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جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری - سال سوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 5، پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • سال سوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 5، پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • مقلات
  • محمد اجزاء شکوهی، رضا صمدی، نصرت الله گودرزی، محمد قنبری صفحات 1-18
    یکی از مهم ترین دلایل ناهنجاری در شکل ساختمان ها و نابسامانی در سیما و منظر شهری، تخلفات ساختمانی است. این تخلفات ناشی از عوامل بسیاری است که با شناسایی آن ها تا حد زیادی می توان از وقوع آن جلوگیری نمود؛ لذا در این پژوهش به بررسی علل تخلفات ساختمانی با تاکید بر قوانین و ضوابط شهرسازی در مناطق سه و نه شهر مشهد پرداخته شده است. روش تحقیق این پژوهش توصیفی تبیینی و جامعه آماری آن مناطق سه و نه شهرداری مشهد می باشد. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از آزمون کوکران استفاده شده که حجم نمونه ای بالغ بر 176 مورد از متخلفان ساختمانی جهت بررسی علل تخلفات ساختمانی انتخاب گردیده است. ابزار تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، نرم افزار Spss می باشد. بدین منظور برای مقایسه عوامل موثر در ایجاد تخلفات ساختمانی بین دو منطقه مورد مطالعه از آزمون غیرپارامتریک U Mann-Whitney و برای مقایسه مقدار تخلفات ساختمانی و میزان جریمه پرداختی در سطح محدوده مورد مطالعه از آزمون T-Test استفاده شده است. همچنین علل تخلفات ساختمانی با استفاده از آزمون رگرسیون چندمتغیره به روش Stepwise مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که عوامل مقرون به صرفه بودن انجام تخلفات ساختمانی با بتای 38/0 و عدم نظارت دقیق مهندسان ناظر ساختمان با 36/0 از مهم ترین علل افزایش تخلفات ساختمانی در این دو منطقه شهری بوده است. معناداری آزمون نیز در سطح 95درصد مورد تایید است.
    کلیدواژگان: علل تخلفات ساختمانی، کمیسیون ماده صد، مناطق سه و نه شهر مشهد
  • راضیه تیموری، رسول قربانی، محمدرضا پورمحمدی، محسن احدنژاد صفحات 19-33
    توزیع مناسب فضاهای سبز شهری در تمامی محلات شهرها علاوه بر برقراری عدالت اجتماعی برای دستیابی عادلانه همه شهروندان، باعث خلق فضاهای سبز فعال، با بازدهی زیست محیطی مستمر می شود. این پژوهش با استفاده از تحلیل سرانه های موجود و قیاس آن با سرانه های استاندارد، مقدار مساحت فضاهای سبز مورد نیاز برای تمامی محلات کلان شهر تبریز را برآورد نموده و همچنین با استفاده از تحلیل شبکه معابر کلان شهر تبریز، میزان دسترسی به پارک های محله ای را در قالب زمان دسترسی پیاده تحلیل نموده و پهنه هایی را که خارج از شعاع دسترسی شهروندان هستند، برآورد نموده تا برای برنامه ریزی های آتی مدیران و مسئولین شهری در نظر گرفته شود. مطابق نتایج به دست آمده مناطق 9، 5، 7 به ترتیب دارای بیشترین سرانه فضاهای سبز می باشد و نیز مناطق 5، 7 و 3 شهرداری تبریز، به ترتیب دارای کمترین دسترسی به پارک های محله ای می باشند. این نتایج بیانگر عدم تعادل اکولوژیک در سطح شهر می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: فضاهای سبز محله ای، تبریز، تحلیل شبکه، سرانه، دسترسی، رویکرد اکولوژیک
  • ندا ملک زاده، مهدی بزاززاده، مجتبی رفیعیان صفحات 35-52
    امروزه نگاه متفاوت به آینده باعث شده که انسان هوشمند به دنبال یافتن آینده نباشد، بلکه با بهره گیری از ابزارهای گوناگون آینده مطلوب خود را بسازد. از سوی دیگر الگوی جدید اسکان بشر، مناطق کلان شهری، به واسطه ویژگی ها و پیچیدگی های چندوجهی، شرایطی ایجاد نموده که عمدتا معایب این گونه از سکونت گاه ها بر محاسن آن پیشی می گیرد. پژوهش حاضر با بهره گیری از تکنیک تحلیل اثرات متقاطع که یکی از روش های متداول و مورد پذیرش آینده نگاری است، با استفاده از نرم افزار میک مک به تحلیل مولفه های توسعه کلان شهر کرج پرداخته است. بدین منظور ابتدا 37 مولفه از میان اسناد فرادست استخراج شده و با استفاده از روش دلفی مدیران، ماتریس اثرات متقاطع مولفه ها تشکیل گردیده است. سپس با استفاده از میانگین گیری 15 ماتریس به دست آمده، ماتریس نهایی تشکیل شده و از طریق نرم افزار میک مک نسبت به تحلیل آن اقدام شده است. بر اساس نتایج مدل، کلان شهر کرج سیستمی ناپایدار بوده و «ساماندهی محورهای ویژه گردشگری با استفاده از کیفیت های محیطی و کریدورهای دید و منظر» و تا حدودی «توسعه مجموعه های کارکردی مختلط پیرامون ایستگاه های مترو و قطار شهری» به عنوان عوامل تنظیم کننده عمل می نمایند. هیچکدام از مولفه های توسعه کرج از نگاه مدیران، به عنوان عامل هدف قابل تعریف نمی باشد. این مسئله نشانگر چندجانبه بودن مسئله توسعه کلان شهر کرج از نگاه مدیران است. «توسعه زیرساخت های الکترونیک شهری» و «ایمن سازی شهر در مقابل حوادث غیرمترقبه» در وضعیت بسیار نزدیک به محور مخاطره (ریسک) قرار دارند. «توسعه صنعت گردشگری» و «توسعه درونی (میان افزا) شهر» بیشترین میزان تاثیرگذاری بر فرآیند توسعه کلان شهر کرج را خواهند داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: عوامل کلیدی توسعه، آینده نگاری، اثرات متقاطع، میک مک، کلان شهر کرج
