trust in them. The results of this study confirm Putnams view.
Putnam's theory was used with respect to the variable associated with use of mass media. In explaining the loss of social trust, he gives high importance to the factor of mass media, especially television since the use of mass media reduces the level of social interaction. The results show that the influence of foreign media on social trust is negative and significant but in connection with the use of domestic mass media, the impact is positive.
In connection with variables of sense of security and experiencing discrimination, Rothstein and Stolle theory was used and the results confirmed their theory. On this basis, we can say that the sense of security and experiencing discrimination increase and decrease the level of social trust in society, respectively.Keywords: Social Trust, Membership in Student Organizations, Mass Media Use, Hope for Future, Experience of Discrimination, Sense of Security
Pages 53-76IntroductionLeisure phenomenon is an organized practice and one of the indicators of quality of life and well-being in human societies, especially in modern societies (Farhoodi, Habibi, Hataminezhad, Jafari, & Salarvandian, 2011). According to Fakouhi (2013), the most important function of recreation is helping to reproduce life in its healthy and unpathological dimensions. Leisure along with its associated issues is one of the most important issues of the world (Hosseini, Rahimi, Ajorloo, Majidi, & Roozbehani, 2006, p. 18). Hereon, womens leisure is especially significant due to sensitivities which reside in their social life and societies (Farhoody et al., 2011, p. 87). The issue of womens leisure satisfaction needs to be scrutinized due to different interpretations of women's affairs. The importance of this issue becomes more pronounced in relation to married employed women whose working outside the home has not influenced their duties at home and also in relation to the efficiency of the organization in which they work. There are numerous factors which influence the peoples choice in how to spend their leisure time and how much to be satisfied of their leisure: the first category is linked to individual factors. The second category is related to the environment and conditions in which the person lives. For example, social context that person is part of that, education and cultural factors. The third category refers to available situations and services for people such as resources (supports) and facilities (Ebrahimi & Moslemi Petroody, 2010; Kang, 2010). It seems that examining logical relationship among women issue, leisure satisfaction and the existing resources within the networks of persons is one of the major goals about which the researchers, sociologists and officials should care.
Theoretical Framework: The Direct Affect Model and the theory of social resources are used to investigate the relationship between social support and strength tie with leisure satisfaction. The direct effect model examines the relationship between two variables, social support and leisure satisfaction, regardless of the level of stress. In addition, according to the assumptions of the theory of social resources, having strong ties with members of the network as well as having access to the existing supports within these networks are effective in the leisure satisfaction.MethodologyThe study was carried out using survey method and questionnaire. Statistical population is constituted of all working and married women aged 20-55 years living in Ardabil. Participants were 356 women chosen by multistage cluster sampling. The Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha of 0.69 for leisure satisfaction and 0.73 for social support shows face validity of these variables and appropriate reliability of the tests.Results and DiscussionBased on the results of the regression analysis and multiple correlation coefficient the variables of socioeconomic status, strength ties and informal social networks support have an extraordinary impact on the explanatory variables (leisure satisfaction). These variable's rate (r = 0.447) correlated with the dependent variable. The coefficient of determination (R2) result also shows that 0.20 of changes in the leisure satisfaction of married employed women, is the function of the independent variables.
Suggestions: The findings indicate that the effect of social support is higher compared with other variables and this indicates that the exchange of social support should be considered in all aspects of life to improve the well-being and quality of people's life. It is essential for both officials and the people to consider providing support for married employed women in the area of leisure to improve and increase their beneficial effects on family members as well as increase in their efficiency in the organization. In addition, it is needed to encourage people in exchanging support in this scope.Keywords: Informal social networks, social support, leisure satisfaction
Determination of Index of Family Relations as One of the Indicators of Family Well-being and its Impact on Yazd Police Job Performance QualityPages 77-106IntroductionSince the inception of modern bureaucracy, several theories and paradigms were created to explain the factors affecting the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of human labor. Each of these theories emphasized on the role of different factors affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of human resources. One of the effective variables on the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of human labor, which has attracted the attention of scientists in recent years, is family wellbeing in family or job performance and occupational health. The new management has found that programs that are designed to strengthen family health and increase job satisfaction and employee empowerment, increase their productivity and job performance, and in turn, improve productivity and performance levels and economic health of organization. Family well-being is defined as emotional, social and economic health of children, parents and families, generally, as well as physical health, mental health, quality of relationships between parents and family members, and also the quality of relationships between parents and children. The researchers showed that the family relation index is strong predictors of quality of occupational life of employees, and there is a mutual relation between the quality of working life and quality of life and relationships among family members. Based on family systems theory and ecological theory about the family, some researchers have indicated that the employee's experience is probably a reflection of the experiences of their families. The aim of this study was to examine the two questions: First, how is the status of family relation index as an indicator of the health of the families of the police? Second, do the police staffs families health influence their job performance?
