فهرست مطالب

Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine - Volume:8 Issue: 2, Spring 2017
  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, Spring 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/02/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Versa Omrani Nava, Reza Alizadeh Navaei *, Yousef Yahyapour, Akbar Hedayatizadeh Omran, Saeid Abediankenari, Ghasem Janbabaei, Fatima Toghani Pages 67-75
    Background
    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers.
    Methods
    This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model.
    Results
    Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82).
    Conclusion
    The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal cancers, human papillomavirus, Systematic review, Meta-analysis
  • Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Masomeh Bagheri Nesami, Attieh Nikkhah* Pages 76-82
    Background
    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of nosocomial catheter- associated UTI and its related factors in hospitalized patients in intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2014.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were admitted in hospitals and urinary catheterization was performed for them. Beds of intensive care units were followed-up for the occurrence of catheter-associated UTI for 14 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 16.
    Results
    Our results showed that of the 1409 patients (11648 catheter - days), the incidence of catheter-related UTI was 18.2% (among 256 individuals) equals to 21.987 per 1,000 catheter - days. E. coli was the most important cause of UTI. The results show that the history of the underlying disease, duration of catheterization and perineal washing were significantly associated with the incidence of UTIs.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study show a high incidence of UTIs caused by catheters in ICU. The incidence of this infection increased hospital length of stay and hospital cost. It seems that the necessary use of urinary catheters and its reduced duration use can be effective in decreasing this incidence.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Nosocomial infections, Urinary catheter
  • Noormohammad Noori, Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam *, Asiyeh Dejkam, Yasaman Garme, Ali Bazi Pages 83-90
    Background
    The 5, 10-methyleneterahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are two essential enzymes involved in folate metabolism. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and congenital heart defects (CHDs) is inconsistent. Our aim was to investigate the association between two well-known polymorphisms of MTHFR and MTRR genes, C677T and A66G, respectively, and CHDs in Iranian patients.
    Methods
    We enrolled 74 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and 79 with tetralogy of fallot (TOF) along with 147 healthy controls. C677T and A66G polymorphisms were detected using tetra-primer ARMS (amplification refractory mutation system) PCR.
    Results
    Individuals carrying homozygote mutant (TT) genotype of C677T polymorphism represented the highest risk for CHDs (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 0.8-61, P=0.06). Also, significantly increased risk of VSD was observed in individuals with TT genotype (OR=10, 95% CI: 1-92.2, P=0.04). However, the frequency for variant allele (T) of C677T polymorphism was not statistically different between cases and controls (16.3% and 20.9%, respectively). For A66G polymorphism, we found that AG and GG genotypes had higher frequencies in the patients (48.4% and 21.6% respectively) than controls (42.9% and 15.6%, respectively). In line with this, combined AG genotype represented with significantly elevated risk of CHDs (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1-2.6, P=0.03). AG combination was also identified as a risk factor for TOF (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1-3.3, P=0.04).
    Conclusion
    We demonstrated that C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene was significantly associated with VSD in our patients. Our study also suggested that A66G polymorphism of MTRR gene may contribute to the development of TOF in Iranians.
    Keywords: 5, 10-Methyleneterahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), congenital heart diseases (CHDs), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of fallot (TOF)
  • Reza Safaei-Nodehi *, Javad Esmaili, Ramazanali Sharifian, Shafieh Movaseghi, Sayeh Parkhideh Pages 91-98
    Background
    The primary objective of this study was to assess BMD change in Iranian females with breast cancer.
    Methods
    A sample of 73 female breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy either alone or followed by radiotherapy between March 2013 and February 2016 were considered for this study. Bone mineral density (BMD) change was evaluated by measuring z-score of lumbar spine, femoral neck (right and left side) as well as biochemical measurements. With respect to WHO categorization for the treatment of osteoporosis, patients were categorized as normal BMD, osteopenic and all analysis was done separately.
    Results
    In women with normal BMD, lumbar spine and femoral neck (right side) z-score decreased significantly by 15.7 and 39%, respectively (p
    Conclusion
    Our results revealed that adjuvant chemotherapy led to unfavorable effects on lumbar spine and femoral neck means z-score during 8 months. Also, unfavorable changes in biochemical markers appeared in all groups.
    Keywords: bone mineral density, breast cancer, chemotherapy, Z-score
  • Emadouddin Moudi, Abazar Akbarzadeh Pasha * Pages 99-103
    Background
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign tumor in men. The etiology of BPH is still unresolved and multiple systems are likely to be involved. The effects of diabetes on urinary system are a risk factor for BPH. We then assessed the effects of diabetes on the parameters related to BPH, especially weight and volume.