  • هاشم داداش پور، داود عزیزی، پیمان اصغرزاده صفحات 53-68
    رشد و توسعه بیش از حد شهرها در عصر حاضر و افزایش چالش های مرتبط با آن، باعث به خطر افتادن زندگی در شهرها شده است. زیست پذیری از جمله رویکردهایی است که به دنبال ایجاد یک محیط امن و سالم برای جوامع انسانی است. این رویکرد از در هم تنیدگی ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی، محیطی و کالبدی تشکیل یافته و می بایست برای پیشگیری از تک بعدی شدن و تقلیل گرایانه شدن آن، شبکه ای از روابط میان معیارهای مربوط به قلمروهای گوناگون زیست پذیری را در آن در نظر گرفت. هدف پژوهش سنجش زیست پذیری محلات شهری بر مبنای متون جهانی و کاربست این مولفه ها در رتبه بندی محلات هرندی، تختی و کوثر کلان شهر تهران از لحاظ زیست پذیری است. روش تحقیق مقاله کمی است و با رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با بهره گیری از Excel و برای استخراج امتیاز نهایی زیست پذیری از مدلElectre استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد بین محله های مورد مطالعه از لحاظ زیست پذیری تفاوت وجود دارد. با توجه به این نتایج، محله تختی از لحاظ شاخص های زیست پذیری در سطح بالاتری نسبت به سایر محلات قرار داشته و محله های کوثر و هرندی به ترتیب بعد از محله تختی قرار می گیرند. اگر چه در کم و کیف زیست پذیری محلات عوامل مختلفی نقش دارند، با این حال به نظر می رسد زیست پذیری پایین محله های مورد مطالعه ناشی از کم بودن حس تعلق شهروندان و گسترش کاربری های تجاری-خدماتی و انبارداری مربوط به عملکردهای بازار است. امری که به طور خاص در محله هرندی به وضوح قابل مشاهده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تهران، زیست پذیری، کلان شهر، کیفیت زندگی، مدل Electre
  • سعید زنگنه شهرکی، باقر فتوحی مهربانی، محمد پوراکرمی، محمدرضا سلیمان زاده صفحات 69-85
    هدف این پژوهش سنجش میزان تحقق مفهوم شهر خلاق در کلان شهر تهران است. این تحقیق ازنظر هدف، کاربردی-توسعه ای و روش انجام آن توصیفی-تحلیلی است. برای گردآوری آمار از روش اسنادی- کتابخانه ای استفاده شده است. برای سنجش میزان تحقق مفهوم شهر خلاق از 39 شاخص از شاخص های شهر خلاق در قالب 5 معیار کلی (فرهنگی-هنری و جاذبه های خلاق، سرمایه انسانی و تحقیق، جهانی شدن، فناوری، تنوع و تاب آوری) استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد که شهر تهران علی رغم پتانسیل های فراوان در مقایسه با شهر های مورد مطالعه با ضریب (Q) 957/0، در رتبه آخر قرار دارد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از تحلیل یافته ها نشان داد که در 39 شاخص بررسی شده، تهران تنها در شاخص تعداد افراد در سن 14-25 جایگاه بهتری از سایر شهرها دارد اما در اکثر شاخص ها به ویژه در امکانات گردشگری برای گردشگران بین المللی، درصد افراد شاغل در فعالیت های تحقیق و توسعه، درصد کاربران اینترنت و اینترنت با سرعت بالا، درصد افراد خارجی ساکن در شهر، آزادی و سانسور مطبوعات، ضریب جینی، مشارکت در انتخابات گذشته وضعیت مناسبی ندارد. مهم ترین رویکردی که شهر تهران برای تحقق شهر خلاق می تواند به کار گیرد، اول بهبود محیط شهری خلاق در راستای پرورش شهروندان خلاق، دوم حفظ و جذب طبقه خلاق و شهروندان خلاق است.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر خلاق، شاخص شهر خلاق، پرورش و حفظ شهروندان خلاق، شهر تهران
  • ناهید سجادیان، پریوش اورکی، مرتضی نعمتی صفحات 87-105
