فهرست مطالب

Basic Medical Sciences - Volume:19 Issue:12, 2016
  • Volume:19 Issue:12, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/09/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Hamid Mollazadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh Pages 1258-1270
    Objective(s)
    Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major risk factors of death globally. One of the most undeniable reasons of CVDs is metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is defined as a complex of diseases including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, obesity, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The use of complementary medicine such as traditional herbal species can be effective in treatment of MetS`s complications. Cinnamomum verum (family Lauraceae) is a medicinal global plant which has been used daily by people all over the world. Positive effects of cinnamon in reducing blood pressure, plasma glucose, obesity and ameliorating dyslipidemia which represented in traditional medicine introduced it as probable decreasing MetS`s complications agent. The aim of this review was to investigate the mechanisms of C. verum in reducing the MetS`s complications and CVDs risk factors.
    Materials And Methods
    Various databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Persian Websites such as www.sid.ir with keywords search of cinnamon, cinnamomum, cinnamaldehyde, atherogenic, hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidemia have been included in this search.
    Results
    Clinical data and mechanisms of action of C. verum and its active ingredients that have been shown in this review indicated that cinnamon has protective effects against MetS`s aspects in various ways.
    Conclusion
    The use of this plant can be effective in reducing MetS`s complications and its morbidity and mortality.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Cinnamon, Insulin resistance, Mechanism, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity
  • Sajad Sahab Negah, Hadi Aligholi, Zabihollah Khaksar, Hadi Kazemi, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Maryam Safahani, Parastoo Barati Dowom, Ali Gorji Pages 1271-1278
    Objective(s)
    In order to grow cells in a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, self-assembling peptides, such as PuraMatrix, have emerged with potential to mimic the extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the self-assembling peptide on the morphology, survival, proliferation rate, migration potential, and differentiation of human meningioma stem-like cells (hMgSCs).
    Materials And Methods
    The efficacy of a novel method for placing hMgSCs in PuraMatrix (the injection approach) was compared to the encapsulation and surface plating methods. In addition, we designed a new method for measurement of migration distance in 3D cultivation of hMgSCs in PuraMatrix.
    Results
    Our results revealed that hMgSCs have the ability to form spheres in stem cell culture condition. These meningioma cells expressed GFAP, CD133, vimentin, and nestin. Using the injection method, a higher proliferation rate of the hMgSCs was observed after seven days of culture. Furthermore, the novel migration assay was able to measure the migration of a single cell alone in 3D environment.
    Conclusion
    The results indicate the injection method as an efficient technique for culturing hMgSCs in PuraMatrix. Furthermore, the novel migration assay enables us to evaluate the migration of hMgSCs.
    Keywords: Brain tumor, Cell culture, Cell migration, RADA16, I, Stem cells
  • Rafieh Alizadeh, Shadan Navid, Niloofar Abbasi, Abazar Yari, Zohreh Mazaheri, Erfan Daneshi, Ashock Agarwal, Mehdi Abbasi Pages 1279-1284
    Objective(s)
    Increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) in the testicular veins of people suffering from varicocele have already been reported. However, the role of NO-synthase (NOS) isozymes and their inhibitors have not been extensively studied. We aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aminoguanidine (AG), on sperm motility, vitality, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in varicocelized rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty fore male Wister rats were divided into control, sham, varicocele, and treatment groups. Varicocele and treatment groups underwent partial ligation of left renal vein. Rats in the sham group underwent the same procedures as the varicocele group with the exception of vein ligation. 10 weeks after varicocele induction, sperm parameters were evaluated in all groups. The treatment group received 50 mg/kg AG injection daily for 10 weeks after which they were sacrificed prior to assessment of the parameters. Sperm viability and MMP were assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123), respectively.
    Results
    The results of this study show a decrease in sperm viability, motility and MMP in the varicocele group compared with the other groups. After AG injection, we observed that all the parameters were significantly enhanced in the treatment group compared with the other groups. Rh123 staining revealed a positive relation between MMP and sperm motility, whereas PI staining showed a positive relation between sperm motility and viability.
    Conclusion
    The findings of our study show that AG improves sperm motility and MMP, and thus, might be useful in the management of varicocele-related infertility.
