فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:5 Issue:1, 2016
  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2016
  • 104 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Effects of organic amendments on sand dune fixation
    E. A. Elhadi, A. R. Mubarak, F. A. M. Rezig Pages Page 1
    Background
    Poor physical and chemical properties of sand dune soil are the main constrains in afforestation of sand dune in desertified area. The aim of this study is to improve the physical and chemical properties of dune soil in Elrawakeeb Dry Land Station using organic wastes as a fertilizer source and amendments, for sustainable sand dune stabilization program. Salvadora persica L. seedlings were transplanted in a 2 m × 2 m plots and treated with: sawdust (SW), chicken manure (CH), chicken manure with sawdust (CH SW), sawdust with inorganic fertilizer (SW IF), sewage sludge (SS), sewage sludge with sawdust (SS SW), and control (C). The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The soil chemical properties were determined from soil samples collected from the fixed sand dune (0–20 cm depth) in the second year after application.
    Results
    Application of organic amendments significantly (P = 0.001) increased soil organic carbon by 224 %, available P by 139.9 %, total nitrogen by 142.9 %, and mineral nitrogen by 83.5 % and decreased soil pH by 5.6 %.
    Conclusions
    Incorporation of organic waste in desertified sandy dune soils increased its nutrient content and hence sustained biological fixation of sand dunes.
    Keywords: Soil attributes – Organic amendments – Sand dune stabilization – Salvadora persica – Land degradation
  • The effect of rice hull as a silicon source on anthracnose disease resistance and some growth and fruit parameters of capsicum grown in simplified hydroponics
    Ruwani Kalpana Jayawardana Page 9
    Introduction
    Silicon is beneficial for many plants for growth, yield and enhancing resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, silicon as a form of rice hull sand mixture (3:2 v/v) was used in simplified hydroponic system to evaluate the performance and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. The nutrients were supplied by NF (New Formula) or Albert’s solution.
    Results
    Continuous monitoring of soluble silicon content in the simplified hydroponic boxes revealed that a high amount of silicon was leached by the rice hull sand medium. Disease resistance was assessed by challenge inoculation of harvested fruits with anthracnose-causing fungi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and it was observed a significant disease reduction (over 83 %) in fruits harvested from simplified hydroponic system compared to that of liquid hydroponic system. Shoot length, root length, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit firmness were also increased significantly in simplified system compared to the liquid system. However, the results were not significantly affected by the nutrient solutions used in these two systems.
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, the simplified hydroponic system composed of rice hull, as a natural silicon supplement could be used as a low-cost environmental friendly growing method of capsicum to enhance resistance against anthracnose disease, and to improve plant growth and fruit quality.
    Keywords: AnthracnoseColletotrichum gloeosporioidesRice hullSiliconSimplified hydroponics
  • King oyster mushroom production using various sources of agricultural wastes in Iran
    Elahe Kazemi Jeznabadi, Mehrdad Jafarpour Page 17
    Background
    King oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) contains many medicinal and nutritional values, excellent flavors, and a long shelf life. Cultivation of edible mushroom on agricultural and lignocellulosic waste like wheat straw and wood chips gives a high yield and nutritional contains. In present study, the effects of lignocellulosic organic wastes, such as wood chips, wheat and barley straw, sugar beet pulp, sawdust and maize stem residue as basal substrate and wheat and rice bran, soybean powder and their combinations were used as supplements. We analyzed mushroom production gap, mushroom fresh weight, moisture content, dry matter, and protein content of fruit body traits. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications.
    Results
    Supplementation of wheat bran in wood chips increased the mushroom production gap and dry matter content. The highest mushroom fresh weight and moisture content were achieved on barley straw and sugar beet pulp substrate complemented with rice bran, respectively. In addition, protein content ranged from 4.64 % (barley straw wheat bran and wood chips soybean powder rice bran treatments) to 13.66 % (wheat straw wheat bran soybean powder treatment).
    Conclusions
    The quality of P. eryngii was significantly affected by substrate ingredients. The type of substrate as well as the type and quantity of supplement appeared to have a substantial effect on prolonging the delayed-release nutrients.
    Keywords: Dry matterPleurotus eryngiiProtein contentSoybean powderWood chips
  • Tomato seedling growth response to different water sources and a substrate partially replaced with dewatered aquaculture effluent
    Jason J. Danaher, Jeremy M. Pickens Page 25
    Purpose
    The experiment was performed to determine the effect a commercial potting mix partially replaced with dewatered aquaculture effluent had on tomato transplant growth.
