فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 2 (تابستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/04/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مقالات علمی - پژوهشی
  • محمدرضا حافظ نیا، ابراهیم رومینا، مصطفی قادری حاجت صفحات 1-29
    الگوی روابط در ساختار ژئوپلیتیکی حاکم بر جهان ماهیتی پیچیده و ترکیبی دارد، روابط تمدنها با هم و تعاملات درون تمدنی در طیفی از الگوهای رفتار ژئوپلیتیکی از تعامل، رقابت و تعارض را شامل می گردد. از سوی دیگر برخی از ارزشهای مکانی که سرچشمه چالش سازی بین کشورهای منطقه قرار می گیرد، ماهیتی تمدنی دارند. تمدن ایرانی در مجاورت با تمدنهای دیگری قرار گرفته و در طی هزاران سال این مجاورت منجر به شکل گیری الگویی از ارتباطات شده است که در طیف وسیعی از تعاملات دوستانه تا خصمانه را در بر می گیرد. این بستر تمدنی، در فرایندهای سیاسی، نظر بازیگران سیاسی را جلب کرده و هر یک سعی در گسترش حوزه نفوذ خود دارند.‏این پژوهش با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای سعی در تحلیل الگوی روابط سازه های انسانی و قلمرو های فرهنگی در غرب آسیا و روابط ژئوپلیتیکی هر یک از این مناطق با سازه تمدنی ایران را دارد. نتایج پژوهش ‏نشان می دهد که سازه تمدن ایرانی امروز از یک وضعیت ویژه برخوردار است که در حال حاضر با چالش هایی مواجه است. تمام سازه های تمدنی پیرامون ایران دارای عمق استراتژیکی خاص خود بوده و تنها ایران است که بدون پشتوانه درون تمدنی و همکاری های برون تمدنی در جهان سرشار از رقابت کنونی به خود متکی است، تمدن سامی در جنوب پشتوانه شورای همکاری خلیج فارس و اتحادیه عرب را دارد، تمدن تورانی به رهبری ترکیه، اتحادیه اروپا و آمریکا را در کنار خود می بیند و تمدن اسلاوی نیز با توجه به قدرت موثر روسیه از موقعیتی برتر از تمدن ایرانی قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: جنوب غرب آسیا، مناطق ژئوپلیتیکی، تمدن سامی، تمدن ایرانی، تمدن تورانی، تمدن اسلاوی
  • محسن خلیلی صفحات 31-54
    پس از یازده سپتامبر و فراهم شدن زمینه تحقق افکار استراتژیست های نومحافظه کار، دکترین تغییر رژیم برای حذف حکومت های چالش ساز هژمونی ایالات متحده، در کانون راهبرد امنیت ملی آمریکا قرار گرفت. تصمیم سازان نومحافظه کار، با تمرکز بر راهبرد تغییر رژیم های چالش گر (حذف حکومت های ستیزه جو و ورشکسته و سپس ایجاد دولت جانشین)، وارد عرصه عملیاتی سیاست خارجی شدند. گام نخست را در افغانستان و عراق با انجام تهاجم نظامی گسترده پشت سرگذاشتند. روند تدوین قوانین اساسی جدید افغانستان در سال 1382/2004 و در عراق به سال 1384/2005، رخ داده است. نگارنده تلاش می کند نشان دهد که کدام یک از مولفه های جغرافیایی در قوانین اساسی نوپیدای دو کشور، بروز یافته اند. نگارنده نوشتار پیش رو، بر پایه یک پژوهش توصیفی و با درنظرداشت روش مقایسه ای، کوشش می کند نشان دهد که چگونه مولفه های جغرافیایی در نگارش قوانین اساسی جدید، ایفای نقش می کنند. بنیان نگارش مقاله، بهره گیری از ایده ی پیوند فضا و سیاست است و نگارنده کوشیده است قانون اساسی را به منزله دستاورد پیوند حقوق و سیاست، به جغرافیا پیوند زند.