    احساس عدم امنیت مانعی جدی در برابر فعالیت های اجتماعی شهروندان به ویژه در مکان های خاص خواهد شد که خود از یک سو موجب تداوم و تشدید ناهنجاری های اجتماعی می گردد و از سوی دیگر تنزل ارزش های هویتی و کاهش سرمایه اجتماعی خواهد گردید. لذا بررسی و شناسایی عوامل تاثیرگذار در این راستا از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. بر همین اساس هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی احساس امنیت اجتماعی و عوامل موثر بر آن (نمونه موردی: شهر ایذه) می باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی از نوع کاربردی-نظری می باشد. اطلاعات لازم به صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی جمع آوری شده است. جامعه آماری همه شهروندان 15سال به بالای شهر ایذه می باشد که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران نمونه ای به حجم 348 نفر به دست آمده است. در مرحله بعدی اطلاعات جمع آوری شده از طریق نرم افزار SPSS تجزیه و تحلیل و نتایج به صورت جداول ارائه شده است. برای ویرایش نقشه ها از نرم افزار سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی کمک گرفته شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد پنج ناحیه شهر ایذه از نظر مکانی احساس ناامنی می کنند که ساکنان ناحیه شرقی بیشترین احساس ناامنی و ناحیه غربی کمترین احساس ناامنی را دارند. بین پنج ناحیه شهر ایذه از نظر احساس امنیت مکانی تفاوت وجود دارد اما از نظر احساس امنیت اجتماعی تفاوتی وجود ندارد. همچنین بین مدت زمان سکونت در محله با احساس امنیت اجتماعی شهروندان رابطه وجود ندارد، اما بین سطح رضایت مندی نسبت به محله، حس تعلق و مالکیت و حس امنیت و آرامش نسبت به محله مسکونی با احساس ناامنی اجتماعی شهروندان رابطه معکوس و معناداری وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس امنیت، امنیت اجتماعی، امنیت دینی و اعتقادی، شهروندان، ایذه
  • محمدرضا اخوان عبدالهیان، مسعود تقوایی، حمیدرضا وارثی صفحات 107-126
    یکی از موضوعات مهم از دیدگاه پدافند غیرعامل و مدیریت بحران، شناسایی مکان های مناسب جهت استقرار مراکز اسکان و امداد مصدومین به منظور ساماندهی سریع آسیب دیدگان است. ازاین رو پژوهش حاضر به دنبال شناسایی شاخص های کارآمد جهت مکان یابی مراکز اسکان و امداد و همچنین اولویت بندی این شاخص ها با توجه به شرایط شهر سبزوار است. در این تحقیق ابتدا شاخص های عمده مکان یابی مراکز اسکان و امداد با استفاده از روش تاپسیس اولویت بندی گردیده و سپس بر مبنای شاخص های اولویت بندی شده، مکان یابی مراکز اسکان و امداد برای شهر سبزوار با کمک روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی انجام شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که معیارهای نزدیکی به کاربری های مسکونی، نزدیکی به مراکز درمانی، نزدیکی به ایستگاه آتش نشانی، دسترسی مناسب به راه ها و دوری از تاسیسات شهری خطرناک در مکان یابی مراکز اسکان و امداد دارای بیشترین اهمیت می باشد. همچنین با توجه به شرایط و ویژگی های شهر سبزوار معیارهای نزدیکی به کاربری های مسکونی و دسترسی مناسب به راه های دسترسی دارای بیشترین اولویت در مکان یابی این مراکز می باشد. در نهایت بر مبنای معیارهای اولویت بندی شده مشخص گردید بهترین مکان برای مراکز اسکان و امداد در شمال، شمال غرب، جنوب و غرب شهر سبزوار به ترتیب واقع درحوالی خیابان های طالقانی، میدان دکتر علی شریعتی، خیابان امام رضا و خیابان امام خمینی می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: اولویت بندی، تاپسیس، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، مراکز اسکان و امداد، سبزوار، مکان یابی، مدیریت بحران
  • احمد پوراحمد، امیرحسین خادمی، مسلم ضرغام فرد صفحات 127-139
    امروزه با پیچیده شدن ساختارهای شهری، مشارکت شهروندان در امور شهرها دیگر یک انتخاب و حتی حق شهروندی نبوده، بلکه نیازی در اجرا و پیشبرد امور قلمداد می گردد. این نیاز، در فرآیند نوسازی بافت های فرسوده شهری به عنوان رویکرد اصلی در توسعه درونی شهرها، نیز ضروری می نماید. منطقه 14 شهرداری تهران از جمله مناطقی در این شهر است که در بخش غربی خود سطح گسترده ای از بافت فرسوده را در خود جای داده و زمینه ساز بروز مشکلاتی برای ساکنان شده است. در این راستا هدف از این پژوهش بررسی زمینه های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، محیطی و نهادی موثر در افزایش تمایل ساکنین این منطقه به مشارکت در فرآیند نوسازی و همچنین شناخت شاخص های اصلی در این زمینه جهت پیشبرد امور مشارکتی در بافت های فرسوده سایر نقاط کشور بوده است. بدین منظور اقدام به توزیع 380 پرسش نامه در میان ساکنین محلات گردید. تحلیل نتایج این پرسش نامه ها با استفاده نرم افزار SPSS نشان داده است که میزان تمایل ساکنان به مشارکت در سطح متوسط بوده و نبود تصویری از چشم انداز آینده محله پس از فرآیند نوسازی، مهم ترین معرفی بوده که تاثیرب قوی بر کاهش تمایل به مشارکت داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: ابعاد کیفیت زندگی، بافت فرسوده، مشارکت مردمی، منطقه 14 تهران
