- Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2016
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/05/10
- تعداد عناوین: 10
Page 27Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases.
Information &MethodsThis systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of intellectual disability in children. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review.
Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community.ConclusionProminent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.Keywords: Intellectual Disability, Disabled Children, Review, Systematic
Page 37Aims: Arsenic contamination of natural water resources has become an important environmental problem in the world. The adsorption method by iron filings adsorbent or zero-valent iron was used. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of iron filings in arsenite removal from polluted water and to investigate the effect of magnetic field on the process.Materials and MethodsThis interventional study was conducted in synthetically polluted water samples with certain arsenic concentrations. With regard to the initial arsenic concentration (0.5 and 2mg/l), iron filings dosages (0, 2.5 and 5g/l), contact times (5, 10 and 15min) and considering the samples before and after magnetic column, 108 samples were prepared. Data was analyzed by paired sample T and one-way ANOVA tests.
Findings: The highest mean of removal efficiency at the initial arsenic concentration of 0.5mg/l was seen at the iron filings of 5g/l and 10min contact time (87.7±10.0) and at the initial arsenic concentration of 2mg/l was seen at the iron filings of 5g/l and 15min contact time (86.3±8.4). At the initial arsenic concentration of 0.5mg/l, magnetic field increased the removal efficiency of arsenite at the iron filings dosage of 0g/l and decreased it at the iron filings dosage of 5g/l. The same happened at the initial arsenic concentration of 2mg/l.ConclusionArsenic is reduced from the water samples with the iron filings dosage of 5g/l at natural pH. Magnetic field increases the arsenic removal efficiency in the absence of the iron filings and decreases the arsenic removal efficiency in the presence of the iron filings.Keywords: Adsorption, Magnetic field, Arsenite
Page 43Aims: Anemia occurs for different reasons. However the Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is one of the most prevalent causes of anemia in all human communities. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of serum Ferritin deficiency on anemia in medical students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in all educational stages in 2011. 323 students were selected randomly. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, ferritin and RDW indices were measured. The data was analyzed by SPSS 13 statistical software using Chi-square and T tests.
Findings: The mean of ferritin level in all samples was 46.2±42.8ng/ml, hemoglobin was 13.1±1.4g/dl, hematocrit was 39.2±5.2%, MCV was 85.4±6.4fl, MCH was 29.2±6.1%, MCHC was 32.9±1.3g/dl and RDW was 13.6±0.5g/dl. 62 of studied individuals (19.2%) had minor anemia and 261 (80.8%) were normal. 31 of studied individuals (9.6%) had ferritin deficiency and 292 (90.4%) had normal ferritin. There was a significant difference between anemia according to gender (p=0.001) and educational level (p=0.01). Ferritin deficiency had also significant difference according to gender. According to gender, there were significant differences in ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and RDW levels. According to age, there were significant differences between ferritin and hematocrit and RDW levels. MCHC level had significant difference
according to living site of the students.ConclusionGirl university students are at the risk of anemia caused by lack of ferritin and aging increases the risk of anemia.Keywords: Anemia, Ferritins, Blood, Students
Effect of an Educational Self-Care Program on Knowledge and Performance in Patients with Coronary syndromePage 49Aims: The most important causes for mortality rate and poor quality of life in cardiovascular patients arise from insufficient and inappropriate self-care. This study aimed to examine the effect of an educational self-care program on awareness and performance in patients with Coronary syndrome.Materials and MethodsThis is an experimental study conducted in hospitals affiliated with Qom University of medical science. 70 Patients were randomly assigned to experiment (n=35) and control (n=35) groups. Awareness and performance data were collected through interviewed questionnaire and observation. Then the patients in experiment group received 2 educational sessions each lasting 20 minutes during the hospital stay, and also were given an educational booklet review, while control patients received routine care. Data on all patients awareness and performance was again collected one month later. The awareness and performance of two groups were compared using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests.
Findings: The difference between two groups in awareness area was -5.39 (pConclusionThe application of an educational self-care program raises the awareness and improves the performance of the patients with coronary syndrome.Keywords: Patient Education, Self, Care, Coronary Syndrome, Coronary Disease, Heart Diseases
The Status of Internet Addiction Disorder and its Relationship with the Mental Health; a Case Study among Medical Sciences Students of Khakhal UniversityPage 55Aims: As a talented and educated groups, university students have a critical role in country, thus, their mental health has an especial importance in learning. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between internet addiction disorder and mental health among University students of Medical Sciences in Khalkhal.
Instrument &MethodsAs a descriptive-analytical research, this study conducted on 428 university students in Khalkhal who were studying the Medical Sciences in 2015. The instrument used in this study was a three-part questionnaire; the first part included the demographic characteristics of the participants; the second part was Young Internet Addiction Test and the third part consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Sampling was done randomly. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics, Pierson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used to analysis the data.
Findings: 77.3% of the participants had no internet addiction, 21.7% were at the risk of internet addiction and 0.9% suffered from internet addiction. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the mental health and internet addiction disorder (pConclusionThere is a relationship between the internet addiction and mental health of students.Keywords: Internet, Mental Health, Students
Page 61Aims: The synthetic colors are preferred by the food industry because of the variety of shades, intensity, uniformity, excellent solubility and stability. They are used in a variety of food products such as dairy products, beverages, baked products, confections and pet foods. Food colors may have toxic effects on the human body. This study aimed to examine the amount of synthetic colors in some ready to use foods in Kashan, Iran.