    Methods
    The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial and evaluated two water sources (water-soluble, inorganic fertilizer or municipal water) and three soilless substrates with 0, 5 or 10 % dewatered aquaculture effluent (v/v) on substrate properties and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. ‘Bolseno’) transplant growth. The layout was a completely randomized design with twelve single-pot replications for each treatment.
    Results
    There was a substrate and water interaction affecting plant height, leaf dry matter (LDM), stem dry matter, root dry matter (RDM), and total dry matter (TDM). Tomato plants watered with inorganic fertilizer and grown in substrates replaced with 0 and 5 % dewatered aquaculture effluent had greater LDM, RDM, and TDM compared to plants watered with municipal water. However, tomato plant growth in substrate partially replaced with 10 % dewatered aquaculture effluent was similar irrespective of water source.
    Conclusion
    Substrates incorporated with 10 % aquaculture effluent provided optimal physical and chemical properties along with sufficient nutrients for tomato transplants without the need for commercial, inorganic fertilizer.
    Keywords: Waste managementAquacultureTomatoTransplantsSubstrateIntegrated systems
  • Feasibility and performance of high-rate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure
    Noori M. Cata Saady, Daniel I. MassÉ Page 33
    Purposes
    The main purpose of the R&D was to develop a novel high-rate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) for processing a mixture of cow feces and wheat straw (CFWS) in sequencing batch bioreactor (SBR) operated at high organic loading rate (OLR). The main research question was to assess the feasibility of operating the PDAD-SBR at OLR of 9.0 and 10.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1.
    Methods
    Two pairs of 40 L duplicate bioreactors located in a temperature-controlled room (20 °C) were operated as sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and were fed CFWS (27 % total solids) at OLRs of 9.0 and 10.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 during three successive treatment cycles of 21 days each. The biogas production, biogas composition, volatile fatty acids, and volatile solids were monitored to assess the performance of the PDAD-SBRs.
    Results
    The PDAD process fed with cow feces and wheat straw (TS of 27 %) at OLR 9.0 and 10.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 (6.53 ± 0.06 and 7.27 ± 0.12 g VS kg−1 inoculum day−1) resulted in average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 134.0 ± 7.7, 136.4 ± 4.9 NL CH4 kg−1 VS fed, respectively, with an average volatile solids removal of 35 % at the ends of treatment cycles (21 days).
    Conclusions
    This study reports for the first time successful operation of psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces with wheat straw (CFWS) at 27 % total solids and OLR of 9.0 and 10.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 in relatively short treatment cycle length (21 days).
    Keywords: Cow manureDry anaerobic digestionHigh, solidsHigh, ratePsychrophilicWheat straw
  • Production, characterization and evaluation of biochar from pod (Pisum sativum), leaf (Brassica oleracea) and peel (Citrus sinensis) wastes
    G. Stella Mary, P. Sugumaran, S. Niveditha Page 43
    Purpose
    Biochar has potential as a valuable tool for the agricultural industry with its unique ability to help build soil health, increase physical properties of soil, soil pH, organic carbon content, conserve water and mitigate drought, reduce GHG emission, conserve nutrients, decrease fertilizer requirements, sequester carbon, increase crop productivity and serve as a most preferred habitat for microbes. In this study, three perishable biomass wastes viz. Pea pod (Pisum sativum), cauliflower leaves (Brassica oleracea) and orange peel wastes (Citrus sinensis) were carbonized and characterized for differential application.
    Methods
    The biomass was subjected to carbonization at different temperatures from 100 to 600 °C for 1 h. Biomass and biochar samples were characterized for proximate (M, VM, FC, Ash), ultimate (CHNS-O), biochemical properties (Ce, He, Li), thermo gravimetric analysis, pH, EC and bulk density. The biochars were also analyzed through SEM and FTIR for identification of pore size and functional groups.
    Results
    The char yield was high in cauliflower leaf (30.16 %), followed by orange peel (25.54 %) and pea pod (21.154 %) at 300 °C. The total organic carbon (11.61 %), total negative surface anions (4.25 mmol H eq/g C) and water holding capacity (200 %) were high in pea pod biochar. The SEM images of biochar samples showed plane cleavage surfaces with broken edges. The surface functional groups of all the three biochar samples were hydroxyl, methyl, carboxylic and alkene groups.
    Conclusion
    The pea pod and cauliflower leaf biochar showed higher values of organic carbon, total surface anions, water holding capacity and mineral content and performed as best soil amendment than orange peel biochar. These biochar can be used as an effective medium for increasing soil carbon, irrigation efficiency and efficient disposal of agricultural waste-biomass.