Theoretical Framework: Several theories have emerged about the family well-being and its impact on other spheres of life, including job issues in literature related to the quality of family life. In literature related to the health of the family, three theories are more well-known and useful. These theories include: 1. Human Ecological Systems Theory: this theory leads the different levels of systems that make up probable unit of observation and provides the basic assumptions about the exchanges between human resources and the environment; 2. Resources Theory: this theory guides definition of the content of family life, conceptualize the interpersonal resources of exchanges in family relationships, expand the scales, and interprets the results; and 3. Facet Theory: this theory helps translate theoretical concepts into operational measures, and provides data analysis methods consistent with research purposes.MethodologyThis study was a survey and cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 38 police centers in Yazd province in June and July 2013. The population consisted of Yazd police employee's families and their spouses and managers from different units of Yazd police. Using Cochran formula, 300 people (100 employees, 100 spouses of employees, and 100 officials and commanders) were selected. Measuring instruments were Paterson's job performance questionnaire, and Family Relation Index. Data were analyzed using independent t-test comparison of means and Hierarchical multiple regression.Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the prevalence rate of deficiency in quality of relation indicator in Yazd selected police families was high. The results showed that 59% of selected families said there was not a favorable relationship among members and their families did not have the favorable characteristics regarding family relations. Also, 41% of police families reported that they had the indicators and criteria of a good family regarding to quality of relationships within the family. There was a significant difference among families with problems in family relationships and family without problems in terms of the quality of employee performance. Also, hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that family relation index explained for 23.2% of the variance of job performance.
Conclusions & Suggestions: The signs of failure in family relations, such as lack of concern for the members for each other, lack of enjoyment of family relations, differences and disputes in relationships, feel like a stranger in the family, lack of mutual understanding, and so on was observed among Yazd selected police families. According to these results, the police should increasingly strengthen family relations through the interventional actions, such as the workshops, aimed at enabling people.Keywords: Family well, being, Job Performance, Family Relations, Police
Empowerment Based on Social Entrepreneurship: Presenting a Grounded Theory (A Case Study of the Headquarters for Empowering Female Householders at Tehran Municipality)Pages 107-136Introduction and Statement of the Problem: Female householders, especially those who lack access to sustainable revenue resources, face serious problems for fulfilling the responsibilities associated with household issues. In such a situation, looking for solutions which guarantee continuous and sustainable improvements in the economic conditions of poor female householders has resulted in an increasing attention to the other two foundations of the current study, namely empowerment and social entrepreneurship.
Accordingly, the main aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the success of patterns which are based on Social Entrepreneurship to empower female householders. In addition, this study aims to present solutions for improving the performance of such patterns (with emphasis on the case under study).
Theoretical Framework: Empowerment is a conceptual structure which is used in many fields of study. It is mostly described as a process through which individuals are guided by themselves or with the help of others in order to gain more control over their lives. One of the most popular models regarding the empowerment of women is Longwes (1991) five-level model. The five levels proposed by Longwe are welfare, access, conscientization, participation and control. Bennett (2002) has also proposed a quite pervasive theory about social change with the aim of sustainable poverty alleviation. Kabeer (2003) employs the triplet of agency, resources and achievements in his theory on empowerment.
A comprehensive review of the empirical and theoretical background related to the concept of empowerment reveals the fact that different approaches may be considered for advancing empowerment plans. Social entrepreneurship has the potential to be one of the effective tools in this regard.
ResearchMethodologyThe main research method of the current study is Grounded theory. Grounded theory as it is today was first introduced by Glaser and Strauss (As cited in Fram, 2013). From a noetic perspective, grounded theory has roots in the symbolic interaction theory (Health & Cowley, 2004). In grounded theory, the relatively concrete observed themes convert into more abstract categories through continuous sweeps between the stages of data collection and their analysis based on a systematic method (Suddaby, 2006). This procedure is to a large extent carried out independent of the existing theoretical ideas (Goulding, 2005).