    Methods
    This study was conducted on patients with BPH who underwent surgery during 2010-2013. The patients’ demographic and clinical data including age, height, weight, history of diabetes, abdominal sonography, prostate-specific antigen(PSA), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride, and cholesterol, resected sample weight, and pathological diagnosis were extracted.
    Results
    The mean age of all 225 patients (35 (15.6%) diabetic patients and 190 (84.4%) non-diabetic patients) who entered the study was 71.5±8.7 years. The patients were divided in to 3 body mass index (BMI) groups: 48 (21.3%) were normal, 151 (67.1%) were overweight and 26 (11.6%) were obese. The mean weight of resected prostate was higher in diabetic patients (22.9±6.9 vs 21.7±14.3, P=0.02). The resected prostate weight had a significant relationship with BMI (P=0.001), prostate–specific antigen (PSA) level (P=0.001), and prostate volume sonography (P=0.001). No significant relationship was detected between resected prostate weight with age, FBS and triglyceride however, it is significant with cholesterol.
    Conclusion
    We concluded that diabetes has a role in the development and progression of BPH with effect on prostate weight and volume. As well, BMI is a risk factor in BPH progression.
    Keywords: Diabetes, BPH, Prostate weight, PSA
  • Seyed Mohammadreza Sadraei Musavi, Novin Nikbakhsh *, Aliasghar Darzi Pages 104-107
    Background
    Appendectomy intra-abdominal is the most frequently performed emergency surgery. This study was conducted to determine the role of postoperative antibiotics in reducing surgical site infections (SSIs) and abscess formation after open appendectomy.
    Methods
    In the Department of Surgery, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, Iran, from October 2013 to October 2014 one hundred and fifty two patients, who underwent appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis (NPA) and fulfilled the selection criteria, were randomized into two groups. Group A patients received a single dose of preoperative antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole) and group B patients received the same regimen, in addition, antibiotics were administered 24 hours postoperatively. Patients of both groups were followed-up for 30 days to assess the postoperative infectious complications.
    Results
    Both groups comprised 76 patients, as well both groups were compared in baseline characteristics. Statistically, there was no significant difference in rates of SSIs between both groups. None of the patients developed intra-abdominal collection.
    Conclusion
    Single dose of preoperative antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole) was sufficient in reducing SSIs after appendectomy for NPA. Postoperative antibiotics did not add an appreciable clinical benefit in these patients.
    Keywords: Acute appendicitis, Postoperative antibiotics, Prophylactic, Antibiotics, Appendectomy, Surgical site infection, Nonperforated appendicitis
  • Mahmoud Sadeghi Hadad Zavareh *, Sayedsaied Mohammadi, Mahmoud Hajiahmadi, Masoomeh Habibian Pages 108-111
    Background
    The rate of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication in dyspeptic patients using bismuth- based triple therapy is low due to bacterial that are resistant to antibiotics. The results of recent studies regarding levofloxacin have been encouraging, but the high cost of treatment prevents its routine administration. We, therefore, performed the present double-blind clinical trial to compare the efficiency of quadruple-drug regimen containing ofloxacin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole and the same standard triple-therapy regimen minus ofloxacin in H. pylori positive dyspepsia.
    Methods
    The study patients were recruited among dyspeptic patients requiring gastroscopy. Patients with the history of H.pylori treatment, renal failure and pregnancy were excluded. Diagnosis of H.pylori infection was confirmed by rapid urease test and response to treatment was confirmed via negative urease breath test (UBT) 20 days after completion of treatment. Patients were allocated intermittently to standard triple therapy containing amoxicillin, clarithromycin, omeprazole alone or plus ofloxacin for ten days. Response to treatment was compared between the two groups.
    Results
    A total of 140 patients entered the study (70 patients in each group). At endpoint 30 (42.9%) patients of group 1 and 39 (55.7%) patients of group 2 became asymptomatic. Furthermore, 55 (78.6%) patients of group 1 and 66 (94.3%) patients of group 2 revealed negative urea breath test (P= 0.01).
    Conclusion
    This study indicates adding ofloxacin to standard triple-therapy for H.pylorri infection significantly increases the rate of eradication. These findings highlight ofloxacin as empiric treatment of H. pylori infection.
    Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Drug regimen, Ofloxacin
  • Farzin Sadeghi, Masoumeh Talebi Nesami, Rahim Barari Savadkouhi, Ali Bijani, Elahe Ferdosi Shahandashti, Yousef Yahyapour * Pages 112-115
    Background
    Enterovirus (EV) infections are one of the most common causes of aseptic meningitis in pediatrics. To diagnose EV meningitis, virus isolation in cell cultures is often time consuming and lacks sensitivity to be of clinical relevance. This makes the virus culture results difficult to interpret. The rapid detection of EVs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by molecular diagnostic techniques may improve the management of patients with aseptic meningitis. The purpose of the present study was to develop a more convenient and sensitive alternative technique to viral culture. The current investigation aimed to explore the prevalence of EVs in CSF of children with suspected aseptic meningitis in northern Iran, between June 2014 and March 2015 via the one-step real-time RT-PCR technique.