    کلیدواژگان: جغرافیا، قانون اساسی، قانون اساسی افغانستان، قانون اساسی عراق
  • میرنجف موسوی، محمد ویسیان، حکیمه خلیفی پور صفحات 55-77
    از مهم ترین عوامل تهدیدکننده امنیت یک جامعه، وجود نابرابری های فضایی بین مناطق مختلف جغرافیایی آن است. این نابرابری های توسعه ای، شکاف های سیاسی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی را عمیق تر می کند. دراین بین مناطق مرزی کشور با مشکلات بسیاری ازجمله: خالی شدن سکنه، مهاجرت مرزنشینان، جدای گزینی از برنامه های توسعه کشور، عدم امنیت پایدار و... مواجه اند که این امر ضرورت انجام مطالعات علمی و نظم بخشی به تصمیم گیری از طریق تدوین و اولویت بندی راهبردها و برنامه های توسعه کارآمد در چارچوب آمایش مناطق مرزی را انکارناپذیر می سازد. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و میدانی (بر اساس پرسشنامه) در قالب طیف لیکرت است. در این پژوهش بر اساس نظرات کارشناسان نقاط قوت، ضعف، فرصت ها و تهدیدهای امنیت پایدار در منطقه در قالب مدل SWOT مطالعه، شناسایی و مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که وضعیت توسعه امنیت پایدار استان کردستان از الگوی تهاجمی (SO) تبعیت می کند. با توجه به تعریف این الگو، باید راهبردهایی را اتخاذ کرد که با بهره گیری از نقاط قوت درصدد بهره برداری از فرصت ها برآییم و بتوانیم به توسعه پایدار امنیت دست یابیم. درنهایت از روش QSPM با توجه به شرایط فعلی، اولویت بندی راهبردهای مناسب در جهت آمایش مناطق مرزی مشخص گردید. یافته های حاصل از اولویت بندی راهبردها نشان می دهد که از بین راهبردهای تدوین شده بالاترین جذابیت مربوط به آماده سازی حداکثری نیروی انتظامی جهت مقابله با ناامنی های احتمالی با نمره 65/6 است و پایین ترین جذابیت به راهبرد مبارزه با اشرار و قاچاقچیان در سطح استان با نمره 15/5 تعلق دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: آمایش سرزمین، راهبرد، امنیت پایدار، توسعه، استان کردستان
  • محمدباقر قالیباف، محمدهادی پوینده، مصیب قره بیگی صفحات 79-107
    State، به واسطه حضور همزمان در دو حوزه معرفت شناختی و علمی جداگانه به نام علوم سیاسی و جغرافیای سیاسی، دارای معنا، کارکرد، ماهیت و معادل چندگانه ای شده است؛ به گونه ای که نوعی آشفتگی و عدم اجماع، به ویژه در میان جغرافی دانان سیاسی را سبب گردیده است. بر طبق متون مختلف State مفهومی انتزاعی است که با مجموعه ای از مفاهیم، ارزش ها و اندیشه ها در خصوص مسائل انسانی و فضایی درهم آمیخته است. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با روش فراتحلیل، کوشیده تا ابعاد فلسفی-فضایی واژه State را واکاوی کند و به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که: چرا این واژه، معادل ها و معانی مختلف و گهگاه متضادی (به ویژه در حوزه علوم سیاسی و جغرافیای سیاسی ایران) به خود می گیرد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد به نظر می رسد که دخیل شدن عناصر و سازه های جغرافیایی و فضایی، همچون «کشور»، «ملت» و «حکومت» راه را برای تکثر معنا و چندگانگی مفهومی آن هموار کرده است؛ به گونه ای که آن دسته از معناها و مفاهیم برآمده از State به واقعیت نزدیک تر هستند که علاوه بر دیدگاه ساختار- عاملیتی State دیدگاه «فضایی» و «کل نگرانه جغرافیا» را دخالت دهند و توجه به همین امر است که دلیل تعدد معانی این مفهوم را روشن می سازد. بر این اساس، State برای بروز و ظهور عینی خود در وضعیت های مختلف در قالب یکی از عناصر مادی تشکیل دهنده خود، یعنی سرزمین (کشور)، مردم (ملت) و حکومت متجلی می شود و علت تعدد معانی State نیز همین امر است.
    کلیدواژگان: State، کشور، دولت، حکومت، ملت
  • جهانگیر حیدری صفحات 109-138
    رویکردهای فعال سازی/خاموش سازی در ژنگان سیاست خارجی کشورها وجود دارد. ژنوم های جغرافیاپایه با رویکردهای دوگانه ژئوپلیتیک یا ژئوپاسیفیک، فعال سازی می گردند. در رویکرد ژئوپاسیفیک، بازیگران تلاش دارند هویت سیاسی خود را در عرصه بین المللی مبتنی بر عضویت در سازمان های منطقه ای و بین المللی، ایفای نقش میانجی منازعات منطقه ای، اتخاذ راهبردهای تنش زدا، پذیرش اصل همکاری های متقابل بر اساس منافع مشترک، شکل دهند؛ درحالی که، در رویکرد ژئوپلیتیک، دست یابی به منافع، بر اساس اصل رقابت پیگیری می گردد. در هر دو رویکرد، ژنوم های زایل کننده قدرت ملی، غیرفعال می گردند. ترکمنستان ازجمله کشورهایی است که پویش های ژئوپلیتیک فراتر از واقعیت های جغرافیایی داشته است؛ زیرا، با گرفتاری های ژئوپلیتیک (محصورشدگی در خشکی، فقدان تاریخ مستقل سیاسی، سیطره پیشینی نظام کمونیستی و فقدان عمق استراتژیک) مواجه است، اما توانسته در سیاست خارجی، کنش هایی کامروا داشته باشد. در این مقاله، کوشش می شود چهره نوین سیاست خارجی ترکمنستان، بر اساس سازه مفهومی ژنوم ژئوپلیتیک، واکاوی شود: شناخت پتانسیل های اقتصادی و فعال سازی ژنوم های جایگاه یابی در اقتصاد سیاسی جهان، مسیرسازی برای انتقال انرژی، شناخت و فعال سازی پتانسیل های ژئوکالچر، شناخت موقعیت ژئواستراتژیک و اتخاذ راهبردهای تنش زدا در عرصه سیاست خارجی.