The data for this study have been collected through semi-structured interviews, focus groups and analysis of the existing documents. Moreover, the daily notes of the researcher in different sessions and field visits were used as side sources which were quite useful at times. In order to analyze the qualitative data in the analyses based on grounded theory method, the data were coded according to the pattern proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). This pattern includes three stages, namely open coding, axial coding, and selective coding.ResultsIn order to address the research questions, the first step was to extract primary concepts through open coding of the interview transcripts. Based on the definition proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998), open coding is an analytical procedure through which certain concepts and their dimensions and characteristics are explored in the data. At the end of this stage, 52 conceptual subcategories were determined. Axial coding is the second stage of the process proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998) in which the main categories are formed by relating the subcategories based on their characteristics and dimensions at different levels. The reason for this naming is that the codes are placed around the main conceptual axis of the category. As a result of this stage, a total of 19 categories were identified. The third stage which is selective coding includes the process of integrating and revising the grounded theory which is accompanied by the selection of a central (core) category. As Strauss and Corbin (1998) emphasize, the central category represents the main ground of the research which is to a large extent abstract, although it has risen from the research. The central phenomenon identified in this stage was empowerment based on social entrepreneurship as an organizational approach. Finally, the paradigmatic model of the research including the cause and effect conditions, underlying conditions, interventionist conditions, strategies and consequences of the central phenomenon under study has been presented and the grounded theory of the study has been narrated.
Discussion andConclusionsBased on the results of this study, social entrepreneurship was identified as an organizational approach which has proved to be effective in fulfilling the responsibility of the organization to empower a specific social group (female householders). In spite of differences in goal-setting and consequently varieties in results from different experiments within the framework of social entrepreneurship models and more specifically, patterns based on social entrepreneurship for empowerment, the general spirit of the findings from such experiments is very much similar. Moreover, many of the aspects of the organization under study are in accordance with what has been said in theoretical discussions about the characteristics and necessary activities in the field of social entrepreneurship. In general, it could be said that in practice, a large portion of the achievements resulting from goal-settings, plans and actions has led to what has been referred to as social effectiveness by researchers and theorists in the field of social entrepreneurship.Keywords: Empowerment, Social Entrepreneurship, Female Householders
Religion and Social Health: The Relationship between Religiosity and Social Health (A Case study of the Students of Payam-e Noor University, Marand)Pages 137-168IntroductionHealth is a reflection of the condition of community members, which is affected by a complex set of biological, psychological, social, cultural, economic, religious and political factors. One of the basic and important themes of health assessment in different communities that plays an important role in dynamism and efficiency of every society is social health of community which is the function of social and cultural factors. Social health returns to personality of individual and it involves individual's assessment of community and the quality and quantity engaging in the community.
Today, many cultural - social factors are affected on the health of individuals which one of these factors is religious (belonging, commitment and religious orientation). With regard to the consequences and functions of religion in personal and social level, it was one of the most decisive factors in shaping and directing the human community and plays an important role in establishing and maintaining social structures and human social life.
Hence, the present study aims to examine the relationship between religiosity and social health from Sociological perspective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between religiosity and social health among the students of Payam Noor University of Marand and tries to answer these questions: What is the rate of the religiosity and social health of students? And what is the relationship between the rate of religiosity and social health of the students?
Theoretical Framework: Keyes (2004), knows social health as assessment and recognition of how they operate in the community and the quality of relationships with other people, relatives and members of social groups. He enumerates five criteria for social health, including social integration, social contribution, social acceptance, social actualization and social coherence.
