فهرست مطالب

Sports Medicine - Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/01/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Mandeep Singh Dhillon, Rakesh John, Siddhartha Sharma, Sharad Prabhakar, Prateek Behera, Soumya Saxena Page 2
    Background
    Detailed injury epidemiology is an unmatched tool for reducing injury risks associated with any sport. Very little epidemiologic data exists regarding injuries sustained by kabaddi players..
    Objectives
    To study knee injuries in kabaddi players..
    Patients and
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional, observational study. Seventy six kabaddi players (both professionals and amateurs) presenting with sports-related knee injuries were identified from previous records; data was analysed for demographic features, injury mechanism, injury scenario, duration of injury before presentation, injury pattern, management, return to sport and time lost in sport due to the knee injury..
    Results
    The mean duration prior to presentation was 14.4 months. Majority of the injuries (88.16%) occurred during competitive games. The most common injury noted was ACL tear (89.47%), followed by meniscus tears which were noted in 68.42% of the players. Forty four players (57.89%) retired from the sport as a consequence of the knee injury. Time lost in sport in those who returned to kabaddi was an average of 16.6 months; signifying the high morbidity due to knee injuries in kabaddi players. Return to sport was significantly more (P = 0.04) in those treated surgically than in those treated conservatively; but was not affected by mechanism of injury, injury scenario, injury pattern, duration of injury at presentation or level of competition of the athlete..
    Conclusions
    Epidemiologic studies in kabaddi are the need of the hour to assess the burden of this predominantly rural sport and to implement injury prevention programs. Our study emphasises the morbidity of knee injuries in kabaddi players of India and the exacting toll it takes on their careers..
    Keywords: Kabaddi, knee injuries, ACL Tear, Meniscus Tear, Sports, Related Injuries
  • Sima Borna, Pardis Noormohammadpour, PaweŁ, Linek, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Ramin Kordi Page 3
    Background
    It has been suggested that weakness and asymmetry of core stabilizing muscles have an important role in the development of scoliosis and its complications, especially low back pain. However there is insufficient data comparing symmetry and function of these muscles in scoliotic patients with the normal population. Also there are only a few studies assessing the relationship between the degree of spinal deviation and asymmetry of core stabilizing muscles. This study evaluates the thickness, symmetry, and activation of the external oblique (EO), the internal oblique (IO) and the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles of patients with AIS and compares these data with a group of normal adolescents..
    Objectives
    The objective of this observational study was to know the asymmetry pattern of lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADiM) in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and to compare it with a group of healthy adolescents..
    Methods
    Twenty healthy adolescents and twenty patients with AIS, aged 10 to 18 years, were included. The thickness of lateral abdominal muscles was measured, using ultrasound, at the end of normal exhalation at rest and during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADiM). Muscular activity was represented as absolute difference and percentage change in the muscle thickness during the ADiM compared with rest..
    Results
    There was no side to side asymmetry in muscle thickness at rest and also during ADiM in two groups. Thickness of right EO [0.39 (0.09) in the AIS group compared to 0.51 (0.12) in the normal group] and left EO [0.38(0.10) in the AIS group compared to 0.50 (0.11) in the normal group] at rest was higher in the normal group (P
    Conclusions
    The EO muscle was thinner and had higher activity during ADiM in the AIS group. Analysis of our data showed that in the AIS group the higher the lumbar spinal curve to the right, the thicker the right TrA compared to the left TrA..
    Keywords: Scoliosis, Abdominal Muscles, Ultrasonography
  • Babak Nakhostin Roohi, Arash Nasirvand Moradlou, Lotfali Bolboli Page 4
    Background
    Polyphenols are a class of organic chemical compounds, with strong antioxidant capacity. This investigation evaluates the influences of one week curcumin supplementation on selected indices of oxidative stress after 14 km running in active healthy young males..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 1 week of curcumin supplementation on anti-oxidant markers..
