فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences - Volume:9 Issue:2, 2017
  • Volume:9 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/02/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fatemeh Ghannadiasl*, Reza Mahdavi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Page 0
    Background
    The transtheoretical model is an effective theory in health promotion. In order to maximize success¡ this theory has been introduced into different weight loss interventions.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to assess the stages and processes of change¡ self-efficacy¡ and decisional balance for weight loss among obese women attending nutrition clinics as an attempt to direct nutrition interventions.
    Methods
    In this descriptive study¡ ninety volunteered apparently healthy obese women aged 18 - 50 years with body mass index of 30 - 40 kg/m2 attending a nutrition clinic in Ardabil city were recruited. The subjects completed the translated and validated versions of University of Rhode Island Change Assessment¡ processes of change¡ weight efficacy lifestyle¡ and Decisional Balance scales as the transtheoretical model components before any intervention. The score on each subscale was calculated by averaging the scores obtained by all participants within each subscale. T-test was used to compare the mean total score of each scale with the mean score of its subscales.
    Results
    The results showed that 46.7% of participants were in the advanced stages of weight loss. The mean score of behavioral processes was significantly lower than that of cognitive processes (2.33 ± 0.51 vs. 3.02 ± 0.45¡ P
    Conclusions
    It seems that the assessment of stages and tailoring of interventions based on readiness to change are essential among obese women attending nutrition clinics. The strengthening behavioral processes¡ eating self-efficacy¡ and decisional balance for weight loss must also be considered.
    Keywords: Stages of Change, Processes of Change, Eating Self, Efficacy, Decisional Balance, Weight Loss
  • Parvin Nassiri, Sajad Zare*, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Akram Pourbakht Page 1
    Background
    Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors.
    Objectives
    The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups), each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise). On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM), during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM), and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM). The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level.
    Results
    The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04). In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The obtained model in the study revealed that the results of predictive models to determine aldosterone level were very similar to real values; therefore, the obtained values of this model were largely in line with the ones obtained from the field.
    Keywords: Aldosterone, Noise, Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time, Potassium
  • Gholamabbas Shirali, Reza Savari*, Kambiz Ahmadiangali, Vahid Salehi Page 2
    Background
    The implementation of a safety program is one of the most effective factors in increasing productivity. A look to safety from the perspective of efficiency can indicate necessary investment in safety for all, especially the managers of companies.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of safety costs on some indicators of productivity and quality in industrial companies.
    Methods
    This study was a retrospective analysis and was implemented in five steel companies in Ahvaz. The data relating to the safety costs such as staffing costs and total safety costs, and productivity and quality indicators were collected in five years. This information and data were collected according to statistics from documents and archives of safety, accounting, and production sectors of companies. Costs as well as numbers and figures of variables were expressed in the form of per capita and percentage to make the data comparable. Linear and generalized regression models and Wald Chi-Square test were used by the SPSS 22 software to determine the relationships between them.
    Results
    Safety costs such as capita labor safety costs and capita total safety costs or percentage safety labor costs to labor costs, showed a significant positive effect on labor productivity, labor competitiveness, total factor productivity, quality index and production rates (in some cases, P = 0.001).
    Conclusions
    The total safety cost and safety labor compensation generally, regardless of the nature and quality of the safety management system, can impact productivity, quality and quantity of production in addition to other factors of production. Surely if safety programs are targeted and codified, the effect of the investment will be doubled.
    Keywords: Safety Costs, Productivity, Quality, Safety Management System, Safety Programs
  • Leila Ibrahimi Ghavam Abadi, Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi*, Abbas Mohammadi, Ghasem Mardi, Afshine Rahmati Page 3
    Background
    Noise pollution is one of the most important risk factors in industrial settings. This study aimed to assess noise exposure and noise-induced annoyance among workers of a steel factory.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 70 healthy male participants (33 office employees and 37 production line workers) in a steel plant.
    Results
    The results showed that 24.24% of employees in office areas and 54% of blue-collar workers had high noise annoyance. Also, noise levels in two parts of steel factory and percentage of responds by participants that felt highly annoyed showed a significant relationship (P
    Conclusions
    The findings of this investigation have clearly revealed that employees in both parts of steel factory are annoyed by noise. A higher noise level resulted in higher noise annoyance in the exposed workers. The need for implementing noise conservation program was established.
    Keywords: Noise Exposure, Noise Annoyance, Steel Plant, Worker
  • Mohammad Khandan, Somayeh Momenyan, Leila Ataei Manesh, Zahra Khosravi, Zeinab Eyni, Alireza Koohpaei* Page 4
    Background
    Regarding the high levels of physical and mental activities and the high risk of fatigue, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) is increasingly high among nurses that can be negatively affect their work quality and patients’ safety.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to survey the relationship between fatigue and job content with WMSDs among nurses from 2014 to 2015. In this study two hundred and eighty one nurses from two hospitals have been performed in Qom province.