  • علی اکبر عنابستانی، معصومه حسینی، هاشم طالبی صفحات 141-159
    صنعت گردشگری بالاخص در کشورهای جهان سوم چون ایران اهمیت بسزایی دارد. از پیش نیازهای توسعه این صنعت نیز احساس امنیت گردشگران می باشد. به طوری که نبود امنیت می تواند این صنعت را با مشکلات عدیده ای روبه رو سازد. شهر شاندیز با داشتن جاذبه های متعدد طبیعی و فرهنگی سالانه پذیرای گردشگران بی شماری است و گردشگری در این شهر یکی از مهم ترین منابع اقتصادی به شمار می رود. در این راستا هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش پلیس (به عنوان نهاد تامین کننده امنیت) بر امنیت گردشگران شهر شاندیز تعیین شد. برای سنجش این عوامل، نظرات 384 نفر از گردشگران داخلی وارد شده به این شهر در سال 1394 با استفاده از نمونه گیری در دسترس اخذ گردید. ماهیت پژوهش کاربردی و روش آن پیمایشی- توصیفی بوده و داده ها از طریق پرسش نامه جمع آوری گردیده است. روایی محتوا و صوری پرسش نامه تحقیق از طریق مشخص شدن سوالات با توجه به مولفه های استخراج شده از پژوهش های معتبر گذشته و از طریق قضاوت تعدادی از اساتید و کارشناسان حوزه گردشگری مورد بررسی و تایید قرار گرفت. همچنین ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بزرگ تر از 7/0 برای سازه های مختلف پرسش نامه، پایایی آن را مورد تایید قرار داد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از روش رگرسیون چندگانه، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و آزمونتی تک نمونه ای به کمک نرم افزارspss استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر اینست که میان تمامی مولفه های نقش پلیس(توانایی، عملکرد، جدیت) و مولفه های احساس امنیت گردشگران (مالی، جانی و فضاهای شهری) رابطه ای معنادار و مثبت وجود دارد. همچنین نقش عملکرد پلیس بیشترین تاثیرگذاری را بر احساس امنیت گردشگران شهر شاندیز دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، امنیت، پلیس، شهر شاندیز
  • حسن محمودزاده، خلیل دیده بان، سیدعلی صادق زاده سادات صفحات 161-175
    امروزه با افزایش جمعیت و رشد سریع شهرنشینی تغییراتی اساسی در کاربری اراضی شهرها ایجاد شده است. که نیازمند مدیریت و برنامه ریزی برای توسعه شهری با توجه به تغییرات ایجاد شده در کاربری های شهری می باشد و شهر مهاباد از این قاعده مستثنی نمی باشد. در این مقاله سعی شده است با استفاده از مدل رگرسیون لجستیک میزان تغییرات کاربری اراضی شهری و توسعه آتی شهر مهاباد با در نظر گرفتن معیارهای خطوط انتقال نیرو، مخاطراتی (گسل، زمین لغزش)، سازندهای زمینهشناسی، رودخانه و شیب در بازه زمانی 1365-1393 و توسعه آن تا سال 1420 با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره لندست 8 و 5 مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. برای این کار ابتدا اقدام به تهیه نقشه های کاربری اراضی برای دو دوره زمانی1365 و 1393 در محیط نرم افزاری اکوگنیشن کردیم و با بررسی نقشه های کاربری حاصل مقدار اراضی ساخته شده شهر مهاباد در سال 1365 برابر 989.932 هکتار و در سال 1393 وسعت آن حدود دو برابر افزایش یافته و به وسعتی به مساحت 2000.02 رسیده است. تحت تاثیر این عوامل، روند رشد و توسعه شهر از وسعت کاربری های غیرساخته شده به مساحت 1422.3545 هکتار کاسته و بر وسعت اراضی ساخته شده افزوده است به طوری که با استفاده از مدل رگرسیون و معیارهای در نظر گرفته شده، مقدار پیش بینی آن برای سال 1420 مساحتی به مقدار 3434.02 هکتار می باشد. همچنین سناریوی اثرات توسعه شهر بر محیط زیست و تاثیرپذیری از مخاطرات با روش فازی در محیط آرک جی ای اس مورد بررسی واقع شد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل رگرسیون لجستیک، شهر مهاباد، تغییرات کاربری، توسعه شهری
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  • Mohammad Ajza Shokouhi, Reza Samadi, Nosrat Alah Goudarzi, Mohammad Ghanbari Pages 1-18
    Introduction
    From about the 1950s, extraordinary growth of cities and increase of urban population have led to excessive growth of settlements in cities (Muhallab Taha, 2001(. This growth caused an unprecedented rise in land prices (Zaheri & Pour- Mohammadi, 2006). Land is an essential element in urban expansion and development (Vander Molen, 2002). Therefore, quality and quantity of land supply for development and expansion play an important role in the development of urban norms or anomalies (Hadily & Mehrzad, 2009).