    Methods
    Subjects were randomized in a double blind, placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: Curcumin (C) (n = 11) and placebo (P) (n = 9). The subjects received supplementation (90 mg) or placebo for 7 days before main trial. Then, subjects ran 14 km. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA-TBARS) were measured using spectrophotometer methods..
    Results
    There was a significant increase in TAC after supplementation (P
    Conclusions
    It is concluded one week oral supplementation of curcumin has positive effects on selected indices of oxidative stress possibly via promotion of antioxidant capacity..
    Keywords: Curcumin, Total Antioxidant Capacity, Reduced Glutathione, Malondialdehyde
  • Maryam Goudarzian, Mostafa Rahimi, Noureddin Karimi, Ali Samadi, Reza Ajudani, Robab Sahaf Page 5
    Background
    A decline in neuromuscular function can cause a decrease in physical fitness in elderly women..
    Objective
    The present study aimed at investigating whether whole body vibration (WBV) training and creatine supplementation could affect muscle strength, mobility, and balance in elderly women in short- term..
    Methods
    The participants were 22 healthy elderly women aged 60 to 80 years, who were randomly divided into the whole-body vibration and creatine (WBV Cr) group, whole-body vibration and placebo (WBV P) group, and control group. The whole-body vibration group performed exercises for 10 days. The participants in WBV Cr group consumed 20 g oral creatine supplement per day from the first to the fifth day, which was followed by consuming 5 g of creatine per day for the next 5 days. To assess mobility performance, a 30-meter walking and tandem gait tests were applied. Static and dynamic balance were measured by Flamingo and Timed-Up and Go (TUG) tests. Muscle isometric and isotonic strength were assessed by dynamometer and leg extension tests..
    Results
    No significant difference was found in static balance (P = 0.11), but WBV Cr and WBV P groups showed better results in dynamic balance (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Moreover, leg isotonic strength improved significantly in WBV Cr and WBV P groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). However, leg isometric strength and 30-meter walking performance significantly improved only in WBV Cr group compared to the control group. Moreover, no significant differences were observed in isometric strength of the hand (P = 0.89) and tandem gait test results among the groups (P = 0.25)..
    Conclusions
    A short-term WBV exercise improves isotonic strength of the leg muscle and dynamic balance, while creatine supplementation with and without WBV training increases isometric strength of the leg muscle and mobility in elderly women..
    Keywords: Balance, Creatine, Elderly Women, Mobility, Muscle Strength, Vibration
  • Boonlerst Outayanik, Joana Carvalho, Andre Seabra, Edwin Rosenberg, Charoen Krabuanrat, Sakdipat Chalermputipong Page 6
    Background
    Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in physical activity levels and consequently a decline in physical fitness, which may contribute to adverse conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity and physical impairment..
    Objectives
    This study sought to examine the effects of an 8-week physical activity intervention program on nutritional status and health-related physical fitness among Thai older adults..
    Methods
    Fifteen healthy elderly volunteers (aged 60 - 75 years) completed an 8-week physical activity intervention that comprises a nine matrices exercise (NME) program (5 sessions per week of 30 - 60 minutes). Measurements were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks, and included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health-related physical fitness tests (6-minute walk, chair sit-and-reach, arm curl, back scratch, chair stand and 8-ft up and go). Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank test..
    Results
    Over an 8-week intervention study, participants significantly improved their weight (%∆ = -2.5, P 0.05)..
    Conclusions
    This study provides preliminary evidence that an 8-week NME program represents an effective strategy for improving nutritional status and health-related physical fitness in elderly Thai people..