Durkheim (1951) believes that the potential benefits of public life is solidarity and social coherence, that is, a sense of belonging and association, understanding the common knowledge and a common destiny. These advantages of social life are a basis for global and overall definition of social health. According to the Durkheim's view, in groups and societies that religion is widespread, probably individuals have more consistency with society they receive more social support from the community and as a result they have better health. Also, functionalist theorists such as Davis, Yyngr, and Eddie (1964) believe that religion has an inevitable and unique role in the development of integration and social coherence. Religion unites society, strengthen social solidarity and maintains the social coherence. Also, it strengthens the unity of members of society and provides the background of group integration. Religion with creating a collective spirit, religious enthusiasm and spreading public feelings from rites and ceremonies can provide the context to provide the link between members and social coherence.MethodologyThis study was conducted with a sample size consisting of 345 subjects and data were gathered via stochastic sampling among students of Payam-e Noor University of Marand. The instrument used for data collection in this study is religiosity questionnaire of Glark and Stark and social health of Keyes.Validity of questionnaire was evaluated using face validity. Assessment of reliability of questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha revealed that the coefficient for dependent variable (social health) was 0.72 and for independent variable (religiosity) was 0.79. Using SPSS 19 software, the questionnaire data were analyzed.Results and DiscussionThe results of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between religiosity and social health of students and also the main aspects of the societal health (Social Integration, Social Contribution, Social Acceptance, Social Actualization, Social Coherence). The highest correlation coefficient related to the social integration and the minimum correlation refer to social actualization. Social health of students is significantly different in terms of their gender, but this difference is not significant with other demographic variables (marital status, social class). There is no significant relationship between age and social health either. Results of two-variable regression analysis showed that religiosity affects social health about 27.3 percent.
Suggestions: In conclusion, the empirical findings confirmed most of the hypotheses of the study. The results of this study indicate that there is a mutual relationship between religiosity and social health, and that increasing the amount of religiosity causes social health. Religiosity has more implications on social integration than other dimensions, which is in line with Durkheim's theory and functionalist theorists, who believe that religion plays an essential and unique role in promoting integration, social cohesion and the preservation of social cohesion. Therefore, despite their differences, rituals and religions led to increased solidarity and social coherence of people, and religiosity, as an important structure in human life, plays a key role in increasing human health, and social health in particular.Keywords: Religious, Social health, aspects, students
Meaning Reconstruction of the Experience Leading to Divorce Using Grounded Theory among Divorcees of Mashhad CityPages 169-195IntroductionDuring two recent decades, family as a fundamental institution has faced great challenges in a way that divorce rate has increased dramatically. Various causes may lead to divorce in different societies. According to official statistics, Khorasan Rezavi has the second place of high divorce in the country after Tehran. In 1390, ten percent of the total divorces in the country have occurred in the province. Mashhad is the most populous city of Iran after the capital- Tehran. It challenges with many problems that metropolitans of developing countries are facing with. It has the highest divorce rate among cities of Khorasan Razavi province. This paper aims at reconstructing the meaning of divorce experience of divorcees through grounded theory approach. Grounded theory tries to offer a theory based on inductive strategies about a phenomenon by using systematic procedures whereas result is a theory based on realties of the case study. The following research tries to reach fellows understanding from a new aspect and explore their ideas about divorce conditions to perceive them in a more concrete manner The main question is that what is the meaning of divorce in the eye of divorcees? Therefore, this research tries to find causal and conciliator conditions¡ strategic and mutual acts as well as divorce consequences.MethodThe method of Grounded theory helps researcher to see the phenomenon from the viewpoint of actors. According to induction and some systematic trends, it tries to study subject matter in a natural context and in permanent relation with those who involved in the problem. Twenty two women who had been involved in divorce process during 1381-1390 were interviewed. Participants were selected through theoretical and purposive sampling. Data were analyzed by coding techniques. The method of coding in grounded theory is theoretical which includes open coding, axial coding and selective coding.
Theoretical considerations : Like many other social problems divorce can be studied through both positivist and interpretive approaches. In spite of positivist views, interpretive approach sees the phenomenon as constructed by social actors. Knowing the meaning of the action and its social context may be fulfilled through interpretive approach. According to this perspective, actors reconstruct and understand reality based on what they create not based on preexisting laws. In doing qualitative research we use sensitizing concepts instead of theories. Sensitizing concepts do not precisely refer to what is common to a class of objects; instead it provides the researcher with a general sense of reference and guidance in approaching empirical instances. While definitive concepts in positivist methods provide prescriptions of what to see, sensitizing concepts merely suggest directions along which to look. Finally, a grounded theory is generated by themes which emerge from data during analysis, encapsulating the essence of meaning or experience drawn from varied situations.