    کلیدواژگان: ترکمنستان، ژنوم ژئوپلیتیک، سیاست خارجی، ژئوپاسیفیک، فعال سازی، خاموش سازی
  • محمد قنبری، سید مصطفی حسینی، سلمان حیاتی صفحات 139-172
    تاریخچه پیدایش مهاجرت چندان روشن نیست؛ ولی بشر در طول تاریخ همواره در حرکت و جابجایی بوده است. اشغال افغانستان توسط نیروهای شوروی سابق و پس ازآن جنگ داخلی، بی ثباتی سیاسی، فقر و توسعه نیافتگی باعث تداوم مهاجرت قانونی و غیر قانونی تعداد زیادی از مردم افغانستان به ایران و به ویژه استان خراسان رضوی گردید. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی میزان رضایت از زندگی و تمایل به بازگشت مهاجرین افغانستانی استان خراسان رضوی است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی – تحلیلی می باشد و از نرم افزارهای PASW و GIS برای تحلیل پرسشنامه ها و ترسیم نقشه ها استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش بیان گر توزیع فضایی 98 درصد مهاجرین در شهرستان های مشهد و تربت جام می باشد. نتایج مستخرج از پرسشنامه هم بیان گر رضایت کمتر از حد متوسط زندگی در ایران توسط مهاجرین افغانستانی استان خراسان رضوی می باشد و میزان تمایل بازگشت به افغانستان هم بر اساس میانگین نظر پاسخگویان هم کمتر از حد متوسط بوده است. همچنین بر اساس نتایج آزمون من ویتنی، بین متغیر محل سکونت پاسخگویان با میزان رضایت از زندگی در ایران و میزان تمایل بازگشت به کشورشان، تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه پاسخگویان ساکن شهرستان مشهد و تربت جام وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: مهاجرت، مهاجرین افغانستانی، رضایت از زندگی، استان خراسان رضوی
  • علی اصغر پیله ور، رضا رضایی خبوشان صفحات 173-202
    امنیت و توسعه، رابطه متقابل و دوسویه دارند و درواقع امنیت پایدار، حاصل برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهری است. احساس ناامنی در محیط شهرها فعالیت های انسانی را تحت الشعاع قرار داده و امور اقتصادی و فرهنگی و اجتماعی و غیره به درستی انجام پذیر نخواهد بود. برقراری امنیت پایدار لازمه توسعه شهرهاست؛ لذا امنیت در فرایند برنامه ریزی شهری و طراحی آن ها اهمیت و جایگاه ویژه دارد. هدف این مقاله بررسی و تحلیل وضعیت پایداری و ناپایداری شهر پردیس با رویکرد امنیتی و عوامل تهدیدکننده است. مقاله حاضر با روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی به کمک تکنیک GISو مدل تحلیلی AHPعوامل تهدیدکننده امنیت شهر جدید پردیس را مورد تحلیل قرار داده و با استفاده از فن GISو مدل AHP به عوامل کمی و کیفی تهدیدکننده ضریب و امتیاز داده و اولویت بندی کرده است. اولویت ها رقومی شده و بر روی نقشه های مکانی به نمایش درآمده است. نتایج مقاله بیانگر شناسایی و استخراج عوامل تهدیدکننده انسانی و طبیعی امنیت شهر به طور عام و شهر جدید پردیس به طور خاص است. با روی هم گذاری این نقشه ها، 4 پهنه خطر پذیر امنیت شهر جدید پردیس مشخص شد. درنتیجه پهنه 1 در معرض خطرپذیر نسبتا زیاد، پهنه 2 خطرپذیری متوسط و پهنه 3 و 4 در معرض خطر نسبتا کم قرار دارند. در پایان نیز پیشنهاد هایی برای امنیت شهرها ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، ناپایداری، GIS، AHP، عوامل تهدید، شهر پردیس
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  • Mohammad Reza Hafeznia, Ebrahim Rumina, Ghaderi Hajat Mostafa Pages 1-29
    Introduction
    Relationship pattern has a complex, combinational and also intelligible nature in the current geopolitical structure of the world. Civilizations’ relations together and Civilization interactions include: engagement, competition and conflict in a range of geopolitical treatment pattern. Some of spatial values which originated challenges among region country have Civilization nature. Iranian’s Civilization have located near various Civilizations’ which this vicinity leads forming a pattern of relations which contain friendly to inimically relations in a wide range during thousands of years. This Civilization has formed during history and has cached politicians’ opinion in the political process. Regional claiming actors try to extend their penetrations by magnifying their Civilization elements
    Theoretical Framework: Geopolitical relations are these which are based on combination of elements such as politics, power and geography between countries, stats and political actors.
