- Volume:8 Issue: 2, Summer 2016
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/30
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Pages 55-60Objectivethe neck circumference (NC) as an index of obesity and upper-body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution is recently used. This alternative screening tool is reliable, simple, quick and acceptable for assessment of overweight and obesity. the objectives of this study were to examine the correlation between NC measurement and diagnosis of general/visceral obesity and determining the best NC cut point value in a subgroup of Iranian population.Materials And MethodsAbout 15000 adult patients (age between 18-75years) participated in this study. At last 8387 patients met the inclusion criteria. A questionnaire which consisted of anthropometric measurements and demographic features was used. The standard criterion to categorization of NC, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) identified.ResultsIn both gender there were positive significant correlations between neck circumference and: body weight (men, r=0.775; women, r=0.739; P=0.000), waist circumferences (men, r=0.77; women r=0.760; P=0.000), and BMI (men, r=0.76; women, r=0.738; P=0.000). NC ≥38.75 cm for men had sensitivity for overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2) of 83.5%, a specificity of 77.8% and in women NC ≥34.2 cm had sensitivity for BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 of 79.4%, a specificity of 80.2%. The cutoff values of NC in men and women that identified central obesity (WC ≥95 cm) were ≥39.25 and ≥34.5 cm respectivelyConclusionThis study indicates that NC was associated with body weight, BMI, waist circumferences for men and women. A significant association was found between NC and central obesity for both genders specially men.Keywords: Neck circumference, General obesity, Visceral obesity, Anthropometric index
Serum Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Changes in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Following a Four Weeks Aerobic ExercisePages 61-66ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four weeks aerobic training on serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Materials And MethodsTwenty T2DM patients (33-53 years) were randomly assigned into control (n=10) and experimental (n=10) groups. The main intervention included running on treadmill, reaching 55 to 80% of the maximum heart rate (five times by week) done for 30 minutes in the first session and increasing gradually to 60 minutes by the end of the fourth week.
Blood samples were collected before and after 4 weeks, and the concentrations of serum GLP-1 and insulin were determined using separate ELISA and the glucose concentrations was determined by biochemical methods.
Results Statistical analysis showed that after four weeks of aerobic training, the serum levels of GLP-1, glucose and insulin related to the experimental group had no significant difference in comparison with control group (P>0.05).ConclusionThe results indicate that doing the aerobic training five times a week during four weeks with 55 to 80 percent of maximum heart rate has no effect on GLP-1 serum levels, glucose and insulin in T2DM women.Keywords: Aerobic exercise_GLP-1_Type 2 diabetes
Pages 67-76ObjectiveBurden of diabetes is increasing worldwide. National statistics on prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan are insufficient. Thus, this study identified the prevalence of diabetes and key risk factors in Kabul, Afghanistan.Materials And MethodsTotally 1172 records were cleaned for analysis of whom 599 (51.1%) were females and 573 (48.9%) were males with a mean age of 38.6±12.2 years. The research team used WHO STEP wise approach along with cluster sampling method in Kabul, capital of Afghanistan. Data were collected on demographic, dietary habits, risk factors of noncommunicable diseases and physical characteristics using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and tested for fasting blood sugar. The prevalence of diabetes with differentiation of main factors identified. Statistical analysis conducted to examine the associations between different risk factors and diabetes.ResultsThe cleaned database containing complete data for analysis enclosed 1172 records. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 9.1% with differentiation of 8.9% in males and 9.3% in females. Furthermore 7.7% were undiagnosed with 1.4% were under treatment. Literacy rate was 50.4%, marriage was 77.5% and 60% of women were housewives. Prevalence of smoking and mouth snuff use were 8.1% and 9.8% respectively. Age, moderate physical activity, blood pressure and central obesity were associated with diabetes.ConclusionThis study found that one tenth of adults in Kabul are suffering from diabetes in the surveyed population. Age, hypertension, central obesity and moderate physical activity were significantly associated with diabetes. Focus on diabetes and its risk factors along with nationwide study using WHO STEP wise tools are recommended.Keywords: Prevalence, Diabetes, Risk factors, Kabul, Afghanistan
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Atorvastatin by the Modulation of NF-κB Expression during Hyperglycemia-Induced Nephropathy in RatPages 77-84ObjectiveAtorvastatin has the pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammation and antioxidant. Therefore, this study considered to examine the effects of atorvastatin on NF-қB expression, as a main transcription factor for expression of inflammatory cytokines, in hyperglycemia-induced nephropathy in rat.Materials And MethodsTwenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; Normal, Normal treatment, Diabetic, and Diabetic treatment. Rats were made diabetic by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Treated rats received atorvastatin for 60 days (40 mg/kg/day). At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected for measurement of blood glucose. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of NF-қB in kidney was determined by RT-PCR technique.ResultsInduction of diabetes significantly increased the mean value of blood glucose in diabetic rats (>450 mg/dl) compared with normal rats (P=0.001). Chronic hyperglycemia also increased the mRNA expression level of NF-қB in diabetic kidney. Moreover, the mean value of kidney index was significantly increased in diabetic rats compared to normal group (P=0.001). Treatment with atorvastatin in diabetic rats for 60 days reduced the mRNA expression level of NF-қB and kidney index compared to non-treated diabetic rats (P=0.014).ConclusionOur findings revealed that atorvastatin is able to prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy during chronic uncontrolled hyperglycemia possibly by the inhibition of NF-қB expression in the kidneys of diabetic rats.Keywords: Nephropathy, Atorvastatin, Hyperglycemia, NF-?B
Overweight, Obesity and Related Factors in 7 to 11-year-Old Female Students in Robat-Karim, Iran in 2014Pages 85-90ObjectiveIn recent years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity had a significant growth in children. Obesity is a serious health problem all over the world. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in elementary students in Robat-Karim, Iran in 2014.Materials And MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 490 female students of elementary school aged between 7 to 11 years in Robat-Karim, Iran in 2014. The percentages of Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention growth charts (CDC) have been utilized to determine overweight and obesity. SPSS-16 software has been applied for statistical analysis.