Findings: Data analysis led to five main categories. One important category, which reconstructed was destroyed relationships. Being weaken in making sane and stable relationships with each other explains many problems in family including divorce. In spite of many activities in this area, yet couples need more skills to make healthy and safe relationship together. Another finding is that most of the women after divorce suffer from economic problems. Lack of job and sufficient income lead them to be dependent on their parents so that it is compulsory for them to live with parents. This results generally in some challenges like feeling of disturbance and discommode. The other problem of divorce for the women is social pressure, which is of great importance. Most of the time divorcees face suggestions for sexual relationship from the side of men legally or illegally. Although divorce generates many difficulties for women, it also has some positive consequences for them. For most of them divorce implies freedom not in the sense of promiscuity but being free of suffering life. After divorce women need support and feel alone so that most of them intend next marriage. This indicates that they are loyal to family in spite of their suffering from previous experience. It seems that some features of Iranian culture like family value, womens socialization based on tender and passivity drive them to remarry. On the other hand, women who have a child and are responsible for his or her care, devote themselves to their children. This provides them to have an acceptable excuse against social pressure for being single.
Conclusion andDiscussionThe main core category which emerged through subcategories was hollow relationships. All participants stated that after so many conflicts and challenges leading to divorce, they have felt that there is no meaning to continue their marital relationship. Grounded theory and Paradigm model were represented in the frame of causal and intermediate conditions¡ strategies as well as consequences. In sum, it seems that the meaning of divorce is under the influence of sexual discourse of the broader society than any other thing.Keywords: Grounded theory, divorce experience, divorced women, Mashhad
Fuzzy Analysis Versus Regression Analysis Superficial and Inappropriate Applications of Fuzzy Analysis in IranPages 197-220IntroductionIn recent years, fuzzy analysis, as a new methodology, has drawn attentions in the realm of Iranian sociology and has been used by some researchers. Nevertheless, there are some important weaknesses found in the works of Iranian sociologists when they use this new methodology. Bing aware of these weaknesses prevent them form being repeated. Hence, other researchers would take the right track in the future.
In the current study, the researcher has attempted to explain these superficial and inappropriate applications. To achieve such aim, fuzzy analysis should be clearly distinguished from the existing analytical methods in Social Sciences, especially regression analysis.
Why fuzzy analysis?: When encountering a new methodology, first it should be asked what problems exist that the previous methodologies could not solve them, and what the new method aims to solve. In other words, the usefulness of fuzzy analysis for social research should be investigated. Moreover, fuzzy analysis, as a new methodology, should practically show that it has the potential to result in achievements which were previously not possible with the existing methodologies. Being concious about the fact that fuzzy analysis is different from the other common analytical methodologies in Social Sciences, especially regression analysis, is necessary for appropriately understanding and applying this method.
Fuzzy analysis VS regression analysis: A long-standing problem which researchers faced in the field of Social Sciences was a gap between the theoretical and empirical levels. On the one side, the content of many theories and theoretical explanations were based on claims about neccessity and sufficiency conditions. On the other side, there was no method or technique for authenticating, empirically verifying or testing these causal hypotheses. If we consider statistics as the dominant mehtod for testing hypotheses in Social Sciences, there was not any statistical book which reffered to necessity and sufficiency hypotheses and how to test them. In order to solve this problem, some methodologists in Social Sciences discussed the necessary and sufficient conditions and techniques for emperically discovering and assessing them. Therefore, they brought this domain into the research methodologies of Social Sciences. In fact, the analysis of fuzzy sets has been presented in order to solve the problem of empirically discovering and assessing theoretical claims including the causal relations of necessary condition, sufficient condition, INUS causality and equifinality. The main achievement of fuzzy analysis methodology was filling the longstanding gap between the theoretical and empirical levels. It seemed that common statistical methodologies including regression analysis and other existing techniques in Social Sciences were uncapable of filling this gap.
In fact, fuzzy analysis and regression analysis are distinguished tools for different objectives. The goal of regression analysis is to separate and estimate the net effects of a causal variable on a dependant variable when the competition among causal variables represents the competitors explanations about the dependant variable. Fuzzy analysts do not consider the main aim of analysis to be seperating and estimating the pure and dependant effects of each of the causal variables on a dependant variable, since such estimations often have certain presumptions such as symmetrical relations, causal congruence and cumulativeness. Rather, fuzzy analysis aims at detecting different combinations of various causal conditions which are related to a consequence or a dependant variable. The aim of fuzzy analysis in Social Sciences is to conduct the set analysis for INUS causality and multiple causal paths. These aims are in conflict with the objectives of regular statistical models in Social Sciences, especially regression analysis.