    High prices of land result in the creation of disorders in cities construction including building violations, which are as the most important disorders (Mokhtari Azad, 2009). Building violations are generally committed with the aims of greater individual benefit or increasing utilization of land, regardless of land uses type, construction regulations and coefficients related to the density, occupancy rate, zoning (Hosseini, 2006). Despite these, there are laws and administrative factors such as municipalities that constantly inspect the building violations, why building violations are committed (Zangi Abadi, Ghaed Rahmati, & Safaei, 2009). In cities, laws should be enforced to prevent building violations, and people should see that they can expect others to obey the laws and regulations of the city (Galbraith, 1998).
    The present research is aimed to study the causes of building violations in districts three and nine of Mashhad, with emphasis on the rules of city construction.
    Theoretical Framework : In general, building violations include: inattention to regulations in urban construction and violation of construction regulations (Masum,2001). Most of the building violations committed in big cities are due to factors such as high population density, hugely expensive land and housing, cost-effective construction (Bahmani Monfarad & Kalantari, 2012). Despite these violations, resident's peace will be disturbed and urban life will be faced with chaos. So there must be regulations to prevent building violations in cities (Galbraith, 1998), Otherwise, we must expect effects and consequences of these violations for residents in cities and especially in Mashhad city in the near or distant future.
    Methodology
    The research method was descriptive – explanatory, and the statistical population of the research was building violators of districts three and nine in Mashhad city. Cochran's test was used to determine sample size. Sample size was over 176 cases and data was obtained through questionnaires completed by building violators.
    Results And Discussion
    To compare the rate of building violations and the fines paid in districts three and nine of Mashhad city, t-test was used. Test results showed that the average rate of building violations in districts nine and 3 were 57.6 and 34.5 square meters per residential unit, respectively. In this test, the value of t was 2.055, and the significance level of the test was confirmed at 0.95. Furthermore, for mean comparison of fines paid for building violations per residential unit in districts three and nine of Mashhad city, independent parametric t test was used. The average fine paid for building violations in the city of Mashhad was 17040721 Rials per residential unit in district nine and 5574234 Rials in district three. In this test, the value of t was 2.719 and the significance level of the test was confirmed at 0.95. Thus, it can be concluded that by increase of building violation's rate in district nine compared to district three, the amount of fine paid for violations also increased proportionally. Multiple regression test with Stepwise method was used to study the factors affecting building violations in districts three and nine of Mashhad city. All independent variables including the cost-effectiveness of committing building violations, length of time to get a building permit, limitation of detailed plan regulations in offering additional density, violation of some municipality authorities (such as accepting bribes) and the lack of inspection by building engineers were integrated into the regression model. The variables of cost-effectiveness of building violations commitment and lack of inspection by building engineers remained in the model, and other variables were removed from the model. Therefore, in this study, the aforementioned factors were known as the most important causes of building violations in districts three and nine of Mashhad city.
    Conclusion and Suggestions : The results of the present research show that the factors of cost-effectiveness of building violations committing with beta 0.38 and lack of close supervision by building consultant engineers with beta 0.36 are the most important factors influencing the increase in these two urban regions. This is because people can earn more income from adding an extra floor to their building and selling it, while they only pay a small percentage of that profit for fine.The most important suggestions in relation to the reduction of building violations in the above-mentioned districts of Mashhad are:• Reducing municipalitie's revenue related to the building violations
    • Emphasis on the development of sustainable revenues of municipalities
    • Implementing of destructive orders for building violations, in which their demolition is necessary, and not changing article commotions of 100 from demolition to financial penalties.