    Keywords: Physical Fitness, Nine Matrix Exercise, Health, Aging
  • Satoshi Kaneko, Shogo Sasaki, Norikazu Hirose, Yasuharu Nagano, Mako Fukano, Toru Fukubayashi Page 7
    Background
    The risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is higher in female soccer players than in male soccer players. The most common reason for non-contact ACL injury has been found to be a cutting or stopping maneuver combined with deceleration and landing from a jump. In a previous study, there was no difference in the incidence of ACL injury between offensive and defensive players and in the risk of ACL injury between goalkeepers and other players. Recently studies reported that the most frequent injury situation was pressing in male players. However, the most common type of situation associated with ACL injury in female soccer players has not been clarified..
    Objectives
    The purpose of the present study was to identify the most common type of situation associated with ACL injury in female soccer players..
    Methods
    We handed out questionnaires to 80 female soccer players with a history of ACL injury (90 ACL injuries). The players were asked about the injury characteristics, injury circumstance, maneuver being performed when the injury occurred, and playing type associated with the injury. The players responded to the questionnaire under the guidance of the medical staff of each team..
    Results
    The 80 female soccer players reported a total of 90 ACL injuries during soccer. Among 55 non-contact injuries, 29 (55%) occurred during a cutting maneuver and 22 (44%) occurred during pressing. On assessing the frequency distributions of playing type (pressing vs. others) and body contact (contact vs. no contact), we found that non-contact injuries at pressing were significantly more common than contact injuries at pressing (odds ratio: 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 - 8.25, P = 0.036).
    Conclusions
    ACL injury often occurs as non-contact injury during pressing at the time of defense, regardless of the playing area, in female soccer players..
    Keywords: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Soccer, Female, Pressing
  • Mohsen Sadeghi, Naini, Mohammadsadegh Sabagh, Amirhossein Yamini, Farrokh Nakhjavani, Babak Siavashi, Caroline B. Hing Page 8
    Background
    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common pathogen responsible for osteomyelitis..
    Objectives
    Our objective was to investigate the potential of a probiotic as a treatment for S. aureus-induced infection following fracture fixation in a rat model..
    Methods
    Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups (Control, S. aureus, S. aureus 燧⚱ꉷ, S. aureus once weekly probiotic, and S. aureus twice weekly probiotic). Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (ATCC: 39392) was selected from eight strains of probiotic bacteria with anti-staphylococcal activity. Infection was induced by inoculation with106 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus in a closed femur fracture model stabilized with an intramedullary pin. Three weeks after the surgery, the development of infection and response to the therapy was documented using radiographs, microbiological and histopathological analysis..
    Results
    No bacteria were recovered from rats in the Control group. The analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in the CFU/femur (P
    Conclusions
    Parenteral administration of viable L. casei inhibits S. aureus-induced infection as shown by the bacteriologic analysis, but makes no difference to the radiological union rates. This could be the first step towards developing an effective, biologic adjunctive therapy for the management of osteomyelitis following fracture fixation..
    Keywords: Osteomyelitis, Fracture, Staphylococcus aureus, Probiotic, Lactobacillus casei
  • Jirakrit Leelarungrayub, Decha Pinkaew, Jakkrit Klaphajone, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Richard J. Bloomer Page 9
    Background
    The effectiveness of L-carnitine supplementation has been met with conflicting findings when used by sedentary and athletic adults..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of L-carnitine supplementation on aerobic metabolic efficiency and lipid profiles in sedentary and athletic men..
    Methods
    Fifteen sedentary (20.4 ± 1.5 years) and 15 athletic (21.5 ± 2.4 years) men were studied in durations of control, placebo intake and 2 g of L-carnitine supplementation. Lipid profiles, including triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), were determined before and 40 min after either the placebo or L-carnitine intake. Oxygen consumption (direct VO2), ventilatory threshold (VT), and running time (RT) were recorded after a submaximal treadmill exercise test..
    Results
    Direct VO2 increased significantly at 80% of maximal heart rate after L-carnitine supplementation in both athletic and sedentary men, whereas, a statistical increase in VT and RT occurred only after L-carnitine use in athletes, when compared to the control and placebo subjects. The sedentary group showed no changes in lipid parameters, but triglyceride levels reduced significantly in the athletes after consuming L-carnitine..