Differences in the results of Hypothesis Testing: In the last part of the article, the differences between hypothesis test results conducted by fuzzy analysis and regression analysis are mentioned by giving some examples to demonstrate that the empirical evidences or data fitting for linear functions of conventional regression models cannot be a suitable assessment for hypotheses of set relations (necessary and/or sufficient condition). In other words, empirical data proved that functional analysis of the type of linear regression analysis is not suitable for set analysis or fuzzy analysis. The main reason is that two variables or the fuzzy scores of two sets may have a high covariance, but none of them is the sub-set of the other (neseccary or sufficient cause).ConclusionApplying statistical analyses of the regression analysis type in studies which have hypotheses based on assymetric relations of neseccary condition or sufficient condition type is not appropriate. Also, using fuzzy analysis for studies which have hypotheses based on functional symmetric relations is not appropriate. Therefore, having concern for the phasing of common variables in Social Sciences without considering the main objectives of fuzzy analysis results in superficial and inappropriate applications of this new methodology.Keywords: Regression analysis, Fuzzy analysis, Necessary condition, Sufficient condition, INUS causality, Equifinality, Symmetrical, Asymmetrical relation, Fuzzy Sets
Proposing a Model for Measuring Social Class in Iran (Case Study: Heads of families in Isfahan City)Pages 221-246IntroductionToday, the recent sociological studies measuring and giving a more realistic definition of the concept of social class have distanced from the traditional and one-dimensional approach, which has addressed economic capital as one of the main components of measuring social class along with other components of the classified system structure such as social capital and cultural capital. Of the three components of class, cultural capital as one of the most prominent components is placed in a distinct position. In this study, the study tries to propose a new and more realistic and accurate model to measure social class for the society of Iran with an emphasis on the cultural capital component, which seems necessary for the purposes of developing the academic, theoretical, and practical goals of this concept..
Theoretical framework: The term of social class is rooted in the views of two pioneers of thoughts on sociology, namely Karl Marx and Max Weber, which has found a more practical sense and direction in the recent studies by Bourdieu's raised concept of cultural capital. Studies of the few past decades have shown that the general nature of social stratification and class is very complex and that its study has found a new and special nature. The present study, which aims at measuring and analyzing the class and socio-economic status (class-status), also emphasizes that traditional measures of social class is not compatible with the existing societies, and that the position of culture (cultural capital) should also be considered. Concerning the concept and measurement of social class, the Bourdieu's valuable work has been highlighted in this study, which has raised three types of economic, social and cultural capitals.
The purpose of capital in Bourdieu's view, is any source and origin in the social arena, which basically consists of three types, economic capital (asset, financial, and material), cultural capital (product, skills, and scarce symbolic titles), and social capital (the benefits of the individuals membership in the group). The variety of capital types in Bourdieu's view does not mean the independence and separation of capital. Although Bourdieu stresses rather more on cultural capital in his theory, he has investigated the link between types of capital entitled the volume and composition of capital. In this sense, the composition of capital leads to the creation of conflict, inequality, stratification, and social reproduction. Bourdieu believes that the greatest conflict between classes is the interaction between cultural and economic capital. Bearing this in mind, Bourdieu proposes three main principles for sociological stratification and social class, which explain the relationship between culture and social class better than other perspectives.
There are various classes and different sectors representing a diverse combination of economic and cultural capital.
Although economic capital is largely involved in determining social class, cultural capital is the main factor causing the class components.
Although classes and social strata have different cultural styles, cultural patterns are relatively homogenous in each category. This is largely due to common tastes.
However, the present study stresses on a few main factors in measuring social class more realistically: 1) Traditional and common measures of social class are not compatible with the conditions of current communities and are too far from the reality.
2) The involvement and impact of cultural capital, which is linked to the concepts such as consumption, leisure, and lifestyle as well, is a definitive and essential factor in measuring social class.