    Keywords: Building violation's reasons, Article commotions of 100, Zones 3, 9 of Mashhad
  • Raziyeh Teimouri, Rasoul Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza Pourmohammadi, Mohsen Ahadnejad Pages 19-33
    Introduction
    The important roles played by green space are the social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects of sustainable development. Thus, the quality and quantity of green space should be appropriate to the physical size of the city and the needs of society and also it should be developed according to the ecological conditions of the city and its future development trend. Therefore, development of urban green spaces results in urban ecological development and causes the promotion of urban life level and sustainable development of cities.
    For having all residents access green spaces and having reasonable green space per capita and also distribution of these breathing lungs in all neighborhoods of cities, creating active green spaces with continuous environmental performance is important. The process of dealing with urban green spaces from the past indicates that if this trend continues, destructions and green spaces land use changes; the result can be a threat to sustainable development and ecological balance in Tabriz city and even in the region.
    This research by analyzing the existing per capita and comparing it with the standards, estimates the required green space area for all locals of Tabriz. Also by network analysis of Tabriz passages, it tries to analyze the accessibility of local parks in terms of access walking time and estimate areas that are outside the radius of citizen's access for consideration of city managers and authorities for future plans.
    The definition of urban green spaces which is agreed on by ecologists, economists, social scientists and planners is public and private open spaces in urban areas, primarily covered by vegetation, which are directly (recreational function) or indirectly (has an impact on the urban environment) available for the users(Shah & Atiqul, 2011,). According to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development Studies, conventional and acceptable per capita for urban green spaces in cities is between 7 to 12 square meters per person. That in comparison with the index set by the United Nations environment (20 to 25 square meters per person), is low. However, in cities across the country, this figure, according to the different geographical and climatic characteristics is different, which the approved plans of each city determines it ( Akbarpour Saraskanroud, Garakhlou ,Norouzi., 2009).
    Methodology
    This research is applied research and has descriptive¬-¬analytical methods. In this study, according to the current master plan of Tabriz metropolitan, which is currently being prepared, local parks per capita in deferent districts were assessed separately. Existing per capita was compared with the standard per capita for local parks and green spaces till deficiencies were extracted. Also, their impact on ecological and environmental conditions of the locals was investigated. In this study, per capita criteria, is intended 9 square meters based on the master plan of Tabriz. Also to estimate the level of citizen's access to local parks, with using network analysis in GIS software, Tabriz metropolitan resident's access to local parks and green spaces have been measured. Normal walking speed is about 0.75 to 1.2 meters per second, and in this study walking speed is considered about 4 km per hour. With the designing of access networks in Tabriz, all parks’ service areas were determined by defining the maximum interval (15 minutes). According to the standards the radius of neighborhood parks function is about 600 to 800 and sometimes up to 1000 meters. In this study, three accessible time areas for citizens 5, 10 and 15 minutes were determined by using network analysis in GIS software. For doing this analysis, the data related to access network in Tabriz city and the position of existing parks, the GIS maps from Tabriz Municipality, Department of Planning and Architecture were used.
    Discussion
    According to the studies, Tabriz metropolitan, following the increasing speed of the city's physical development, especially in recent decades, has been extremely damaged about important ecological elements, especially in green spaces and has increasingly lost these valuable spaces for the economic benefit in the form of urban projects and physical development of the city. The importance of local parks because of accessibility of all citizens for recreation and ecological benefits is more than any other green space in larger scales. The studying of area and local park’s per capita in the entire city, shows the lack of parks in the city, especially in dense urban texture and including districts of 8, 4 and 3 Tabriz municipality.Also by using network analysis, citizen's access to local parks in all districts were measured separately and according to this study 5, 9 and 7 districts have the least access to parks.
    Conclusion
    Considering research findings, per capita deficit and access problems to local parks and green spaces cause ecological and environmental problems in the city areas, especially in dense locals of Tabriz. Thus, for having ecological benefits of urban green spaces, especially in the locals, planning for urban parks and green spaces in proportion to the density and texture of urban localities to increase the green space per capita and consequently good access to the city's vital elements, is one of the requirements of urban planning for urban development.
    Keywords: Local green spaces, Tabriz, Network analysis, Per capita, Access, Ecological approach
  • Neda Malekzadeh, Mehdi Bazzazzadeh, Mojtaba Rafieiyan Pages 35-52
    Introduction
    At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, future studies (foresight) have been involved in the discovery, innovation and assessment of possible, probable and desirable futures as well as analyzing past procedures; such an approach is the objective evidence of what Gaston Berger has stated about the future, that is “see the future and disrupt its framework” (Godet, 2006, p. 2). Stable planning based on scenario design with the foresight approach has been the major focus of future development planning in countries willing to achieve fundamental developments (Tadbir, 2007).