    Conclusions
    Acute L-carnitine supplementation possibly affects exercise performance and triglycerides in athletes rather than sedentary men..
    Keywords: L, carnitine, VO2, Running Time, Lipids, Athletics, Sedentary
  • Jasleen Kaur Grover, Akhoury Gourang Kumar Sinha Page 10
    Background
    Studies reporting prevalence of shoulder pain in competitive archery are limited. The purpose of this study was to document the features of shoulder injuries and determine the prevalence of shoulder pain in Indian competitive archers..
    Methods
    A cross sectional survey of 156 archers (M = 91, F = 65) mean age = 20.27 ± 2.31 (range 15 - 28 years) was conducted during All India Inter University Archery Tournament 2013. Study consisted of two parts - schedule interview and clinical examination of both shoulders. t test, odds ratio and cross tabulation with chi square (χ2) test were the tool of statistical analysis..
    Results
    The point and lifetime prevalence of shoulder pain was 54.4 %.( n = 85) and 82.69% (n = 129) respectively. 64.74% archers (n = 101) had experienced recurrent shoulder pain. Positive Hawkins- Test (80.00%), Speed’s Test (60.00% ), lift off test (51.76%), painful resisted isometric supraspinatus contraction (58.1%), and apprehension relocation test (42.35%) were common clinical findings observed in archers with current shoulder pain. The Occurrence of current shoulder pain was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with previous injury (OR = 2.57) and young age (OR = 2.13) but not with extrinsic risk factors. Shoulder pain interfered with execution of sporting activity in 20% of archers..
    Conclusions
    Occurrence of shoulder pain in the game of archery is common. Majority of archers with current shoulder pain were found afflicted with overuse injuries affecting supraspinatus, long head of biceps and subscapularis muscle possibly due to secondary impingement..
    Keywords: Shoulder Pain, Archery, Prevalence
  • Bahram Abedi, Hoseyn Fatolahi, Sara Kouhidehkordi, Gholam Abbass Zolfaghari Page 11
    Background
    Changes in oxidative stress in response to vigorous exercise is of prime importance. In this area, the changes of catalase activity and glutathione reductase are very important. However, the results of the activity of antioxidants, particularly in erythrocytes, are not unified. Football is a heavy exercise. Therefore, the present study aimed at analyzing the effects of Copenhagen football test on the glutathione reductase and catalase activity..
    Methods
    The participants included 44 female football players. To control menstrual cycle, participants were selected through interviews from different teams. None of the participants had symptoms of iron deficiency anemia, and they all were in perfect health. Participants were divided into 2 groups of Copenhagen football test (n = 22) and regular football exercises (n = 22). Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise session. The catalase activity and glutathione reductase levels were measured in erythrocytes..
    Results and
    Conclusions
    The analysis of covariance revealed that catalase activity significantly decreased in the Copenhagen football test group after the assessment compared to regular football exercises group. Meanwhile, the glutathione reductase values significantly increased (P
    Keywords: Antioxidant Defenses, Redox Regulation, Free Radicals, Intense Exercise
  • Hoda Niknam, Ali Esteki, Mahyar Salavati, Sedighe Kahrizi Page 12
    Background
    Reconstruction surgery is one of the treatment methods after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury especially in athletes. Reconstructed ACL is associated with altered joint biomechanics, abnormal muscle strength, gait disorder and decreased athletic performance. Abnormal walking pattern has been shown to be one of the functional consequences of ACL reconstruction..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of kinematic and spatiotemporal gait parameters after ACL reconstruction using Zebris ultrasound movement analysis system..
    Methods
    A sample of convenience including 20 healthy athletes and 20 athletes 4 to 6 months after ACL reconstruction participated. Subjects walked on a treadmill for one minute at preferred, high and low speeds and kinematic and spatio - temporal parameters including stride time, stride length, maximum knee flexion, maximum knee flexion velocity and maximum knee extension velocity are calculated..
    Results
    In the patient group, relative reliability measures for almost all parameters were high at low (ICC: 0.7 - 0.97), preferred and high speeds (ICC: 0.75 - 0.97). This was also true for the control group, were reliability for all parameters was high at low, preferred (ICC: 0.74 - 0.99) and high (ICC: 0.83 - 0.99) speeds, except for stride time of the left leg which showed moderate reliability. Additionally, at high speed, all parameters revealed very high reliability..
    Conclusions
    Zebris movement analysis system is a highly reliable instrument for the measurement of gait parameters at different speeds in healthy athletes and those after ACL reconstruction surgery. This implies its use in the assessment and treatment process of gait deficits in such a clinically important population..
    Keywords: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Walking, Gait, Reliability, Spatiotemporal Analysis, Kinematic
  • Othmar Moser, Gerhard Tschakert, Alexander Mueller, Werner Groeschl, Peter Hofmann, Thomas Pieber Page 13
    Background
    The fear of hypoglycemia is the strongest barrier when patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus consider physical activity. There is still a lack of information regarding pre- and post-exercise therapy adaptation strategies with respect to different exercise intensities corresponding to the three phases of lactate metabolism..
    Objectives
    The aim of this experimental, cross-sectional study was to investigate exercise intensity-dependent, short-acting insulin reductions to avoid hypoglycemia, applying standardized exercises using insulin degludec (®Tresiba/Novo Nordisk, Denmark)..
    Methods
    Seven male participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus were switched to insulin degludec. Intensities for the 30 minutes continuous cycle ergometer exercise tests were set at 5% below (A) and above (B) the lactate turn point 1, and below (C) and above (D) the lactate turn point 2. Reductions in short-acting insulin were applied as following: by 25% for intensity A, by 50% for intensity B and by 75% for intensities C and D four hours before the start of exercise and immediately after exercise. Blood glucose, interstitial glucose, lactate, catecholamines, cortisol, IGF-1 and glucagon were measured..
    Results
    No hypoglycemic events occurred, but linear blood glucose decreases were observed: 2.01 ± 1.04 mmol.L-1, P = 0.35 (A), 3.00 ± 1.54 mmol.L-1, P = 0.48 (B), 3.42 ± 2.34 mmol.L-1, P = 0.40 (C), and 3.70 ± 3.36 mmol.L-1, P = 0.12 (D). Adrenaline, noradrenaline and IGF-1 (B, C, D, not A), dopamine (C, D, not A and B) and cortisol (A, C, D, not B) increased significantly from baseline, but not glucagon (P > 0.05). Interstitial glucose showed no post-exercise hypoglycemia..
    Conclusions
    The applied therapy adaptation before and after exercises was adequate to avoid hypoglycemia while using an ultra-long-acting insulin..
    Keywords: Glycemia, Metabolism, Hormones
  • Pascal Balducci, Michel Clemencon, Robin Trama, Christophe A. Hautier Page 14
    Ultra-endurance mountain running has become extremely popular in recent years, and the energy cost is one of the factors that influence the final performance. The aim of this study was to determine if the energy cost of uphill running (uphill Cr) can be calculated from level Cr (Energy cost of running in mLO2.kg-1.mn-1) in a heterogeneous group of mountain ultra-endurance runners using the di Prampero equation, and if fatigue could change this relationship. Twenty-four male ultra-trail runners ran on a level and uphill (10%) treadmill at 60% of velocity at V O2max (velocity at V O2 max in m.s-1) before and after a mountain ultra-marathon (MUM). The mean performance on the MUM was 728 ± 117 minutes. Positive and strong correlations were found between level and uphill Cr pre-MUM (r = 0.84, P
    Keywords: Uphill Running, Energy Cost of Running, Endurance Mountain Runners