    Geopolitical relations between regional and trans-regional can be seen in the following forms: Interaction relation. Consist of different and interactional relations between actors based on common goals and interests.
    Domination relation. Caused by inequality of power between actors of stronger actors impose their own wills on weaker actors.
    Influence relation. Influence is a kind of reflexive of domination and result of inequality of power.
    Competitive relation. This relation forms based on relative equality of power of actors.
    Confrontational relation. This relation forms frequently based on equality of power between actors when Conflicting interests between actors have special importance so that competition between them goes out of standard limit and leads to conflict.
    Methodology
    This article tries to analyses human structures and cultural realms in West Asia and political relation of this regions whit Iran’s Civilization structure, using an analytical-discerbtive method and reeling on library recourses.
    Findings and
    Discussion
    Research result show that Iran’s Civilization has a special today which contains geostrategic situation and its enormous recourses; but we should note is that this Civilization has encountered many challenges and these challenges predispose its debilitation. All Civilization loops around Iran have special strategic depth and Iran is only country where has relied itself without any support in this full competition world. Sami Civilization in the south support Persian Gulf Cooperation Council and Arab union, Torani Civilization headed by Turkey, supports by Europe union and the United States and also Slavic Civilization based on Russia’s efficient power is in a better situation than Iran.
    Keywords: southwest Asia, geopolitical region, Sami Civilization, Iranian Civilization Torani Civilization, Slavic Civilization
  • Mohsen Khalili Pages 31-54
    Introduction
    After 11thSeptemberand providing background for thoughts of new conservative strategists, doctrine of changing regimes for omitting governments which were against hegemony of the USA, was focused by national security of America. New conservative decision makers with focusing on strategy of changing regime omitting contestant and bankrupt governments and creating substitute states were entered to operational field of foreign policy. They did the first step by broad military invasion to Iraq and Afghanistan. The process of codifying new Constitution in Afghanistan was begun in 2004 and in Iraq in 2005. Codifying and writing new Constitution was a content matter, in addition to a formal and figural affair, and it was the most important issue. It showed that chains of occurrences were impressive and they created the new condition which needs to both establishment of a new society on ruins of pervious situation, and a new constitution. The reason was that basically context of Constitution contains bases which formed skeleton of a new structure. In this structure regulations are defined, founded, and codified which help to systematize obedient and ruler union in one hand, and help to transition and administration of regular power in different levels, on the other hand.
    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: Regulating Constitution is defined as founding after rejecting past and pervious political system. This foundation is an intellectual action because wisdom is stipulated as criterion of determining characteristics of new political system. On the other hand, regulating Constitution is a phenomenon towards evolving political and legal process and towards international process of a political tradition or phenomenon which belongs to evolving or propagation of an international political culture. In this process values and bases which originated from historical experiences of a social country (countries) and were formed in the same historical framework, Goe from one country to another and are generalized through this transition. It means a legal system is emerged which other countries then enter the same system in their political culture and they try to organize a new political system based on it. There fore, Constitutions are collection of governing techniques which stabilize governing in relation to each other. Origins of Constitutions are like some interdependent collections of thoughts and devices for handling a modern society. As a result, Constitutions are basically modern phenomena which are rooted in a special political thought.
    Methodology
    The present study was written with using the ides which was discussed in “space and policy”. In this study, it is talked about geographical indices of Constitutions and impressibility of national institutions from geographical background. The main question is that how the geographical elements and context have been reflected in the text of new Constitutions of Iraq and Afghanistan. In a descriptive research (based on comparative method) the author has tried to answer this question based on the first type of research.
    Discussion
    Geographical bases in Constitution of Iraq
    In the introduction of Constitution of Iraq there is a special view about category of land as a geographical integrity. In article one; republic of Iraq is an independent and autonomous country which its governmental system is democratic, federal parliamentre public. In article 2 Islam is formal religion and the main sources of lawgiving. In institute 3, Iraq is seen as a country which has different races and religions. Geographical signs and symbols have been represented in new text of Iraqi Constitution in a natural manner. For example in article 4 Arabic and Kurdish are formal languages of Iraq. In article 65, the president is head of the country and symbol of national unity. In article 107 of new Constitution of Iraq, federal officials are keeper of unity, integration, independence, autonomy, and federal democratic system of Iraq. In article 113, the federal system of Iraq republic consists of a capital, several area and non-centered province, and local offices.
    Geographical bases in Afghanistan Constitution
    In the first article, geography has presented itself with the statement that Afghanistan is Islamic republic, independent, unite, and inseparable. In the fourth article of Constitution the national autonomy belongs to Afghan nation. In the fifth article defending independence, nationalautono my, integrity and providing security and defense ability are among main duties of the state. In the 8th article, the state must regulate foreign policy of the country based on preserving independence, national profits, integrity, laisser fair, well –neighboring , mutual respect, and equity. In 63th article of Constitution the president before undertaking his position according to special way which is regulated by law......and the capital of Afghanistan is Kabul. In 16th article among languages such as Pashto, Dari, Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluch, Pashe, Noorestani, pamiri, and other languages Pashto and Dari are formal languages.