    The growth in competition among metropolitans in national and transnational levels, increase of limitations regarding natural resources, manpower, and financial capacities, along with declining of power as to pay for problems as well as the intensification of complexities and uncertainties concerning the development and management systems in metropolitan areas are a set of realities that metropolitans face nowadays. Methods of designing developmental policies based on insights and understanding the future threats and opportunities require skill and foresight. A foresight concerning the development of metropolitan areas as a systematic process is a form of collaboration to shape long-term perspectives. In fact, through establishing connections as well as providing organization among entities, foresight is a process that helps planners to design suitable plans with developmental purposes.
    In the area of urban and regional development, using foresight in facing the future has become one of the inseparable components of planning processes. The conventional strategic planning processes during the past few decades have been mostly focusing on reducing uncertainties, and paying attention to the values and configurations of systems as to decrease the complexities and facilitate performances. Most of such insufficiencies have emerged due to the absence of predictions regarding future certainties, lack of focus on technological impacts and advances, neglecting exterritorial development procedures, the effects of global competitions on planning components or inadvertencies toward the driving forces of development and key factors affecting future development challenges. Lack of identification and involvement of key forces influencing metropolitan development have resulted in gradual weakening of such factors which in the end, has led to the omission of development processes or impacting them adversely. Therefore, through focusing on an extensive range of future consequences by employing collaborative, discursive approaches in the planning area, the foresight approach emphasizes on finding main factors along with the propellants of development; in this manner, uncertainties in planning processes can be taken into account and through gaining authority as to control and manage what is yet to come, a desirable future can be built.
    Karaj metropolitan area as a supplement to Tehran is the case being studied in the present research, which occupies a special position within the territory of Tehran metropolitan area and involves cultural and ethnic diversities, particular capacities in areas such as transportation, agriculture, tourism, natural resources, human capital, etc. as well as potential threats such as security concerns, environmental issues, etc.
    On one hand, Karaj metropolitan area is the junction of pathways among thirteen provinces in the country; on the other hand, through the existence of very high natural capabilities, it is also known as the central city garden of Iran. Being located adjacent to the Capital as well as its position concerning regional development processes along with the overflow of immigrants, have caused Karaj metropolitan area to act as the supplement to the Capital. Moreover, the speed of environmental, political, administrative, financial, social and cultural developments in Karaj metropolitan area is very significant to the extent to which employing an expansionist (against growth), futuristic approach is deemed necessary more than ever.
    Method
    Through the cross-impact analysis method as a recognized approach to do foresight as well as using the MicMac software, the present study is an attempt to analyze various components of development in Karaj metropolitan area. In this regard, 37 major components have been extracted from powerful documents. Then, these components have been adjusted in cross-impact matrices using the Delphi method of management. Using the averaging method among 15 designed matrices, the resulting final matrix has been analyzed through MicMac software.
    Results
    According to the results extracted from the employed model, the urban system of Karaj has been found to be unstable; furthermore, “the organization of special aspects in tourism using environmental qualities and aesthetic corridors” as well as “the development of complex functional sets around metro stations” to some extent, act as regulating factors. Regulating factors can be the main motivation as to move towards achieving a sustainable system.
    The interesting point regarding the obtained analysis is that through authorities’ perspective, none of the developmental components of Karaj can be defined as the objective; such an issue implies the multilateral nature of urban development in Karaj, from the view of authorities.
    According to the outputs of the model, due to lack of complete compliance on diagonal axis, none of the factors belong to the risk factor group unconditionally; yet the two factors of “developing urban electronic infrastructure” and “providing safety against unexpected accidents” have been very close to the diagonal axis of the chart (risk axis). Furthermore, due to their closeness to the diagonal axis of the chart, factors such as “organization and improvement of distressed and historical areas of the city”, “fair distribution of urban services”, “development of suburban transportation network”, “empowerment of non-government organizations along with cultural and ethnic ties”, and “development of cultural and religious centers throughout the city” can be extended and transformed to risk factors.
    Factors including “greenhouse improvement”, “development of cultural, educational and academic centers”, “expansion of science and technology parks”, “enlargement and optimization of urban transportation networks”, “changing the combination of activities in favor of commercial actions throughout the city”, “development of innovative and technological infrastructures of industry” and “preparation for increasing social, financial, cultural and political participation of citizens in the development procedures of the city” have been considered among independent factors.
    Finally, the outputs of the software show that “the development of tourism industry” and “internal urban development” would have the utmost impacts on the development process of Karaj city.
    Conclusion
    Due to immense developments in a limited period of time, the city of Karaj is faced with a set of consequences in which many obstacles and problems lie in the way of the city’s development. According to expert and background analysis as well as implicit studies, one may also infer the fact that the said system would be an unstable one.
    According to a tacit, contextual understanding of scholars which is confirmed by the results of the study, factors such as “organization and improvement of distressed and historical areas of the city”, “fair distribution of urban services”, and “development of suburban transportation network” are the main factors regarding the risk position in the city of Karaj.