3) In order to combine both objective and subjective assessment of class along with economic capital, cultural and social capital should be considered while studying social class.MethodologyThis study was carried out using a survey and a questionnaire. 383 questionnaires were distributed among the heads of family in Isfahan using multistage cluster sampling. To measure the validity of the research instrument, the method of factor analysis. In addition, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the reliability of the research instruments.ResultsThe results of this paper show that the people of low social class have scores lower than average in all three components of economic, social, and cultural capital, whereas they have scores much lower than average in social capital. In contrast, the people of upper class have higher scores in all components, especially in cultural capital. In short, a significant difference between social classes is clearly evident in cultural capital.ConclusionIn traditional sociological thoughts, the concept of class began to shape with Marx's ideas. It then became practical by Max Weber, and its practical mechanisms with particular emphasis on the design of the different types of capital, especially the cultural one have been ultimately studied and investigated by Bourdieu. In this study, the concepts of social and cultural capital as the two major components of social class along with the vital component of economic capital has been addressed as a suggested model. In this sense, the five general categories offered to measure social class include lower , low, middle, high, and higher class are offered. Overall, in low and lower social class all three capital components, including economic, social, and cultural capital have scores less than average, and especially cultural capital reduction is clearly evident in this class. As Bourdieu (1979) puts forward, the decisive role of cultural capital in class distinctions (high classes), is one of the decisive factors in reconceptualizing the concept of class and measuring it in modern era.Keywords: Class, status, Economic capital, social capital, cultural capital
Pages 247-270IntroductionDuring past two decades, families saving rates were studied among wealthy countries and some differences were observed. In some countries, it has reduced and in others an increase was seen. In Iran these trends are seen too. Based on economic reports, Hamedan people have high saving rates. Since early years in life are important in developing economic activities, saving trends and money management, this study is to explore economic socialization quality, educating and forming saving concept among children.
Theoretical Framework: Many perspectives and theories exist about socialization. Some of them are psychological, other are social psychological and some others are economic and sociological. Banderas social learning theory, self-control theory of Torzen & Mahoney, life styles theories and saving theory were used for conceptualizing in this research.
Piaget in his cognitive theory believes that child during seven to eleven years old acquires complex cognitive abilities and right perception of money value and its use. Children during 11 till 15 begin doing perception of economic interchanges and their roles in it (Seif, 2005).
Bandura says that education is not the only way of learning, but large part of human being learning is done through observing other's behavior and imitation. According to him, children learn new behaviors through mind reproduction and modeling (as cited in Seif, 2007).
Self-control theorists define self-control as a set of self-administrative processes which in its framework learner controls his thoughts, feelings and activities according to goal achievement. Self-control in economic socialization process is a skill for denying things which are enjoyable but not necessary and this leads to success at economic behaviors especially in saving.
From the sociological point of view, socialization is a rational and collective process, originating from goals and interests and life impacts. So, children's perception of economic and social world, especially about how and when they acquire information about money value and its source and or when they understand especial economic concepts , requires the study of children learning during childhood including early- year trainings, individuals personality and their especial economic statuses in society.
In addition, some different studies have been done about economic socialization and its effective factors. Parents are of the most effective factors on children economic socialization trend. Some researchers such as Denhardt and Jeffre (1971), Christine Roland-levy (1990), Mortimer et al. (1994) Wong et al. (2007), and Akhter et al. (2012) have studied the impacts of this factor and found nearly similar results.MethodologyThe main area of this study is knowledge of children about the economic world. The method was qualitative and grounded theory was used for analyzing data. Deep interviews were used for gathering information. Interviews were recorded and coded and then were analyzed. 40 boys and girls and their parents were interviewed. Samples were selected through theoretical and purposive method.ResultsAccording to interviews, most of parents familiarize their children with the manner of spending, saving and managing money through giving pocket money to them. Among results, many differences were found about the manner of economic behaviors with children of different sexes. These differences were observed mostly among middle and lower classes. In addition, the parents say that, they give more pocket money to boys than girls.
Children of different ages have different views about saving. Children under 8 were displeased with depositing their money to bank, but children of 8 to 10 had better perception of money. They save their money for buying their necessary things.
Saving behaviors are different among different classes, in a way that low classes educate their children to save their money at home but higher classes children learn to save it at the bank. Savings are done for reducing food expenditures among lower class children but in higher classes are for clothing expenditures. Then, economic behaviors differ with family income resources. Some savings are for todays need satisfaction, some for rainy days, and some for money management itself.ConclusionDifferent factors such as gender of children, their age, their parents life style and income, and their class status were studied. Results indicate the childrens enthusiasm about economic behaviors, especially saving behavior, their view about money are affected by their parents. In fact, parents encouragement for saving along with their educating is effective in childrens saving behavior, which facilitates the action of saving for children. Giving pocket money can be viewed as an especial goal of parents for money management. This behavior not only educates children with money management and economic behaviors but also gives them a feeling of peace of mind, sense of having a status in family and trusting their parents.Keywords: Economic behaviors, saving, Children, Grounded theory