    Methods
    A single center cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 children suspected with aseptic meningitis, aged 6 months to 13 years. The presence of EV RNA in CSF samples was screened by the use of qualitative one-step real-time RT-PCR.
    Results
    Enteroviral RNA was detected in 9 (18%) subjects using the one-step real-time RT-PCR assay. There was significant difference between EV positive and negative subjects regarding mean age (P=0.023), mean lymphocyte percentage (P=0.001) and mean glucose levels in CSF (P=0.037). The disease onset data indicate that the majority of EV meningitis occurred in the summer.
    Conclusion
    This study provides the first data on the prevalence and epidemiology of EV infections in children with suspected aseptic meningitis in northern Iran.
    Keywords: Enterovirus, Aseptic meningitis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Real-Time RT-PCR
  • Feridoun Sabzi, Reza Faraji * Pages 116-118
    Background
    Brucellosis pericarditis is an extremely rare involvement of the cardiovascular system with Brucella species that has worldwide distribution and is endemic in many provinces of Iran.
    Case Presentation
    The present report describes an exceptional case of pericardial involvement by Brucella melitensis in a 50- year-old woman. The patient presented with night sweats, mild fever, weight loss, and chest pain.
    Conclusion
    Pericarditis occurs during the course of brucellosis as an isolated cardiac symptom and may be asymptomatic or may be manifested with chest pain as ischemic heart disease.
    Keywords: chest pain, Brucella, cardiovascular system
  • Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Alireza Shahhamzeh, Mohammad Bagherzadeh * Pages 119-122
    Background
    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection which is endemic in many countries. It is a multisystem disease which may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of brucellosis.
    Case Presentation
    A 25-year-old woman with a history of lupus for 5 months referred to the emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom due to vertigo, drop attack and a convulsion episode from the previous day. She was unable to move at initial evaluation, and her upper and lower extremities were spastic. She had blurred vision one day after admission. Based on her past history and suspecting neurological pulmonary presentations, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs was started and brain MRI was performed. According to the MRI mode and endemic area, neurobrucellosis was suspected and 2ME and Wright tests were performed. Wight test was 1.5120 while 2ME test was 1.640 which were strongly positive. So, with neurobrucellosis diagnosis, the patient was treated but unfortunately 4 days later, after respiratory apnea, she was pronounced dead.
    Conclusion
    In endemic areas for brucellosis, neurobrucellosis should always be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric cases that are encountered.
    Keywords: Neurobrucellosis, systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Gurpreet Singh Ranger *, Timothy Cochrane Pages 123-125
    Background
    Occult dural injuries are rare and can occur as a result of major or minor head injury. These injuries usually manifest with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea alone, or with meningitis and cerebral abscess, sometimes many years after the original injury.
    Case Presentation
    We present a case of occult dural injury with endocranial complications which occurred in a 34 year old man, with a history of head injury forty-three years ago. The patient presented with a triad of findings; meningitis, CSF rhinorrhoea and pneumocephalus. He was managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics and observation and made a full recovery. The presence of acute endocranial symptoms and particularly these three findings in a patient with a previous history of head injury, no matter how long it had been should raise suspicion of the presence of an occult dural injury.
    Conclusion
    It need to retain a high index of suspicion for occult dural injury in patients who present with endocranial symptoms of unknown origin, especially if there is a previous history of head injury.
    Keywords: Occult dural injury, meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea, pneumocephalus
  • Ali Kamali *, Emadoddin Moudi Pages 126-128
    Background
    Insertion of rectal foreign bodies intentionally or unintentionally is not unusual.
    Case Presentation
    A 19-years-old unmarried male was admitted to our hospital due to a lump of left lower quadrant of abdomen. He denied sexual assault .The abdomen was soft on physical examination. Abdominal x-ray and CT scan showed a foreign body in lower abdomen and pelvis. The patient was operated and a slice of glass was extracted.
    Conclusion
    In patients with rectal foreign body, the history is not always reliable and sexual assault may deny. The foreign object inserted in the rectum may migrate to peritoneal cavity without peritonitis.
    Keywords: Foreign body, Sexual assault, Rectal
  • Kamal Rashidiazar, Aliasghar Darzi, Sekineh Kamali Ahangar, Sepideh Siadati, Abdolrahim Gholizadehpasha * Pages 129-130