    Keywords: Biochar, Sequester carbon, Perishable biomass, Pea pod, Cauliflower leaves, Orange peel
  • Chemical study of vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes
    L., Iacute, Via B. Favoretto Pigatin Page 55
    Purpose
    The disposal of solid waste is a serious environmental problem for humanity. Vermicomposting is used as one of the methods for recycling of organic waste, resulting in a humified material of great agronomic potential which promotes carbon sequestration when applied to the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of vermicomposts from cattle manure (CM), orange peel (OP) and filter cake (FC).
    Methods
    Three compost piles were set up, 2:1 OP CM, 3:1 FC CM and CM. The piles were initially composted for 60 days. Thereafter, earthworms were added to the piles to initiate the vermicomposting process.
    Results
    The pH and the organic carbon contents were above the minimum recommended values for organic fertilizers. The N content was below the minimum value but the C/N ratio was in the required range. The C/N values where lower in OP CM and FC CM than in CM. Further, the N contents of treatments were different with OP CM having the highest value. The C/N ratios of the piles were 9.52, 9.62 and 11.03 for OP CM, FC CM and CM, respectively, and were lower than the maximum recommended value by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food (Ministry of Agriculture 2009).
    Conclusion
    Thus, co-vermicomposting of filter cake and orange peel with cattle manure has the potential for application sustainable agriculture.
    Keywords: VermicompostOrganic matterOrange peel wasteFilter cake wasteCattle manure
  • Potential of Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) in lignocellulosic solid waste management and quality vermifertilizer production for soil health
    Kasi Parthasarathi, Mariappan Balamurugan Page 65
    Purpose
    The aim of this study was to recycle and reuse the enormously available unutilized lignocellulosic solid organic waste resource, cashew leaf litter (CLL) admixed with various animal dungs, cowdung, sheepdung and horsedung by employing predominantly available indigenous epigeic earthworm—Perionyx excavatus (Perrier, 1872) and produce quality vermifertilizer.
    Methods
    Four different combinations of each [(100 % dung alone, 3:1 (75 % dung 25 % CLL), 2:2 (50 % dung 50 % CLL) and 1:3 (25 % dung 75 % CLL)] vermibeds were allowed for vermicomposting process under laboratory conditions. After 60 days, the worm worked vermicompost and worm unworked normal compost were harvested and characterized. The earthworm activity—growth, reproductive performance (cocoon production and hatchling number) and recovery of vermicompost was also studied.
    Results
    The obtained results clearly showed that vermicompost from CLL admixed with cowdung at 2:2 ratio had lower pH, organic carbon, C–N ratio, C–P ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and phenol content, and higher nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium dehydrogenase and humic acid content than the raw substrates and worm unworked normal compost. In addition, pronounced and better earthworm activity was found in the above combination.
    Conclusion
    Through vermitechnology way of producing agronomic valid vermicompost using natural waste resources like CLL and animal dungs can be used as bio-organic fertilizer. These vermiresources have vast and diversified potential for maintaining sustainable soil health, fertility, productivity, waste degradation, soil reclamation, land restoration practices and environment health.
    Keywords: Perionyx excavatusSolid waste managementVermicompostingCashew leaf litterAnimal dungsVermifertilizer
  • Effect of animal waste and vegetable compost on production and growth of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) during vermiculture
    D. S. J. V. Vodounnou, D. N. S. Kpogue Page 87
    Purpose
    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of different animal product wastes and plant compost on survival and growth of earthworm (Eisenia fetida).
    Methods
    The study is realized in a vermibin for a duration of 90 days. The initial physico-chemical parameters (pH, humidity, ash, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and C:N ratio) were determined in each waste of the different substrates before the study. Six waste products (pig, poultry, rabbit, cattle, sheep and vegetal compost) in triplicate (6 × 3) were used for earthworm production. In each 12-l content vermibin, 2 kg of substrate and 30 g of mature earthworms were sown. Each month, the growth control was realized by earthworms harvest and weighing. The earthworms were put back in substrate in vermibin and 500 g of substrate were completed. The pH was measured every week.
    Results
    The physico-chemical parameters (pH, ash, organic matter, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and C:N ratio) varied (P pig > rabbit > poultry > sheep > compost vegetable.
    Conclusion
    The animal wastes (cow, sheep, pig, rabbit and poultry) and vegetable compost can be used to produce the earthworm. But the growth and produce depend on the biochemical quality of the substrates and the availability and facility for using a nutritive element.
    Keywords: Eisenia fetidaGrowthAnimal wasteVegetable compostProductionVermicompost