فهرست مطالب

نامه فرهنگستان - سال پانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 57، پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • سال پانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 57، پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • ویژه نامه شبه قاره (5)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
|
|
  • F. Mojtabaei Pages 7-14
    The present article is an account of the background of historigraphy in India and the significance of one of the historical works, namely Rajatarangini, in the history of Keshmir kings. This work is the beginning of a fundamental revolution in India’s historiography. Older works were influenced by the Indian exta-history style of writing and the spirit of evading history and basically relying on myths and religious epics. However, this work, whose principles are similar to the today’s principles of historiography, is a critical look at those works. The author, Kalhana, employs a scientific and non-mythical approach to write about the kings of Keshmir. In his work, he benefits from petrographs, inscriptions, coins, archeological monuments, and pedigrees. At the concluding part of the book, the author, like a sociologist, depicts the economic, cultural and religious conditions of Keshmir. This revolution in the chronicle of India is probably influenced by the manner of Islamic historiography and geographical studies. Prevalent in these times in west India.
    Keywords: background of historiography, Rajatarangini, Kalhana, tradition of Islamic historiography
  • Kh.Alemi *, M. Advai, H. Nazari Pages 15-36
    Before Muslims could create the first Islamic government-Delhi Sultanate -in India and popularize Islam in that region, another group of Muslims were busy popularizing Islam there. Sufis, especially Chishti and Sohrevardi sects, were propagating Islamic thoughts in that region. With the creation of Delhi Sultanate, governor and Sufis established wide relationship. This relationship was sometimes turned into conflict of the two sides. However, it resulted in the mutual influence of the sufis and the rulers. Using an analytical-descriptive methodology, our purpose in this study was to determine the sufis’ influence on the promotion of Islamic approaches in Delhi Sultanate in 7-10 AH. To examine and clarify the principal question of study, the most important historian, literary sources of that period were used to answer this hypothesis: Did the presence of sufis in India and their activities in the subjects mentioned above have any effect in the formation and improvement of Islamic approaches in court of the Sultanate and Indian society?
    Keywords: India, Delhi Sultans, Chishti, Sohrevardi, Islamic approaches
  • F. Mehri * Pages 37-52
    In the Indian Subcontinent, part of Persian works including poetry, fiction, mystical treatises, literary criticism, and other literary issues appertains to the literary creation. Moreover, numerous Persian texts containing various sciences were produced that indicate the profundity of Indian knowledge in different areas of science. Persian literature as well as other cultural traits of the Iranian civilization circulated through the Indian Subcontinent at the time when Iranians and Indians were more integrated. Meanwhile, many texts were allotted to the medicine in which Indians had a rich and long-term tradition. Medicine provided an appropriate base for Indian physicians to make a combination of Iranian and Indian theories. Focusing on two Persian works written in the 14th century by an Indian Muslim scholar, Shihab-al-din Naguri, this article aims at showing how Persian language worked as an intermediary for this cultural integration going occasionally beyond its limitations.
    Keywords: Shifa-ol-Maraz (Tibb-e Shihabi), Shifa-ye Khani, Shihab-od-din Naguri, Avicennian medicine, Indian medicine
  • S. Latifpour * Pages 53-78
    Sacrifice and its ceremonies had an important role in the Indo-European rituals. Through time, and with the splintering of these groups of people, the rituals remained among the people branched off from the original group: Europeans, Indians and Iranians. The rituals were revealed in a form in each nation. The purpose of this article is to introduce the ceremonies of sacrifice in Iran and India and to explain the formation of the ritual among any of these great nations.
    Keywords: Iran, India, sacrifice, common rituals
  • V. Idgah Torqabei * Pages 79-92
    Tāleb-e Āmolī is one of the greatest poets in the history of Hendi school of Persian poetry. His kolliat complete poetic works was published in 1346 and reprinted in 1391 without any modification. These two identical editions are unfortunately full of lexical and textual errors and so far has not been revised and edited. So there is a great demand for editing it. As long as such editing has not been accomplished, it is possible to take some steps to solve some problems of the text. This study is an attempt to achieve this aim. In the present article, some couplets of the poet which are improperly cited in the two editions are edited by the author. All the corrections are made according to the certain Persian literary principles as well as the poet stylistic characteristics.
    Keywords: Persian poetry, T?leb- e ?mol?, text editing, Hendi school
  • M. Rezaei *, Y. Shokri, A. Naghizadeh Pages 93-106
    Criticism propagation in Indian style has been common in the Persian language history. Biographies of the 10th, 11th and 12th A.H. centuries in Iran and India are the most important critical literary works in Persion language and literature before the constitutional revolution of Iran. Indian-native Persian-language biographers used specific critical terms to criticize the literary works of their own epoch. These terms were used for the description and analysis of literary texts. However, they never issued a theoretical description and the terms were used merely in actual criticism field. Nevertheless, understanding the meaning and concept of these terms would help the comprehension of viewpoints, and literary and critical works of those periods.