    Conclusion
    Sadam's military and strongly magisterial state was rebellious state which impeded any types of reformation in Iraq. Taliban' unsuccessful state caused war and unrest. It has lost its power of governing the country. Tribal and religious geography in Iraq has conquered federalism on context of Constitution of Iraq which is a geographical field itself. Other geographical backgrounds were borrowed from the same old traditional of writing Constitution. In Afghanistan integrity of geographical diversity has been determined but the state is also integrate and abroad. In Constitution of Iraq the component of land with all his antiquity which returns to Mesopotamia in civilization became the main matter, because in Iraq history and land have proceeded together. In Constitution of Afghanistan, however, the element of geography is not mentioned and what there is about geography in context of constitution is reference to tradition of writing Constitution in which appropriateness of new era has been noticed.
    Keywords: Geography, Constitution, Constitution of Afghanistan, constitution of Iraq
  • Mirnajaf Mousavi, Mohammad Waysian, Hakimeh Halifipour Pages 55-77
    Introduction
    A spatial inequality between different geographical areas is the most important factors threatening the security of a society. These developmental inequalities deepen the political, economic and social gaps. A Border are a in each country has certain characteristics that differ substantially from the hinterland. Border areas of the country encounter many problems including: lack of inhabitants, migration of frontiersmen, separation from the country's development and sustainable security and in this regard, border areas are of particular importance. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct scientific studies, and arrange and prioritize decisions by developing strategies and efficient development programs in terms of spatial planning in border areas.
    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: Preparation of the border areas is a kind of planning which links development with security and defense of the requirements of the border regions within the framework of these areas, and introduces strategies for development of the border areas in which security and development are interdependent. According to the previous studies, security and development in the border areas have a high correlation coefficient with a direct and reciprocal relationship, so that each taken step in the process of development has its own direct impact on the realization of security and vice versa. Therefore, areas with high indices of development will enjoy higher security coefficients than the developed regions. In this regard, the following four attitudes are inferred: a) attitude of prioritizing security to development; b) the attitude of prioritizing development to security; c) attitude of prioritizing mutual understanding of development and security; d) attitude of prioritizing distinction between development and security in practical field.
    Methodology
    The present research methodology is descriptive- analytic and survey method (based on questionnaire) in the form of a Likertte scale. The statistical population of this study consisted of two groups: 1) the first group university instructors and M.A students of political geography and politics science and 2) the second group security experts of the province35.people were selected by the snowball sampling. In this study the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of sustainable security in the region were studied, identified, and analyzed using the SWOT model. Finally, with regard to the current situation of QSPM, prioritization of the strategy suitable for preparation of the border areas was identified.
    Discussion
    In order to provide proper sustainable security strategies in preparation of the border areas of Kurdistan Province, knowing quad-factors of SWOT model is inevitable to eliminate the weaknesses and threats and improve the strengths and opportunities. 10 domestic strengths, 10 domestic weaknesses, 7 opportunities, and 7 threats were identified as the factors affecting the development of sustainable security. The weighted score of the internal factors (2/79) which was greater than 2/5 represents the priority of the strengths on the weak nesses in terms of development of sustainable security in the province. The most important strengths include the "presence of educated people and native professionals in the province" and "formation of comprehensive policy of provincial public security." The most significant weaknesses are "widespread illegal traffic" and "increasing trafficking and its negative feedback on security." The weighted score of the external factors (2/66) that was greater than 2/5 shows the priority of the opportunities on the threats in the development of sustainable security in Kurdistan. The results shown in the table show that the most important opportunity and threat were "paying special attention to the issue of security on the borders of Kurdistan" and “the threat of the American and NATO military presence in the vicinity of the borders of Kurdistan”.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that the development of the sustainable security in Kurdistan province follows an aggressive pattern or (SO). According to this definition, it is vital to choose strategies of using the strengths to take better advantage of the opportunities, and achieve sustainable development of security. The results of prioritizing these strategies show that among the modified strategies, the highest and the lowest rates of attraction belonged to optimal preparation of the police force to deal with possible insecurities (6/65) and Strategy bandits and attacking the smugglers and gangsters of the province (5/15), respectively. However, the authorities are required to strengthen other strategies as well to build sustainable development both in the field of sustainable security in the border areas development and in other sectors- economic, socio-cultural, and political, since individual consideration of these factors cannot provide the preparation of the border areas.
    Keywords: Land use planning, Strategy, Security Sustainable Development, Kurdistan province
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mohammad Hadi Pooyandeh, Mosayeb Gharebigi Pages 79-107
    Introduction
    The term “state” owing to its simultaneous presence in two epistemological and scientific fields named political science and political geography has assumed multiple meanings, applications, natures and synonyms, in a way that it has stirred a kind of chaos and lack of consensus, especially among political geographers. According to various texts, “state” is an abstract entity, intertwined with a selection of notions, values, and thoughts concerning human and spatial issues. Accordingly, the present research tries to analyze the spatial-philosophical aspects of the word “ state” and answer the question as to the reasons why this word has gained varied and sometimes contradictory synonyms and meanings (especially in the fields of political science and political geography in Iran).
    Method
    In terms of collecting the data, the present research is a qualitative one, and in terms of its nature is regarded as a foundational research. With respect to the method of processing and interpreting the data, Meta-analysis has been used. Meta-analysis is a collection of methods used to resolve the contradictions created by researches conducted concerning a single topic. Meta-analysis converts the findings of various researches to a joint scale, investigates the relation among research specifics and the findings and finally, proposes an overarching suggestion for converging the studies. The present research, in line with its objective which concerns the investigation of divergences and conceptual, theoretical and semantic contradictions of the term “state” among political geography’s thinkers and theoreticians and its attempt to bring viewpoints, in an overarching manner, together can be categorized as a meta-analysis.
    Discussion
    Every concept in geography, considering the comprehensive and holistic epistemological nature of this science, gains a “comprehensive and universal “feature, where no other rational trajectory neither can nor should be traversed, before unwinding the interwoven elements and components of this twisted skein. Nonetheless, it seems that any attempt to resolve such a conflict would be irrational. The only rational thing remains paying attention to the “spatial, comprehensive, holistic and multiplicity” basis in geographical concepts which stem from its epistemology. It seems that incorporation of spatial, geographical structures and factors such as “ land”, “ country”, “ nation”, “ regime” and “ governance” have paved the way for its plurality of sense and profusion of meaning, to the degree that meanings and concepts of “state” are closer to reality that in addition to structure-agency views, incorporate “spatial” and “holistic geographic” views.
    So on the basis of the epistemological feature of geography (to which political geography belongs) the conceptual expansion and long range of inclusiveness in political geography is neither too surprising nor paradoxical. The word “state” contains simultaneous and multifold other meanings such as “ land”, “ government” , “ governance” and “ people” and unless these elements are included and combined in creating a whole, we cannot use the word “state” for it. Thus, only when the biologic and cultural feature specific to humans, i.e. territoriality, adopts a national (concerning a population with a given and fixed identity) and political (a country, when all the elements of the administration, governance, execution and management or government are organized) quality can it represent a word called “state” in the political geography.
    Conclusion
    State is an abstract concept, intertwined with a collection of concepts, values, and thoughts regarding human and spatial issues and owing to its simultaneous presence in two disparate epistemological and scientific fields called political science and political geography it has assumed multiple meanings, applications, natures and synonyms. The word state, in its general sense, has a meaning of “condition” and “situation”. This concept, in order to materialize in the fields under discussion, has no other way than to be manifested in its material components. Among the components of “state”, the concepts of nation, regime, and country has been used, many times, interchangeably thus causing multiple meanings for the concept of “state” such as country, regime, administrative, executive branch and etc. The findings of this research indicate that each of these concepts (country, regime and nation), in different situations where the concept of “state” can be situated, can carry its semantic features. For instance, when there is a geographical and territorial understanding of “state” , it comes very close to the concept of “country” and when its administrative-executive aspect is intended, it referrers to the government .So, the profusion of the meanings of “state” is not in contradiction with its main sense. To put it simply, “state” in some situations is synonymous with country and in others with government or political society. This does not damage its abstract and main meaning, since without these components, “state” has no meaning and in order to become materialized and manifest in various situations, it is dependent upon its constituent elements.
    Keywords: State, Country, Government, Nation
  • Jahangir Heydari Pages 109-138
    Introduction
    Geopolitical genome is the potential of a country. As the genomics is the study of hundreds or perhaps thousands of simultaneous genetic reactions for identifying the main causes of disease and understanding the mechanism of an organism, the activation and extinguishing of the geopolitical genomes are those adopted policies based on the geographical and human potentials of the countries which is activated or extinguished through the above mentioned factors. The study of the geopolitical genomes and controlling the type and quality of their activity guaranty the country and prevent it from the influence and power of other states. By identifying the geopolitical genomes, the activity of those genomes which are going to become geopolitical codes to the rival countries can be stopped. In line with the development of the influences and geopolitical boundaries of the country, the genomes can also become the sources of power.
    Turkmenistan, in terms of political development, has not developed. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the motive of the great powers for influence increased. In addition to the traditional influence of Russia in the region, and activities of America and the European countries’ after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early years, China has taken an active economic policy in Central Asia. This country has had geopolitical behavior beyond its political geography in field off origin policy.
    Turkmenistan has had huge geopolitical problems, but, in terms of foreign policies it has managed to demonstrate actions beyond its reality in and out of the region. When Bordi Mohammad of took the office, the first important step to achieve was to increase foreign investments. In this article, it was attempted to study there as on and qualities of foreign policy actions of Turkmenistan, based on the principle of conceptual geopolitical genome ,since, it seems that, the changes in the country’s geopolitical capacities has paved the way for the Turkmen’s world wide acceptance.
    Geopolitical genome of a country is seen as the geopolitical codes by the rival countries which systematizes the programs of a country's foreign policy against the target country. That is, a country organizes its foreign policies based on its genome map. Moreover, the rival country tries to undo the target country's foreign policy according to geopolitical codes available in that country. Countries, based on their unique geopolitical genomes, have a political character and are a range of in fluential capabilities in the foreign policy. In order to meet the challenges raised from the county’s human and geopolitical issues, adopting strategies to neutralize or extinguish them is essential.
    Geopolitical code is the foreign policy operational agenda of a country that evaluates the geographical places out of the borders. Geopolitical codes are specific to each country, and countries try to influence and target the other countries’ geopolitical codes to achieve their goals and interests. A county’s genome map is considered as geopolitical codes by the rival countries and leads the mental programs of a country’s foreign policy towards the target country.
    Methodology
    The research methodology was descriptive-analytic. Therefore, after an extensive literature review and data processing, in this study the genome of geopolitics and geopolitical code were first described. Then, the dual approach indices of geopolitical genome activation, factors affecting the activation/extinguishment of geopolitics genome, geopolitical and the confrontation of geopolitical codes/genomes and dual behavior (geopolitical/geo-pacific) in the study were designed. Corresponding to the designed factors, the effective factors in the activation of geopolitical genomes in the Turkmenistan’s foreign policy were extracted.
    Discussion
    Turkmenistan's position in Central Asia is of crucial importance. It has enormous sunder ground as resources and is the gateway to Central Asian countries. Turkmenistan is also the region’s channel of communication with the out side world, and has the capabilities of geo-cultural and economic potential. Turkmenistan, through the activation of energy transfer routing, neutralizing the challenge of the lack of access to oceans, and developing strategies to decrease the challenges in the region has been able to demonstrate, in the foreign policies, actions beyond its real being, regionally and infra-regionally.
    In proceed we show the extinguishment and awakening of advantageous and power-maker genomes of the Turkmenistan’s foreign policy.
    The advantageous geopolitical genomes
    Fundamental restriction and monopolizing the gas transport by Russia
    Cumbersome tax rules for foreign company activities
    Being limited to land and the Russia's monopoly of gas lines
    Economic package system
    Isolation of foreign policy
    The strategies of geopolitical extinguishing genomes advantageous
    The diversification of gas export options
    Foreign exchange and encouraging foreign investment
    Activating the routing of energy transport
    Economic Development (oil and gas, agriculture, textile and private sector)
    The end of self- imposed isolation policies and active participation in international community
    Also in proceed we show awakening the empowering genome of foreign policy
    The strategies of activating the potential strengthening genomes
    -Activating cultural symbols celebrating celebrities and historical events-Finding a position in the international economy
    -Making peace with neighbors and attracting regional actors extending roads with neighbors
    -Declaring the neutral policy at the international level with stabilizing the internal conditions
    -Increasing negotiation internationally
    Employing potential genome
    Cultural
    Background
    Lack of religious and ethnic diversity
    The better location compared with other republics in central Asia
    The vacuum power in the region.
    Conclusion
    Thus, using the plans of Bordi Mohammad, the previous policies were put aside and the conditions were prepared for activating power-maker genomes. Turkmenistan policy makers started to identify economical and geo-cultural potentials, geo-strategic conditions and positions, and hydro-political challenges. In the next step, the activation policy of proper genomes for each sector was adopted. Taking advantage of oil and gas resources led to the activation of finding an international genome in the economic policy and energy transferring routing. In geo-culture, the symbolization genome and cultural symbolism were activated to strengthen the national identity and recognize the historical realities. To extinguish the critical situation of water The strategy of cooperation with Iran and Afghanistan was posed as an agenda , Regarding the geostrategic situation of Turkmenistan as agate way for entrance to central Asia ] , its proximity to Iran , its short distance with Russia also tendency of America to penetrate in this region , adopting an neutral was effective .
    One of the other challenges of Turkmenistan is lack of access to free waters that has been overcome through activating some genomes such as the railway link with Iran and Uzbekistan, attracting foreign economic investments, and enhancing border markets and free trade zones.
    Keywords: Turkmenistan, Geopolitical Genome, Foreign Policy, Geopacific, Activation, Deactivation
  • Mohammad Ghanbari, Seyyed Mostafa Hosseini, Salman Hayati Pages 139-172
    Introduction
    The history of immigration is not very clear but mankind has always been on the move and shift. Migration of Afghan people to Iran is migrating from a country to another country which is known as an international migration. The beginning of migration of Afghan people to Iran dates back to the times before the Iranian Islamic revolution in 1979. Occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union's forces and that the subsequent civil wars, political instability, poverty and underdevelopment have led to the continuation of legal and illegal immigration of a large number of Afghani people to Iran and especially Razavi Khorasan province. Due to having border with Afghanistan, Razavi Khorasan province has been host to a large number of Afghan immigrants who reside in different parts of the province.