    Methods
    Demographic information was age, gender, and work-related number of accidents. Fatigue and job content questionnaire (JCQ) developed by researchers was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by SPSS V.20 and Poisson regression was applied.
    Results
    Totally, 238 nurses (84.7%) had experienced pain in at least one part of their bodies, Fatigue mean scores and standard deviations were 50.83 ± 14.05, respectively. Job content scores were 43.96 as mean ± 7.23. Poisson regression model depicted that educational status, regular practice, fatigue, and job content had significant relationship with WRMSDs (P
    Conclusions
    Although job content and fatigue were in acceptable conditions, regarding sever probable consequences such as increasing care errors, some solutions such work procedures, systems and tasks redesign to make a holistic view of performing care duties, using standard equipment and probable layout of them can consequently help to improve the safety and health of staff members and care quality.
    Keywords: Job Content, Fatigue, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Nurses
  • Davood Afshari, Hamid Saednia, Amal Saki, Abdolhosein Bigdeli, Leila Jodakinia* Page 5
    Background
    Bakery workers due to exposure to radiant heat and doing manual labor are at risk of heat-related illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to determine the appropriate work-rest time interval using two indexes of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and relative heart rate (RHR).
    Methods
    It was an analytical and descriptive research. Heart rate of workers was continuously recorded to achieve the physiological monitoring and the obtained information was used to determine the work difficulty and physical workload. The ratio of heat stress and RHR was measured using the WBGT and polar team pro device, respectively. Work-rest schedules were detected through the heart rate reserve and heat stress indexes. The level of significance was α = 0.05.
    Results
    Physical workload based on heart rate was estimated light to moderate in bakery workers. Suitable work-rest schedule for all bakery workers according to WBGT index was 25% work-75% rest and based on heart rate reserve index in half of the workers was 50% work-50% rest, and in the other half of the bakery workers was continuous work without rest. According to Kappa test, there was no agreement between the two methods of heat stress index and heart rate reserve to determine the work-rest schedules of workers (P
    Conclusions
    Physical workloads on the basis of heart rate were light for all workers except the workers of Tanoury who had moderate workload. Meanwhile, determining the work-rest schedule was different using the two indexes. The heart rate reserve index represents the physiological status of individual during the work and states the ratio of physical workload more precisely.
    Keywords: Work-Rest Schedule, Workload, Bakery
  • Peymaneh Habibi, Habiboallah Dehghan*, Mahnaz Shakerian Page 6
    Background
    The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR) measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces.
    Methods
    This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR) (w/m2) was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta), wet globe temperature (Tnw), globe temperature (Tg) and relative humidity (RH) were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software.
    Results
    The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96) exists between the environmental stress index (ESI) and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P
    Conclusions
    Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes) when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.
    Keywords: Environmental Stress Index, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Heat Stress Estimation, Infrared Radiation
  • Massumeh Ahmadizadeh*, Shaghayegh Koshbasirat, Zohreh Jaffarzadeh Page 7
    Background
    Xylene is widely used in the industry and medical technology as a solvent, besides occupational exposure. It has the potential to be toxic in humans and animals.
    Objectives
    The present study was carried out to determine the protective effects of buffalo’ milk (BM) against xylene-induced liver and kidney damage.
    Methods
    A total 42 male rats were randomly assigned into 7 groups. The rats in group I was the control . Groups II, III and IV were received 1 mL distilled water ten minutes prior to administration of xylene (X) at doses of 0.81, 0.162 and 0.324 mmole/kg. Rats in groups of V,VI and VII were received 1mL buffalo’s milk 10 minutes prior to administration of X ( ip) at doses of 0.81, 0.162 and 0.324 mmole/kg. The experiment repeated for 7 consecutive days. 24 hours after last administrations, all animals were killed with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital. The blood was then collected for determination of biochemical tests including alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alkaline phosphatase (ALP),blood urea nitrogen (BUN),creatinine (CR),catalase (CAT),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). The liver and kidney tissues were removed, fixed and processed for light microscopy.
    Results
    Biochemical analyses indicated a significant decline in the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH level and markedly increased ALT, AST, ALP, BUN, CR when compared to those in non-treated rats (control). Dose-dependent injuries in rat liver and kidneys were also observed in xylene treated rats. Buffalo’s milk protected all biochemical parameters against xylene-induced toxicity. It also protected liver and kidney tissues against xylene produced cell damage.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study supports the view that xylene induces liver and kidney injury. Buffalo’s milk has potential to protect liver and kidney against xylene toxicity.
    Keywords: Xylene, Buffalo's Milk, Biochemical Parameters, Liver, Kidney