    Keywords: Literary criticism, Literary criticism terms, Biographies, India, Style
  • B. Payamoni, M. Zamani Pages 107-134
    A comparative study of literary works, particularly epic poems, reveals both the similarities and differences and also shows the influence of the works on each other. Hakim Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh is one of the literary masterpieces that have always been imitated. One of these books, namely Akbarnameh was composed by Hamidi Kashmiri in 1260 A. H. This work is focused on the battle between the Afghans and the British government. This article uses a methodological approach to explore the extent of the influence of Ferdowsi. Using three general linguistic, rhetorical and thematic indicators and specific classifications, the poetic structure of Akbarnameh has been investigated.
    Keywords: Ferdowsi, Shahnameh, Akbarnameh, Hamidi Kashmiri, syntax, linguistic, rhetorical, thematic
  • S. Panahi, A. Radfar Pages 135-144
    In common researches of Iran and the Subcontinent, there is a need for compiling a manual of style or a style book for finding and registering the Persian phonetic equivalents of the Subcontinent's proper nouns, especially the geographical ones. This is necessary due to the disorganization and inconsistency of the equivalents in Persian phonetic and their recording that are resulted from the variety of languages and Phonetics Alphabet in the Subcontinent. This article will examine this issue and recommend a style sheet.
    Keywords: proper noun, register, style book, Devanagari, Persian
  • M. Esfandiar, M. Falahati Pages 145-170
    Ram Mohan Roy is a significant religious and social reformist of the early 19th century and the founder of the Brahmo Samaj movement in India. He and his fellow thinkers were going to prepare the context for the development and advancement of the Indian society, based on a monotheistic view and by removing superstitions and customs such as Sati, children marriage, etc. One of his activities in this direction was the writing of a short but important treatise called Tuhfat al-muwahhidin in Persian which was received enthusiastically by the scholars and intellectuals of the time. In this work he tries to invite the followers of religions to set aside their differences and follow the inherent monotheism by criticizing the religious and superstitious beliefs. In this study we are going to survey his life and thoughts briefly, and to present an edited version of this work which has not been yet published with scrutiny and emendation.
    Keywords: Ram Mohan Roy, Brahmo samaj, Hindu, Tuhfat al Muwahhidin, Persian
  • Z. Moshaveri * Pages 171-190
    Najmal Ghani Khan Rampuri is the author of one of the most important and comprehensive Persian grammar books titled Nahjal Adab. He has many other works in Urdu and Persian. Many of them are published in the Subcontinent and are available in the Subcontinent libraries. Apart from this, he is a poet and prose writer. He is also the author of more than thirty books on religion, history, medicine and rhetoric. he is one of the great scholars of the Persian literature and language in the Subcontinent, there is little information about him in Iran. This paper introduces him and his works based on Urdu references and bibliographies.
    Keywords: Najmal Ghani Khan Rampuri, Biography, Works, Nahjal Adab
  • S. A. Mansoori * Pages 191-202
    Abd ó AL-Rahim Khane Khanan (964-1036 AH.), Akbar Shah’s(949-1014 AH.) generalissimo and Jahangir (976-1036 AH.) Gorkani, skillful minister, a knowledgable translator, skillful astronomer, musician and Iranian Persian rhetoric poet and artist, was a native Iranian who lived in India. He had a very big library in which he had collected great works of Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit. He aslo educated and trained poets and musicians there. Each page of the books in his library has a story. This knowledgable man has written the stories on their first pages (Zahra) . This paper is about the difficulties of collecting Amir Khusru Dehlavi’s Khamse by Soltanali’s handwriting in the eleventh century with help of his coworkers who gathered the scattered information by the time . Furthetmore, there are two historical point of views presented which are narrated by Abdul Rahim and the other one by the author of Akbarnameh.
    Keywords: Khanan Khan manuscript, Khamse Amir Khusru, narrative
  • G. Honari * Pages 203-246
    After the Mongols attack on the central Asia, the relationship among different Sufi groups and their contemporary rulers were dynamic and reciprocal. In that period, some of the Sufi masters wrote didactic treatises for the ruling authorities in order to strengthen their relationship. Among the other Sufi dynasties, the Naqshbandi dynasty had a close relationship with the Timurid and Uzbek dynasties. One of the most influential Naqshbandi masters, Khwaja Ahmad Kasani (d. 949 A.H.), wrote several treatises addressed to Ubayd Allah the Uzbek (d. 946 A.H.). The Baburi Treatise written by Khwaja Ahmad is an interpretation of the quatrains (rubaiyat) of Babur. In addition to the parts of Babur’s quatrains, this treatise includes descriptions and explanations about the foundations of Naqshbandi mysticism. This treatise demonstrates the political relationships between Khwaja Ahmad and his contemporary rulers.
    Keywords: Babur, Khwaja Ahmad Kasani, Baburi Treatise
  • M. A. Gitiforouz* Pages 247-268
    Using various terms of different sciences as well as appealing figurative elements have been regarded to be an aspect of the technical poetry.Badar Chachi, dates back to 8th century, mostly focused on the usage of the scientific terms and literary figures in his poems. This research aims at exploring how Badar Chachi, so creatively tends to give miscellaneous aspects of amphiboly to astronomical terms in his poems. To do this, descriptive –analytical method is used to elaborate various related samples. It is worth saying that astronomical hints made by Badar Chachi may go so far beyond the are a of this study. Thus only the amphiboly-related functions of such terms have been investigated.
    Keywords: technical terms, Badar Chachi, astronomical terms, amphiboly