Results Mean age of the students was 8.97 1.38 years. According to CDC, 28 (5.7%) of the students were obese, and 75 (5.78%) of the students were overweight. Overweight and obesity were significantly related with birth weight, body mass index(BMI) of parents, and time spent for watching TV, computer games and other electronic entertainments (PConclusionAccording to obtained results, interventional programs should be done to correct life-style and prevent overweight and obesity among elementary school students.Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Elementary school
Page 90ObjectiveDuplex ultrasonography is a non-invasive, non-expensive screening test for carotid disease. Intima media thickness (IMT) is appropriate for atherosclerosis process diagnosis. Leukoaraisis (LA) increase the risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). LA patients need preventive medication for CVA. IMT is a non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic test in LA. The aim of this study was evaluate the carotid IMT and LA in diabetic patients as atherosclerosis surrogate marker.Materials And MethodsThe case-control study was done on 100 diabetic patients and 100 controls. They were selected by simple sampling method in Shaheed Sadoughi MRI unit. Two groups member were matched by age and sex. The patients information (age, sex, weight, height, past medical history, smoking history, ischemic heart disease(IHD), CVA and past medication) according the study checklist was collected. All statistical analysis was done by SPSS21.
Results Totally 200 patients were studied, 102 in normal group and 98 in diabetic group. The mean age of patients was 64.39 (±9.12) and 47% participants were male. There were no statistical differences between hypertension and hyperlipidemia frequency in two groups (P-value>0.05). The mean of left CIMT was 0.856 (±0.202) in normal and 0.962 (±171) in diabetics groups (P-value: 0.026). The mean of right CIMT was 0.853 (±0.215) in normal and 0.973 (±188) in diabetics groups (P-value: 0.024). The LA was significantly more prevalent in diabetic patients (P-value:0.001).ConclusionLA increases the risk of CVA and dementia. The LA pathology is unknown. The epidemiological studies revealed the age, diabetes, smoking and atherosclerosis are related with LA. Our findings showed that CIMT as an atherosclerosis marker was higher in LA patients than control group.Keywords: Leukoaraisis, Intima media thickness, Duplex ultrasonography, Diabetes
Pages 96-101ObjectiveSuicide is seen in major depression, also in chronic diseases patients. HbA1C is a marker of long-term control of diabetes. The aim of this study was evaluation of the suicidal ideations in diabetic patients and its association with the status of blood sugar control based on Hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c).Materials And MethodsThis study is a cross-sectional study. The patients were selected randomly. In this study, 180 diabetic patients were studied who were referred to the Ali Ibn Abitaleb Hospital Diabetes Center in Rafsanjan. This study data contain three categories, including demographic, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck suicidal ideations Inventory. HbA1c was extracted from the patients file. The software SPSS-17 was used. The t-test, ANOVA, Chi square and correlation coefficient tests were used.
Results About %36.7 of the patients were male and 114 (%63.3) were female. The mean (± SD) age of patients was 14.28(± 56.98) years (range: 14 - 88 years). Of these patients, 66 (%36.7) reported a history of depression and 114 (%63.3) no depression history. The mean of diabetes duration was 9.25±6.15 years. The mean (± SD) of HbA1c level was 2.08 ± 8.4 (range: 4.8-19.6).ConclusionGenerally our findings showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation in the diabetic population in Rafsanjan is less than the general population and other studies. There is no significant relationship between suicidal ideation and the age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c levels, and history of depression.Keywords: Diabetes, HbA1c, Suicidal Ideations
Pages 102-106Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases. Insulin resistance is defined as a state that needs more insulin to get the biological effects achieved by a lower amount of insulin in the normal state. Several molecules which are secreted through adipocytes have been involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adiponectin as a 244 amino acid protein is exclusively expressed in differentiated adipocytes. Recent studies indicated impaired multimerization of adiponectin is associated with type 2 diabetes development. Moreover, the relationship between adiponectin, insulin and insulin resistance is not known and many mechanisms have been proposed. Inverse relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance may be mediated through insulin and other hormones like catecholamines or androgens. Moreover, intensive insulin treatment increased serum C-peptide and adiponectin level resulted to improving sensitivity of insulin and decreased CRP level. According to these studies, it seems that adiponectin may be an important modulator of insulin action for enhancing of sensitivity of insulin.Keywords: Adiponectin, Diabetes, Insulin resistance