    Keywords: Aminoguanidine Mitochondrial membrane, potential, Rat, Sperm motility, Varicocele, Vitality
  • Elaheh Arbabi, Gholamali Hamidi, Sayyed Alireza Talaei, Mahmoud Salami Pages 1285-1291
    Objective(s)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder associated with motor disabilities and cognitive dysfunction as well. Evidence indicates that PD occurs less frequently in women than men, confirming a role for steroid hormones in protection of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. It is reported that soy genistein, an estrogen agonist phytoestrogen, display neuroprotective effects against neuronal death. In this study we evaluated the effect of genistein in animal models of Parkinsonism (P) and Parkinsonism ovariectomized (OP).
    Materials And Methods
    The experiments were carried out on the control, P and OP animals. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated using Morris water maze. The latency and speed of locating the platform were measured as cognitive indices. Motor behaviors were assessed by testing the animals in rota rod and the latency to fall from the rod was scored.
    Results
    We found that Parkinsonism leads to the cognitive and motor disabilities; ovariectomy intensified these disorders. Whereas genistein treatment improved the maze performances in both P and OP animals it failed to influence the kinetic problems. Genistein displayed a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons.
    Conclusion
    Positive impact of genistein on the spatial learning and memory may reflect its effects on the nigrostriatal pathway and striatum. Nevertheless, ineffectiveness of genistein on the motor disorders, despite its neuroprotective impacts, led us to conclude that the cognitive improvement by genistein may also contribute to its effects in other areas of brain.
    Keywords: Genistein, Learning, Memory, Motor disorders, Ovariectomy, Parkinson
  • Hua, Zhong Liu, Wei Xiao, Yi, Peng Gu, Ye, Xing Tao, Da, Yan Zhang, Hui Du, Jiang, Hua Shang Pages 1292-1298
    Objective(s)
    This paper aims to investigate synergistic inhibition of polysaccharide from Sepia esculenta ink (SIP), a newly isolated marine polysaccharide in our laboratory, on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to cisplatin.
    Materials And Methods
    Cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by CCK 8 assay. Median-effect concentration was analyzed using Chou-Talalay method that was also subjected to determine cell inhibition ratio and combined index, as well as interaction between SIP and cisplatin. Proliferation and migration abilities were detected with plate colony formation assay and cell wound scratch assay, respectively. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was measured with Western blot assay.
    Results
    Data showed that SIP not only suppressed proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins, also promoted inhibition of cisplatin on proliferation, migration and MMPs expression of MDA-MB-231 cells, which indicates synergy inhibition of drug combination of SIP and cisplatin on breast cancer cells. The median-effect concentrations of cisplatin and SIP were 4.9 and 1659.6 μg/ml, respectively. Whereas the concentration of combination drug was 158.5 μg/ml. The data indicated that drug combination can decrease dosages of the two single agents, especially the usual dosage of cisplatin.
    Conclusion
    This research demonstrated that SIP repressed proliferation and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells and promoted anticancer effect of cisplatin on the breast cancer cells. The data suggested that SIP is a potential natural drug that can be used as an auxiliary medicine alongside chemotherapy in treating breast cancer.
    Keywords: Chou-Talalay method, Cisplatin, MDA-MB-231 cells, Sepia esculenta ink
  • Seyedeh Neda Mousavi, Fariba Koohdani, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Pantea Izadi, Mohamadreza Eshraghian, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Leila Shafiei Neek, Farzad Shidfar Pages 1299-1307
    Objective(s)
    Maternal high-fat diet has been shown to have deleterious effects on the offspring bones. However, there is no study to assess the effects of type and amount of maternal dietary oil in an isocaloric diet, with focus on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that type of maternal dietary oil has more effects than its amount in an isocaloric diet during gestation and lactation on bone genes expression in offspring in adolescence.
    Materials And Methods
    Virgin female C57BL/6 mice were impregnated and fed either the AIN 93G diet (received 16% of calories as soybean oil, as a control diet, or EVOO) or a high fat AIN 93G diet (received 45% of calories as soybean oil or EVOO) from the time of vaginal plug confirmation until offspring’s weaning.
    Results
    After adjusting for the amount of oils, osteoprotegerin/ receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand (OPG/RANK-L) and OPG expressions were 6.1- and 2.8-folds higher in offspring born to EVOO compared with soybean oil-fed mothers. OPG, beta-catenin, and OPG/RANK-L expression were 88%, 94%, and 70% lower in offspring born to the 45% oil-fed mothers compared with the 16% group. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARγ2) gene expression was higher in the 45% oil group, adjusted for the types of oil.
    Conclusion
    Maternal EVOO consumption, but not soybean oil increased osteoblastic gene expression, and high amounts of both oils decreased osteoblastic and increased adipogenic genes expression in adolescent offspring.
    Keywords: Dietary oil, Fetal programming, Gestation, Lactation, Mouse, Olive oil, Osteoblastogenesis
  • Maryam Rameshrad, Nasrin Maleki, Dizaji, Hamid Soraya, Negisa Seyed Toutounchi, Abolfazl Barzegari, Alireza Garjani Pages 1308-1317
    Objective(s)
    TLR-4 activates a number of inflammatory signaling pathways. Also, AMPK could be involved in anti-inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to identify whether stimulation of AMPK could inhibit LPS-induced Tlr-4 gene expression in mice hearts.
    Materials And Methods
    Heart AMPK activity and/or Tlr-4 expression was stimulated in different mice groups, using respectively IP injection of A-769662 (10 mg/kg) and LPS (2 mg/kg) or a combination of both agents. Moreover, compound-C (20 mg/kg), as an AMPK antagonist, was intraperitoneally co-administrated with both A-769662 and LPS in another group to investigate the role of AMPK activity on Tlr-4 regulation. After 8 hr, in addition to peripheral neutrophil cell count, myocardial p-AMPK, p-ACC as well as MyD88 protein contents and Tlr-4 expression was assessed by Western blotting and real-time qRT-PCR, respectively. TNF-α and IL-6 expression levels were also determined by ELISA.
    Results
    LPS induced heart Tlr-4 expression (P
    Conclusion
    This study demonstrated that activation of AMPK, by A-769662 agent, could inhibit Tlr-4 expression and activity, suggesting a link between AMPK and Tlr-4 in heart tissue.
    Keywords: ACC, A-769662, AMPK, Compound, C Lipopolysaccharide, TLR-4
  • Manouchehr Safari, Behnaz Jafari, Sam Zarbakhsh, Hamidreza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Nasrin Khan Mohammadi, Laya Ghahari Pages 1318-1324
    Objective(s)
    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used in clinical practice for the treatment of neutropenia and to stimulate generation of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow donors. In the present study, the ability of G-CSF in mobilizing exogenous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) from peripheral blood into the brain was tested. We for the first time injected a small amount of BMSCs through the tail vein.
    Materials And Methods
    We choose 25 male Wistar rats (200–250 g) were lesioned by 6-OHDA injected into the left substantia nigra, pars compacta (SNpc). G-CSF (70 µg/kg/day) was given from the 7th day after lesion for five days. The BMSCs (2×105) were injected through the dorsal tail vein on the 7th day after lesion.
    Results
    The number of rotations was significantly lower in the stem cell therapy group than in the control group. In the third test in the received G-CSF and G-CSF닗 cells groups, animals displayed significant behavioral recovery compared with the control group (P
    Conclusion
    G-CSF cant mobilize low amounts of exogenous BMSCs from the blood stream to injured SNpc. But G-CSF (70 µg/kg) is more neuroprotective than BMSCs (2×105 number of BMSCs). Results of our study suggest that G-CSF alone is more neuroprotective than BMSCs.
    Keywords: Bone marrow stem cells, Dopaminergic neurons, Granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Parkinson
  • Ali Salehzadeh, Hojjatolah Zamani, Maedeh Keshtkar Langeroudi, Amir Mirzaie Pages 1325-1330
    Objective(s)
    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen responsible for a variety numbers of nosocomial and community acquired infections. Biofilm formation is regarded as an important factor in the establishment of S. aureus infection. The contribution of the genetic background of S. aureus to biofilm formation is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to genotype S. aureus strains associated to biofilm based on the coagulase and protein A genes and to evaluate the association between the genetic background and the biofilm forming ability of clinical S. aureus isolates.
    Materials And Methods
    A total number of 100 S. aureus were isolated from nosocomial infections and biofilm formation capability was investigated using phenotypic assay and molecular detection of biofilm associated genes. The strains were genotyped based on coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms using restriction fragments length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR).
    Results
    RFLP-PCR of coa gene generated two types and three subtypes. Amplification of spa gene resulted in two banding patterns and their restriction digestion generated three subtypes. The combined coa and spa RFLP patterns generated nine genotypes (G1-G9). The genotypes G4 and G1 were the most prevalent (32.1% and 24.3%, respectively).
    Conclusion
    High clonal diversity of S. aureus strains able to produce biofilm was observed. Biofilm formation correlates with the spa and coa clonal lineage in our population and testing for multiple gene polymorphisms could be employed for local epidemiologic purposes.
    Keywords: Adhesion molecules, Biofilm, Coagulase, RFLP, S. aureus, Spa typing
  • Shouhua Zheng, Shuijun Zhang, Yan Song, Wenzhi Guo, Wenlong Zhai, Xinguang Qiu, Jianhua Li Pages 1331-1336
    Objective(s)
    Vascular calcification is one the major characteristics in patients with various types of chronic inflammatory disorders. MiRNAs have been shown to be involved in many normal biological functions as well as diseases; however, their role in vascular calcification has not received much attention.
    Materials And Methods
    In the current study, we built a vascular calcification rat model using vitamin D3 plus nicotine and analyzed miRNA expression profile by miRNA chip assay. Potential target of one selected miRNA with sharpest variation in expression were predicted by both PicTar and TargetScan. The impact of the selected miRNA on the expression of the potential target on both mRNA and protein levels were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively.
    Results
    Our results identified 16 dysregulated miRNAs, among which miR-297a showed the sharpest variation. Further analysis focusing on miR-297a revealed that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) was a potential target of miR297a. Measurement of FGF23 and its regulator Klotho on both mRNA and protein levels demonstrated that FGF23 was significantly increased while Klotho was decreased in rats with vascular calcification.
    Conclusion
    Our results indicated that FGF23 was target of miR-297a and decreased miR-297a in vascular calcification lead to the increase of FGF23, which together with Klotho might enhance vascular calcification. The findings of this study could provide valuable information for the understanding of mechanisms underlying miR-dependent vascular calcification as well as potential treatment target for the disease.
    Keywords: Fibroblast growth factor 23, MicroRNA-297a, Chronic inflammatory disorder, Vascular calcification, Klotho
  • Abdolrasoul Haghir Ebrahimabadi, Mohammad Mahdi Movahedpour, Hossain Batooli, Ebrahim Haghir Ebrahimabadi, Asma Mazoochi, Maryam Mobarak Qamsari Pages 1337-1344
    Objective(s)
    Mindium laevigatum is an endemic plant of Iran and Turkey and is widely used as blood purifier, antiasthma and antidyspnea in traditional medicine. Chemical composition of volatile materials of the plant and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were reported in this study.
    Materials And Methods
    Simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and GC-Mass-FID analysis were used for the plant volatile materials chemical composition identification and quantification. Several antioxidant tests including DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power determination, β-carotene-linoleic acid and total phenolic content tests were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities were also estimated using microbial strains, cancer cell lines and brine shrimp larva.
    Results
    GC-Mass-FID analysis of volatile samples showed a total of 74 compounds of which palmitic acid (7.4-33.7%), linoleic acid (6.6-18.6%), heneicosane (1.3-9.6%) and myristic acid (1.4-6.0%) were detected as main volatile components. Moderate to good results were recorded for the plant in β-carotene-linoleic acid test. Total phenolic content of the extracts as gallic acid equivalents were estimated in the range of 15.7 to 79.6 μg/mg. Some microbial strains showed moderate sensitivities to plant extracts. Brine shrimp lethality test and cytotoxic cancer cell line assays showed mild cytotoxic activities for the plant.
    Conclusion
    Moderate to good antioxidant activities in β-carotene-linoleic acid test and presence of considerable amounts of unsaturated hydrocarbons may explain the plant traditional use in asthma and dyspnea. These findings also candidate it as a good choice for investigating its possible modern medical applications.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Campanulaceae, Cytotoxic activity, Mindium laevigatum, Volatile compounds
  • Tamara Aghebati, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Mohammad Afshar, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Khalil Abnous, Saeed Nazemi, Sobhan Issazadeh, Saeed Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Zare, Ali Badiee Pages 1345-1352
    Objective(s)
    In this study, for the first time, MF59 adjuvant was used to develop a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) vaccine. The efficacy of the vaccine was compared with the efficacy of CETP vaccine formulated with Alum/CpG, the formulation that its immunogenicity has been already demonstrated in rabbit and mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Tetanus toxoid- CETP peptide (TT-CETP) was mixed with Alum/CpG or MF59-like and administered subcutaneously for total five times in rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Anti-TT-CETP specific antibody, CETP activity in sera and mRNA level of cytokine IL-4 and IFN-γ in peripheral mononuclear cells were determined. Therapeutic response was also examined by tracking serum lipoprotein levels and pathologic observation of atherosclerotic lesions at aortic site.
    Results
    More anti-TT-CETP antibody was found in Alum/CpG vaccinated rabbits compared to buffer (P
    Conclusion
    It is concluded that MF59-adjuvanted CETP vaccine showed anti-atherosclerosis properties, but the protective effect could not be directly attributed to the immune response induced by anti TT-CETP antibody and CETP inhibition. Further studies are needed to explain the anti-atherosclerosis properties of MF59 in the presence of TT-CETP peptide.
    Keywords: Alum, CpG, Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular disease, CETP vaccine, MF59
  • Reihaneh Keshavarz, Babak Bakhshinejad, Sadegh Babashah, Narges Baghi, Majid Sadeghizadeh Pages 1353-1362
    Objective(s)
    Glioblastoma is the most lethal tumor of the central nervous system. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous delivery of p53 and a nanoformulation of curcumin called dendrosomal curcumin (DNC), alone and in combination, on glioblastoma tumor cells.
    Materials And Methods
    MTT assay was exploited to measure the viability of U87-MG cells against DNC treatment. Cells were separately subjected to DNC treatment and transfected with p53-containing vector and then were co-exposed to DNC and p53 overexpression. Annexin-V-FLUOS staining followed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR were applied to examine apoptosis and analyze the expression levels of the genes involved in cell cycle and oncogenesis, respectively.
    Results
    The results of cell viability assay through MTT indicated that DNC inhibits the proliferation of U87-MG cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis evaluation revealed that p53 overexpression accompanied by DNC treatment can act in a synergistic manner to significantly enhance the number of apoptotic cells (90%) compared with their application alone (15% and 38% for p53 overexpression and DNC, respectively). Also, real-time PCR data showed that the concomitant exposure of cells to both DNC and p53 overexpression leads to an enhanced expression of GADD45 and a reduced expression of NF-κB and c-Myc.
    Conclusion
    The findings of the current study suggest that our combination strategy, which merges two detached gene (p53) and drug (curcumin) delivery systems into an integrated platform, may represent huge potential as a novel and efficient modality for glioblastoma treatment.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Dendrosome, Glioblastoma Nanocurcumin, p53, U87-MG cell line
  • Morteza Ghandadi, Atieh Mohammadi, Javad Behravan, Khalil Abnous, Negin Haj, Ali, Melika Ehtesham Gharaee, Fatemeh Mosaffa Pages 1363-1367
    Objective(s)
    Acquisition of TNF-α resistance plays role in the onset and growth of malignant tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that MCF-7 cell line and its doxorubicin resistant variant MCF-7/Adr are resistant against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α. In this study, we investigated the role of Akt activation in resistance of MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr against TNF-α cytotoxicity.
    Materials And Methods
    The role of Akt activation in TNF-α cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT cell viability assay following treatment of the cells with the chemical inhibitor of Akt activation with or without TNF-α treatment. Phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 before and after 72 hr TNF-α treatment was also determined by western blot.
    Results
    TNF-α treatment led to enhancement of Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with TNF-α along with Akt-inhibitor agent, tricribine, attenuated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation and sensitized these cells to the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α in a dose and time dependent manner while tricribine treatment did not cause any significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7/Adr cells alone or in combination with TNF-α.
    Conclusion
    These results demonstrate that Akt phosphorylation plays pivotal role in the resistance of MCF-7 cells against TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity while it might play no significant role in the resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells against TNF-α.
    Keywords: Akt, Breast carcinoma, Multidrug resistance, Protein kinase B, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
  • Pin, Kuei Fu, Tai, Long Pan, Chi, Yu Yang, Kee, Ching Jeng, Nou, Ying Tang, Ching, Liang Hsieh Pages 1368-1375
    Objective(s)
    Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) or saffloweris widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This study investigated the effects of CT extract (CTE) on ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism.
    Materials And Methods
    The I/R model was conducted by occlusion of both common carotid arteries and right middle cerebral artery for 90 min followed by 24 hr reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. CTE (0.2-0.6 g/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before and during ischemia, and during reperfusion period. The cerebral infarction area, neurological deficit scores, free radicals (lucigenin chemiluminescence counts) and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression were measured.
    Results
    Pretreatment and treatment with CTE significantly reduced the cerebral infarction area and neurological deficits. CTE (0.4 g/kg) also reduced blood levels of free radicals and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the cerebral infarction area.
    Conclusion
    The reduction in I/R cerebral infarction caused by CTE is possibly associated with its antioxidation and anti-inflammatory properties.
    Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius extract, Free radicals, Ischemia-reperfusion Injury
  • Contributors (Peer Reviewers)
    Pages 1376-1378