Instrument &MethodsIn this cross sectional study, conducted in Kashan City, Iran, in March to October 2015, a total of 52 samples of meat products, 33 samples of sweets, 43 samples of drinks and 21 samples of miscellaneous foods were collected. The coloring agents were extracted of samples and purified using the hydrochloric acid extraction method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the samples.
Findings: 72 samples (48.30%) contained no coloring and 77 samples (51.7%) contained artificial colors. The most coloring agents were in sweets (72.7%), drinks ( 51.2%) and meat products samples (48.10%). The quinoline yellow, tartrazine and sunset yellow were the most common coloring used in the various foods.ConclusionAbout 52% of examined foods contained artificial colors that have been banned by the national Iranian standards organization.Keywords: Coloring Agents, Chromatography, Thin Layer, Food
Page 67Aims: Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Antibiotic resistance is a big challenge in infective disease like Cholera. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and trends of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae isolations in and around Kashan, Iran.
Instrument &MethodsIn this descriptive cross-sectional study, samples were gathered using census method from 1998 to 2013 in Kashan, Iran. 1132 fecal samples of patients with acute diarrhea and 237 samples of suspected water samples were taken. The serotypes and biotypes were determined by an enzymatic method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using Disk Diffusion Method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. Fisher-exact and Chi-square tests were used to compare the statistical parameters.
Findings: 96 fecal samples (8.5%) and 18 water samples (7.6%) were positive for Vibrio cholerae. Non-agglutinating (Nag) isolates (75.4%) were more common than serotype Inaba (13.2%) and Ogawa (11.4%). Nag serotypes were mostly resistant to cefixime (44%) and ampicillin (33%). In contaminated water samples also the most frequent cases were Nag serotype (50%). Nag serotype showed 22.2% of resistance to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin.ConclusionVibrio cholerae isolates in Kashan, Iran, are highly resistant to antibiotics, especially Nag serotypes.Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, Drug Resistance, Serotyping, Multiple Drug Resistance
Page 73Aims: Non-communicable diseases have become an emerging pandemic globally with disproportionately higher rates in developing countries. This study aimed to design a representative model of non-communicable diseases determinants in Iran according to the viewpoint of experts.
Participants &MethodsThe statistical population of this qualitative study was experts and academic member informants, who were worked at Kashan , Esfahan and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in March to June 2016. 20 participants were selected through purposeful sampling method. Experts were asked to explain their opinion regarding to the most effective factors of noncommunicable disease in developing countries.
Findings: Social, environmental, and physiological factors, besides the life style are affecting factors on non-communicable diseases in developing countries.ConclusionSocial, environmental, and physiological factors, besides the life style are affecting factors on non-communicable diseases in developing countries.Keywords: Chronic Diseases, Developing Countries, Iran
Page 79Aims: In regard to increasing greenhouse area in Iran followed by increased use of pesticides and contaminated crops, this study aimed to determine the frequency and types of consumed pesticides in Kashan region, Iran, greenhouses.
Instrument &MethodsIn this descriptive study in 2011-2012, samples was entered by census method. At the first step, a list of greenhouses was obtained from agricultural organization, 39 active greenhouses were detected, thereafter the questionnaires have been completed in detail by direct interview; obtained data were analyzed in SPSS 23 by descriptive statistics.
Findings: 87.1% of greenhouses used chemical methods for controlling pest and diseases of products and 43.5% used non-chemical methods. The most frequent used chemical pesticides were Deltamethrin (37.9%) and Permethrin (28.3%) as pyrethroid insecticides, Diazinon (23.1%) as an organophosphate insecticide and Carbendazim (23.2%) as a fungicides.Conclusion87.1% of the greenhouses owners of Kashan region, Iran, use chemical pesticide for pest control.Keywords: Pest control, Toxicity, Agriculture, Insecticide, Fungicide
A Dog with Multiple Infections of Enteric Parasitic Zoonosis in Mashhad City, North-East of Iran; a Case ReportPage 83Aims: In this study, we examined stool specimen from a 3-year-old domesticated dog, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with clinical signs such as nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran.
Patient &MethodsA 3-year-old pet dog was referred to veterinary clinic of Mashhad in February 2016 by symptoms including, nausea or vomiting, dysentery, cachexia and rash in Mashhad City, Northeast of Iran. For parasitological examination, formalin-ether concentration technique was used. Fecal smears were made from the sediment, stained with iodine and observed by light microscope. Modified Ziehl Neelsen method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp.
Findings: The animal was infected with 10 disease-causing parasites; Taenia spp., Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Acanthocephal spp., Trichuris vulpis, Hook worm, Giardia spp., Blastocystis spp., Eimeria spp., and Cystoisospora spp.ConclusionDomestic and stray dog could be an important sources for distribution of zoonoses disease especially parasitic agents.Keywords: Dog Diseases, Pets, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis