فهرست مطالب

Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Volume:6 Issue:3, 2016
  • Volume:6 Issue:3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan*, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh Pages 293-299
    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSCderived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs. They have the supportive functions in organisms such as repairing tissue damages, suppressing inflammatory responses, and modulating the immune system. MSC-DEs are of great interest in the scope of regenerative medicine because of their unique capacity to the regeneration of the damaged tissues, and the present paper aims to introduce MSC-DEs as a novel hope in cell-free therapy.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells, Exosomes, Regenerative medicine
  • Mahboob Nemati, Aliasghar Hamidi, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Vahid Javaherzadeh, Farzaneh Lotfipour* Pages 301-308
    Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology. The main focus is on the application of rapid methods in microbial quality control of pharmaceutical products. Reviewed literature showed that rapid methods and automation in microbiology is an advanced area for studying and applying of improved methods in the early detection, and characterization of microorganisms and their products in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrials as well as environmental monitoring and clinical applications. It can be concluded that rapid methods and automation in microbiology should continue as potent and efficient technologies to develop the novel tests to be performed in the future because of the ever-increasing concerns about the safety of food and pharmaceutical products. However the main issues to be considered are the scale up of developed methods and the regulatory requirements.
    Keywords: Microbial quality control, Sampling, Detection, Identification, Rapid method
  • Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh*, Mona Mirzaei, Mahdiyeh Mashahdi, Keshtiban, Karim Shamsasenjan, Hamidreza Heydari Pages 309-317
    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a non-glycosylated, negatively charged protein (Mw: about 65-kDa) that has one free cystein residue (Cys 34), and 17 disulfide bridges that these bridges have main role in its stability and longer biological life-time (15 to 19 days). As HSA is a multifunctional protein, it can also bind to other molecules and ions in addition to its role in maintaining colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) in various diseases. In critical illnesses changes in the level of albumin between the intravascular and extravascular compartments and the decrease in its serum concentration need to be compensated using exogenous albumin; but as the size of HSA is an important parameter in retention within the circulation, therefore increasing its molecular size and hydrodynamic radius of HSA by covalent attachment of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), that is known as PEGylation, provides HSA as a superior volume expander that not only can prevent the interstitial edema but also can reduce the infusion frequency. This review focuses on various PEGylation methods of HSA (solid phase and liquid phase), and compares various methods to purifiy and characterize the pegylated form.
    Keywords: Human Serum Albumin, HSA, PEGylation, PEGylated albumin
  • Shringika Soni, Rakesh Kumar Ruhela, Bikash Medhi* Pages 319-335
    Purpose
    For the past few decades central nervous system disorders were considered as a major strike on human health and social system of developing countries. The natural therapeutic methods for CNS disorders limited for many patients. Moreover, nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the brain may an exciting and promising platform to overcome the problem of BBB crossing. In this review, first we focused on the role of the blood-brain barrier in drug delivery; and second, we summarized synthesis methods of nanomedicine and their role in different CNS disorder.
    Method
    We reviewed the PubMed databases and extracted several kinds of literature on neuro nanomedicines using keywords, CNS disorders, nanomedicine, and nanotechnology. The inclusion criteria included chemical and green synthesis methods for synthesis of nanoparticles encapsulated drugs and, their in-vivo and in-vitro studies. We excluded nanomedicine gene therapy and nanomaterial in brain imaging.
    Results
    In this review, we tried to identify a highly efficient method for nanomedicine synthesis and their efficacy in neuronal disorders. SLN and PNP encapsulated drugs reported highly efficient by easily crossing BBB. Although, these neuro-nanomedicine play significant role in therapeutics but some metallic nanoparticles reported the adverse effect on developing the brain.
    Conclusion
    Although impressive advancement has made via innovative potential drug development, but their efficacy is still moderate due to limited brain permeability. To overcome this constraint,powerful tool in CNS therapeutic intervention provided by nanotechnology-based drug delivery methods. Due to its small and biofunctionalization characteristics, nanomedicine can easily penetrate and facilitate the drug through the barrier. But still, understanding of their toxicity level, optimization and standardization are a long way to go.
    Keywords: Blood brain barrier, CNS therapeutics, Drug delivery, Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine, Nanocarrier
  • Jaleh Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Maryam Maghsoodi, Farzaneh Lotfipour* Pages 337-343
    Purpose
    Psyllium seeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus.
    Methods
    Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique. Beads were characterized in terms of size, encapsulation efficiency, integrity and bacterial survival in harsh conditions.
    Results
    Beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.85 ± 0.05 to 2.40 ± 0.18 mm with encapsulation efficiency higher than 96% were achieved. Psyllium concentrations in beads did not produce constant trend in bead sizes. Surface topography by SEM showed that substitution of psyllium enhanced integrity of obtained beads. Psyllium successfully protected the bacteria against acidic condition and lyophilization equal to alginate in the beads. Better survivability with beads of alginate/psyllium-poly-l-lysine was achieved with around 2 log rise in bacterial count in acid condition compared to the corresponding single coat beads.
    Conclusion
    Alginate/psyllium (1:2) beads with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency of the bacteria have been achieved. Presence of psyllium produced a much smoother and integrated surface texture for the beads with sufficient protection of the bacteria against acidic condition as much as alginate. Considering the health benefits of psyllium and its prebiotic activity, psyllium can be beneficially replaced in part for alginate in probiotic coating.
    Keywords: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Alginate, Psyllium, Poly, L, Lysine, Coating
  • Saieede Soltani, Parvin Zakeri, Milani, Mohammad Barzegar, Jalali, Mitra Jelvehgari* Pages 345-352
    Purpose
    The objective of this study was to develop, characterize, and comparatively investigate the ketotifen fumarate (KF) nanosuspensions (NSS) to enhance the permeability of KF.
    Methods
    In the present work, the NSP and NSE were prepared by double-emulsion solvent evaporation/nanoprecipitation methods with poly (D,Llactide-co-glycolide) and Eudragit RL100 polymers, respectively. The loading efficiency, particle size, and polydispersity index of prepared different NSs were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and in vitro release and transcorneal permeation . NSs were also compared on the basis of particle size and polydispersity index.
    Results
    Particle size, polydispersity index, and loading efficiency of NSP1 and NSE3 showed the best value (158 nm, 117 nm, 0.21, 0.43 and 43%, 95.23%, respectively). SEM showed spherical globules and DSC results showed the reduction in crystallinity. The NSE3 formulations demonstrated significantly (p
    Conclusion
    It is concluded that both NSP and NSE provide a useful dosage form for the ocular drug delivery which can enhance the permeability of KF.
    Keywords: Ketotifen fumarate, Nanosuspension, Transcorneal, Permeability
  • Mohammad Samiei, Marziyeh Aghazadeh, Effat Alizadeh, Naser Aslaminabadi, Soodabeh Davaran, Sajjad Shirazi, Farhad Ashrafi, Roya Salehi* Pages 353-365
    Purpose
    Statin is an effective factor for promoting osteogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin (SIM) and/or HA addition on changes in osteogenesis levels by human DPSCs transferred onto three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/Poly lactic acide (PLLA) polymeric scaffolds.
    Methods
    For this purpose, a 3D nanofibrous composite scaffold of PCL/PLLA/HA was prepared by electrospinning method. SIM was added to scaffolds during DPSCs culturing step. Cell proliferation and osteogenic activity levels were assessed by using MTT assay and Alizarin Red assay methods. In addition, the expression of genes responsible for osteogenesis, including BMP2, Osteocalcin, DSPP and RUNX2, were determined before and 2 weeks after incorporation of SIM.
    Results
    The MTT assay showed that PCL/PLLA/HA scaffolds seeded with DPSCs has significant (p
    Conclusion
    As a result, addition of simvastatin with incorporation of hydroxyapatite in PCL-PLLA scaffolds might increase the expression of osteogenesis markers in the DPSCs, with a possible increase in cell differentiation and bone formation.
    Keywords: Simvastatin, Hydroxyapatite, Co, Administration, Nanofibrous scaffold, Bioengineering
  • Farhad Jahanfar, Akbar Hasani, Dariush Shanebandi, Mohammad Rahmati, Hamed Hamishehkar* Pages 367-375
    Purpose
    In this study the effectiveness of encapsulating of 5-azacytidine into the lipid nanoparticles was investigated and in vitro effect of encapsulated 5-azacytidine studied on MCF-7 cell lines
    Methods
    5-azacytidine -loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were produced by double emulsification (w/o/w) method by using stearic acid as lipid matrix, soy lecithin and poloxamer 407 as surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency and kinetic of drug release were studied. In vitro effect of 5-azacytidine on MCF-7 cell line studied by MTT assay, DAPI staining, Rhodamine B relative uptake, and also Real time RT-PCR was performed for studying difference effect of free and encapsulated drug on expression of RARß2 gene.
    Results
    The formulation F5 with 55.84±0.46 % of entrapment efficiency shows zero order kinetic of drug release and selected for in vitro studies; the cytotoxicity of free drug and encapsulated drug in 48 h of incubation have significant difference. DAPI staining shows morphology of apoptotic nucleus in both free and encapsulated drug, Rhodamine B labeled SLNs show time dependency and accumulation of SLNs in cytoplasm. Real time qRT-PCR doesn’t show any significant difference (p>0.05) in expression of RARß2 gene in both cells treated with free or encapsulated drug.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study indicated that the entrapment of 5-azacytidine into SLNs enhanced its cytotoxicity performance and may pave a way for the future design of a desired dosage form for 5-azacytidine.
    Keywords: 5, azacytidine, Solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, Cancer, Cytotoxicity
  • Beata Powroznik, Karolina Sloczynska, Krzysztof Marciniec, Pawel Zajdel, Elzbieta Pekala* Pages 377-384
    Purpose
    Determination of the mutagenic potential of new biologically active compounds is of great concern for preliminary toxicity testing and drug development.
    Methods
    The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of some quinoline- and isoquinolinesulfonamide analogs of aripiprazole (1-8), which display potent antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic properties, were evaluated using the Vibrio harveyi assay and OSIRIS Property Explorer software. Additionally, the Ames test was used as the reference.
    Results
    In silico prediction showed that compounds 5 (N-(3-(4-(2,3dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)quinoline-7-sulfonamide) and 6 (N-(4-(4-(2,3Dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)quinoline-7-sulfonamide) trigger a mutagenic structural alert. However, this was not confirmed by in vitro assays, as none of the tested compounds displayed mutagenic activity against all tested strains of bacteria. Moreover, compounds 1-8 displayed a protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by a direct acting mutagen NQNO. The most beneficial antimutagenic properties showed compound 5 which exhibited strong antimutagenic properties in all tested V. harveyi strains. High antimutagenic potency of this compound was confirmed in the Ames TA100 assay system.
    Conclusion
    Newly synthesized azinesulfonamide analogs of aripiprazole may be considered as genotoxically safe as they do not display mutagenic activity on the tester strains. Moreover, the tested compounds demonstrated significant antimutagenic properties that can be valuable for prevention of the NQNO genotoxicity. Additionally, it appears that the Vibrio harveyi assay can be applied for primary mutagenicity and antimutagenicity assessment of chemical substances, thus, representing a useful alternative tool for compounds safety evaluation.
    Keywords: Ames test, Antimutagenicity, Aripiprazole, Isoquinoline, sulfonamides, Quinoline, sulfonamides, Vibrio harveyi assay
  • Kambham Venkateswarlu *, Jami Komala Preethi, Kothapalli Bonnoth Chandrasekhar Pages 385-390
    Purpose
    The aim of present study was to improve the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug Loperamide (LPM) by liquisolid compact technique.
    Methods
    Liquisolid compacts of LPM were prepared using Propylene glycol (PG) as a solvent, Avicel pH 102 as carrier, Aerosil as coating material and Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) as superdisintegrant. Interactions between the drug and excipients were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dissolution studies for LPM liquisolid formulation, marketed product and pure drug were carried out in pH 1.2 HCl buffer as dissolution media.
    Results
    Results confirmed the absence of chemical interactions between the drug and excipients. From the solubility studies, it was observed the LPM was highly soluble in PG thereby it was selected as a solvent. The dissolution efficiency of LPM at 15 min was increased from 9.99 % for pure drug and 54.57% for marketed product to 86.81% for the tablets prepared by liquisolid compact technique. Stability studies showed no significant change in percent cumulative drug release, hardness, disintegration time, friability and drug content for 3 months.
    Conclusion
    Formulation F2 showed significant increase in dissolution rate compared to the marketed product at pH 1.2 where LPM is largely absorbed. Around 90% of the drug was released from F2 in 30 min compared to the marketed product and it might be due to the increased wetting and surface area of the particles. Hence, the liquisolid compact technique appears to be a promising approach for improving the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug.
    Keywords: Dissolution, Liquisolid compacts, Loperamide, Solubility
  • Abolfazl Aslani *, Behzad Zolfaghari, Fatemeh Davoodvandi Pages 391-398
    Purpose
    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a disease with unknown etiology that’s mostly treated symptomatically and has no definite cure. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers have been used as medicinal herb that due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic and healing effects, has been useful in treatment of oral aphthous. Therefore, we decided to formulate a mucoadhesive gel with pomegranate flower extract to reduce the need for corticosteroid therapy in patients.
    Methods
    Pomegranate flowers are extracted by percolation method. Several formulations with different amounts of carbomer 934, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M were prepared and the condensed extract was dispersed in polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 400 and added to gel bases. Then the formulations underwent macroscopic and microscopic studies. The formulations that passed these tests successfully were studied through assay tests using spectrophotometry in 765 nm, drug release from mucoadhesive gel using cell diffusion method, viscosity test, mucoadhesion test and accelerated stability test.
    Results
    The phenolic content of pomegranate flower dried extract was found to be 212.3±1.4 mg/g in dried extract. The F4–F6 formulations contains carbomer 934, SCMC, pomegranate flower extract, PEG 400, potassium sorbate and purified water passed all above tests.
    Conclusion
    The F4 formulation had higher viscosity and mucoadhesion values due to its higher carbomer 934 and SCMC content. Since F4, F5 and F6 had no significant variation in drug release, the F4 formulation was chosen as the superior formulation because of proper appearance and uniformity, acceptable viscosity, mucoadhesion and stability in different temperatures.
    Research
    Keywords: Aphthous stomatitis, Pomegranate flower, Gallic acid, Oral mucoadhesive gel
  • Ahmad Ainurofiq, Syaiful Choiri *, Muhamad Ali Azhari, Chaterin Romauli Siagian, Bambang Budi Suryadi, Fea Prihapsara, Sholichah Rohmani Pages 399-406
    Purpose
    The aim of this research was to formulate and develop an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that incorporated a MEL/β-CD complex, using a quality by design (QbD) approach to enhance solubility and drug release.
    Methods
    Multiple regression linear analysis was conducted to develop the kneading process and ODT formulation. Mixing time and amount of solvent were used as independent variables in kneading process optimisation, while the superdisintegrants were used to obtain the desired formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed for complex characterization.
    Results
    MEL/β-CD complexation was successful in enhancing MEL solubility. The results suggest that increasing the amount of solvent and mixing time enhances drug loading and drug release. However, increased solvent amounts present the problem of removing the solvent. Primojel and Polyplasdone had a significant effect on the water wicking and tablet disintegration process (p
    Conclusion
    Incorporation of the MEL/β-CD complex during ODT formulation using the QbD approach serves as a model for ODT product development, with optimal product performance based on the specification of quality target product profiles. To understand more specific phenomena, one point in the middle of the design for each factor should be added to more powerfully estimate this effect and avoid the lack of estimate due to an inadequate equation.
    Keywords: Meloxicam, ? cyclodextrin, Kneading, Orally disintegrating tablet, Quality by design
  • Marzieh Zargaran, Ebrahim Saadat, Rassoul Dinarvand, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Farid Dorkoosh* Pages 407-413
    Purpose
    One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia.
    Methods
    The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and analyzed accordingly.
    Results
    Calculations showed that more than 91.8% of iron was incorporated in the chelate formulation. In vivo studies showed that serum iron, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased in group IV, which received ferrous bis alanine chelate compared with the negative control group (p
    Conclusion
    The results showed better bioavailability of ferrous bis alanine as a new micronutrient for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in comparison with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bis alanine could be considered as a suitable supplement for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia.
    Keywords: Micronutrient, Iron Chelate, Bioavailability, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Ferrous Bis Alanine, Hemoglobin
  • Sarah Zahedi, Karim Shamsasenjan *, Aliakbar Movassaghpour, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh Pages 415-422
    Purpose
    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are one of the essential members of Bone Marrow (BM) microenvironment and the cells affect normal and malignant cells in BM milieu. One of the most important hematological malignancies is Multiple Myeloma (MM). Numerous studies reported various effects of MSCs on myeloma cells. MSCs initiate various signaling pathways in myeloma cells, particularly NF-kβ. NF-kβ signaling pathway plays pivotal role in the survival, proliferation and resistance of myeloma cells to the anticancer drugs, therefore this pathway can be said to be a vital target for cancer therapy. This study examined the relationship between U266 cells and MSCs.
    Methods
    U266 cells were cultured with Umbilical Cord Blood derived-MSCs (UCBMSCs) and Conditioned Medium (C.M). Effect of UCB-MSCs and C.M on proliferation rate and CD54 expression of U266 cells were examined with MTT assay and Flowcytometry respectively. Furthermore, expression of CXCL1, PECAM-1, JUNB, CCL2, CD44, CCL4, IL-6, and IL-8 were analyzed by Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR). Moreover, status of p65 protein in NF-kβ pathway assessed by western blotting.
    Results
    Our findings confirm that UCB-MSCs support U266 cells proliferation and they increase CD54 expression. In addition, we demonstrate that UCB-MSCs alter the expression of CCL4, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1 and the levels of phosphorylated p65 in U266 cells.
    Conclusion
    Our study provides a novel sight to the role of MSCs in the activation of NFkβ signaling pathway. So, NF-kβ signaling pathway will be targeted in future therapies against MM.
    Keywords: NF, k? signaling pathway, CD54, U266 cell line, Mesenchymal Stem Cell, IL, 6, p65
  • Nasser Razmaraii, Hossein Babaei *, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Gholamreza Assadnassab, Javad Ashrafi Helan, Yadollah Azarmi Pages 423-433
    Purpose
    The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE) as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on heart function.
    Methods
    Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days) and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days) plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated.
    Results
    DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX.
    Conclusion
    Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment.
    Keywords: Grape Seed Extract, Cardioprotective, Doxorubicin, Cardiotoxicity, Cancer, ECG
  • Christe Sonia Mary, Sasikumar Swamiappan* Pages 435-442
    Purpose
    Floating drug delivery system reduces the quantity of drug intake and the risk of overloading the organs with excess drug.
    Methods
    In the present study, we prepared the blends of sodium alginate with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a matrix, sodium hydrogen carbonate as a pore forming agent, methyl cellulose as a binder and barium chloride containing 10% acetic acid as a hardening agent. Different ratios of pore forming agent to the polymer blend was used to prepare the floating beads with different porosity and morphology. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was used as a model drug for the release kinetics studies.
    Results
    The beads were characterized by optical and FESEM microscopy to study the morphology and pore dimensions. The results obtained shows decrease in beads size with increase in the concentration of the pore forming agent. The swelling properties of the beads were found to be in the range of 80% to 125%. The release kinetics of the ciprofloxacin from the beads was measured by UV-Visible spectroscopy at λmax of 278nm and the results shows for highly porous beads.
    Conclusion
    By varying the amount of alginate and pore forming agent the release kinetics is found to get altered. As a result, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride release is found to be sustained from the blended beads.
    Keywords: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, Floating drug delivery system, Polyethylene glycol, Polyethylene oxide, Sodium alginate, Sodium bicarbonate
  • Edson Hideaki Yoshida, Nat, Aacute, Lia Tribuiani, Giovana Sabadim, DÉbora Antunes Neto Moreno, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Yoko Oshima, Franco* Pages 443-447
    Purpose
    Betulin is a pentacyclic triterpene found in the outer barks of innumerous plants. This secondary metabolite is easily isolated from plants with the major interest in converting it to betulinic acid, which pharmacological properties were much more exploited than betulin. But, investments in the own betulin have been grown since no chemical step is necessary. In this study we focused the precursor betulin in order to evaluate its mutagenicity by Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test).
    Methods
    The Ames test was carried out using a commercial betulin exposed to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA97a, in experiments with () and without (-S9) metabolic activation.
    Results
    Betulin was unable to increase the number of revertants ( and -S9 metabolic activation) showing the absence of any mutagenic effect by Ames test.
    Conclusion
    This study allowed attribute safety to betulin being important for exploiting its pharmacological uses.
    Keywords: Ames test, Betulin, Salmonella mutagenicity, Triterpenoid
  • Hassan Masouri, Torshizi, Elham Rezaei, Farzaneh Kamranfar, Mostafa Heidari Majd* Pages 449-453
    Purpose
    High solubility, low renal toxicity and apoptosis-inducing ability of palladium complexes are the reasons for their synthesis.
    Methods
    In vitro cytotoxic study of previously synthesized [Pd(en)(8HQ)]NO3 , was carried out on breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines and prostate cancer DU145 cell lines. DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptotic was also evaluated by TUNEL assay on DU145 cell line.
    Results
    FT-IR spectra of final complex confirmed the existence of chelating ligands. The DU145 cells unlike the MCF-7 cells, demonstrated the significant influence of the Pd (II) complex. The IC50 values of [Pd(en)(8HQ)]NO3 and cisplatin on DU145 cells were 27 and 8.3 μM, respectively. Moreover, nearly 38% apoptosis was evident in DU145 cells after treatment with [Pd(en)(8HQ)]NO3.
    Conclusion
    [Pd(en)(8HQ)]NO3 has great potential in DNA binding and induction of apoptosis; thus it can be used in the future against prostate cancer.
    Keywords: Palladium complex, 8, hydroxyquinoline, MCF, 7, DU145, TUNEL assay, Fluorescent microscope
  • Khosro Adibkia, Golrokh Khorasani, Shahriar Payab, Farzaneh Lotfipour* Pages 455-459
    Propose: Bacterial pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by different types of bacteria. Azithromycin (AZI), an azalide antibiotic, is widely used to manage pneumococcal infections. Studies have shown that antibiotics in nanocarriers may lead to increased antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity. The aim of this work was to valuate in vitro antibacterial performance azithromycin-Eudragit RS100 nano-formulations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.
    Methods
    AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning technique and the in vitro antibacterial performance against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were assessed using agar dilution method.
    Results
    Nanofibers in the sizes about 100-300 nm in diameter and micro scale in length and nanobeads in the range of 100-500 nm were achieved. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) showed an enhancement in the antimicrobial effect of AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers (40 µg/ml) compare to untreated AZI solution (>160 µg/ml) against S. pneumonia. The MIC value for AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers against S. aureus was >128 µg/ml, same as that of the untreated AZI solution.
    Conclusion
    The enhanced efficiency of AZI in nanofibers could be related to the more adsorption opportunity of nanofibers to S. pneumonia capsulated cell wall which provides an antibiotic depot on the bacterial surface compared to S. aureus. AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers with enhanced antimicrobial effect against S. pneumonia can be considered as a candidate for in vivo evaluations in antibiotic therapy of Pneumococcal infections.
    Keywords: Azithromycin, Anti Pneumococcal Activity, Nano, Formulation, Eudragit RS100
  • Faezeh Alihosseini, Shirzad Azarmi, Solmaz Ghaffari *, Setareh Haghighat, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat Sorkhabadi Pages 461-465
    Purpose
    This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents.
    Methods
    At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs.
    Results
    Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed.
    Conclusion
    It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains.
    Keywords: Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Curcumin, Synergy, Ampicillin