    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: There are many theories about immigration including: Lary Sjastad, Pull and Push theory, D. S.Thomas theory, and Everett S.Lee theory. Immigration of Afghan immigrants to Iran cannot be specifically linked to one of these theories and it is a combination of different theories. In addition, many researchers believe that, immigration of Afghan immigrants to other countries can be studied in the form of Pull and Push theory.
    Methodology
    The aim of this study was to investigate life satisfaction and tendency to return of Afghan immigrants of Razavi Khorasan Province. The research method was descriptive – analysis, and PASW and GIS software’s were used for questionnaires analysis and mapping. Considering the large size of statistical population, Cochran formula was used to determine the sample size, so sample size was determined 350 persons. Questionnaires were distributed based on cluster sampling. Since more than 98% of Afghan immigrants live in the counties of Mashhad and Torbatejam, the aforementioned counties were selected as clusters of the sample society.
    Results and Discussion
    Population of Afghan immigrants of Razavi Khorasan province in 2011 was about 205,859 persons based on the statistical Centre of Iran. While, based on Amayesh No.9 plan (2013), the number of immigrants was about 135,862 persons. According to the level of life satisfaction of respondents in Iran, it was determined that, approximately 38% of respondents have low and very low levels of life satisfaction in Iran. 26% of the respondents have chosen high and very high levels of life satisfaction. According to Mann-Whitney test between the variables of gender and life satisfaction in Iran, the tendency of return to Afghanistan and having a sense of belonging to Iran, it was determined that there is a significant relationship between these variables since level of significance between variables of gender and life satisfaction is less than 0/05 But there is no significant relationship between tendency of return to Afghanistan and a sense of belonging to Iran because the level of significance between these variables is more than 0/05.
    Conclusion
    The results of the research showed that, the spatial distribution of Afghan immigrants in counties of Mashhad and Torbatejam is 98%. The results obtained from the questionnaire indicated that life satisfaction of Afghan immigrants of Razavi Khorasan Province is below the average of life, and tendency rate of return to Afghanistan was less than the average. Furthermore, according to the results of Mann-Whitney test, there are significant differences between the variables of respondents’ residence place, life satisfaction in Iran and tendency to return to their country between the two groups of respondents living in Mashhad and Torbatejam counties.
    Keywords: Migration, Afghan immigrants, Life satisfaction, Razavi Khorasan Province
  • Aliasghar Pilehvar, Reza Rezaei Khaboshan Pages 173-202
    Introduction
    Security is the most important factor for improving of a city and it’s the initial needs of human. Security and developing are mutual relationship that derived from planning and city management. Insecurity feeling in the urban area, the activities of human have been eclipsed and economic, cultural, social acts couldn’t be done easily .however security is necessary for developing of city ,where the symbol of a country is developing of urbanization and urban renewal . It’s important to security factor in the process of planning and design. In the process of planning for developing of urban renewal of Iran, the important part is security is ignored that impact to exist an insecurity city and decrease attraction of population.
    Theoretical framework: Security is a need and right; also its abstract and approximate, because it’s derived from the faith, religious, ethical and cultural believes of people of a society .because of significant of security, urban security means that must be comfortable, liberty, release, safety and ready for in front of danger, threat, attack, damage, anxiety, fear, of them. It’s important to provide security for cities as bed of basement to provide social relationship and public services that make healthy and stable city for all of the urban theorizations. As they believed security cities have these characters:The result of good commanding
    It has powerful correlation to developing. Its start of stimulating of social and economic growth for cities.
    It has Concentration to reinforcement and security of unorganized city and social Correlation.
    Methodology
    This article is a descriptive-analysis method with help of GIS technique and analysis circuit of AHP are the factors which threat security of Town of Pardis (Iran), so they were analyzed ,and the urban security are based on some threatening factors as social, economy, managing ,environmental and cultural which are analyzed and surveyed.
    Discussion
    Finding of this research of recognizing and extraction commonly are for humanity and natural threatening of urban security and particularly are for Town of Pardis which are following : emigrate of city, unemployed ,unrefuted places ,insecurity passerby system, unsuitable light ,danger of earthquake and flood, air attack, environmental pollution, criminal place , high rate of rubbery, lack of facilities for activity in city. Finally because of GIS technique and AHP model are given some grades to be initial. These initially are estimated and numerical then have showed on the conditional map.to put over the map with each other is earned four risking dimension. In the whole sum of the areas 1 is highly exposed on danger, 2 is almost on danger, 3 and 4 are a bit of danger.
    Conclusion & suggestion: The best security of renewal city of Pardis is because of recognizing the factors that threat security and safety in natural dimension and human as earthquake and flood, air attack, environmental pollution, the transmission line of energy, air attack and other threatening factors are for security of city and urban.
    Its suggested that urban security has done with renewal basement and preventing of construction. However it’s necessary of security of organization as army office or public Basij are suitable for it.
    Keywords: Security, factors of threat, GIS, AHP, New Town of Pardis