    In this regard, “the industry of supportive services in agriculture” as one of the most important components of secondary leverage can be used as a development motivator. According to the views of urban managers, absence of a purpose factor within the analysis of cross-impact pattern indicates the fact that none of the developmental factors of Karaj is currently capable of being transformed into a function with development purposes.
    Keywords: The key factors of development, Foresight, Cross effects, MICMAC, Karaj metropolitan
  • Hashem Dadashpour, Davod Azizi, Peyman Asgharzade Pages 53-68
    Introduction
    With the growth and development of cities in the present era and also the extreme increase in urban issues, the continuation of these issues has caused jeopardized life in the cities. The theory of livability and sustainable development seeks to create a safe and healthy environment for human societies. Livability is a concept that integrates economic, social, environmental and physical dimensions. To prevent one-dimensionalility and reductivity of livability, a network of relationships should be considered among the various criteria. The goal of the present research is offering components of neighborhoods livability assessment based on world literature and using these components in determining the livability and ranking of Harandi, Kosar, and Takhte's neighborhoods.
    The theoretical lens of this research is livability theory. Livability, as one of the major issues in urban sustainability, refers to urban systems where the socio-cultural, economic, physical and psychological health of all residents must be considered. In this paper, using the theory and related indicators, researchers evaluate and assess the livability of neighborhoods of Harandi, Kosar and Takhti in 12 district municipalities of Tehran. We have argued how much these neighborhoods have been livable with regard to being located in contiguity of the Grand Marketplace of Tehran.
    Methodology
    The research methodology is descriptive-analytic with practical purposes. Indicators and components of research have been extracted using the existing literature. Through field surveys and questionnaires data were obtained from residents. Analysis of data was done by the Excel software. For evaluating and ranking the livability of neighborhoods, Electre model was used. For obtaining scores of indicators and components to evaluate livability of neighborhoods, we reviewed and analyzed the questionnaires. The components were obtained according to the average citizen's comments on the questionnaires. Qualitative characteristics of the rating "very low" to "very high" were allocated to them. Subsequently, using an interval bipolar scale the qualitative criteria were changed to quantitative criteria.
    Results
    The results show that there are differences among the studied neighborhoods in terms of livability. In the final matrix Electre neighborhood Harandi had 0 points, Kosar 1 point and 2 points were allocated to Takhti neighborhood. According to the results, s Takhti neighborhood has the most compatibility with the principles and elements of livability. One significant reason for high livability of this neighborhood was low commercial uses and low storage-related services to the market. That is why this neighborhood has historical memory and identity for residents. Although many factors can contribute to the livability of neighborhoods of Tehran, in the little livability neighborhoods of the study, development of commercial-service applications and services on the market and the loss of a sense of belonging among citizens have the most negative impact. This effect is more visible and tangible in the neighborhood of Harandi. According to these results, neighborhoods of Takhti in aspect of livability components have higher level than other neighborhoods, and neighborhoods of Kosar and Harandi are placed after Takhti with regard to livability.
    Conclusion
    Kosar and harandi because of the dominance of commercial-service and warehousing functions for the market and the lack of a sense of belonging to the neighborhood have less livability than Takhti neighborhood. The negative impact of the trend market on the surrounding neighborhood due to its economic power becomes more and more powerful day by day. According to the analysis conducted on the three neighborhoods that are at the core of Tehran metropolis, there can be strategies to reduce negative impacts of the market on neighborhoods and steps to increase the livability of that, which has been emphasized in several instances: - Special planning for social life in the city;
    - Increased participation of local people in the management and operation of neighborhoods;
    - The empowerment of residents to improve their economic and social status;
    - Spatial organization of business-services market and preventing the spread of uncontrolled and unbridled warehouses in the neighborhoods;
    - Exploiting of the strong economic potential of the market in order to create appropriate jobs, infrastructure for residents of neighborhoods and increase the continuity of their residence;
    - With regard to low participation among neighborhoods that were studied and specially the neighborhood of harandi, we can increase effective and more interaction among residents by creating appropriate and diverse places, and public spaces for increasing communications among residents. This creates greater participation and a sense of more responsibility towards problems among the residents of the neighborhoods.
    Keywords: Livability, Quality of life, Electre model, Metropolis, Tehran
  • Saeed Zanganeh Shahraki, Bagher Fotouhi Mehrabani, Mohammad Porakrami, Mohammad Reza Soleimanzadeh Pages 69-85
    Introduction
    The philosophy of creative city is that there is always a capacity much greater thanit seems (Saeidi, 2011).Creative city is a new approach to urban planning that explains how to make people think, plan and act creatively in their cities and it demonstrates how we can make our cities livable, dynamic and sustainable throughusingtheideas and talents of people (Landry, 2012).Given the importance of the creative city in economic, social, cultural and urban renewal, the main researchquestionis to what degree has Tehrantaken astep towards the application of the concept of the creative city? It is a fact that Tehran has a very high capacity andpotentialof thecreative citybecause of its diverse cultural and historical background, political and administrative centralization and industrial centers, cultural and educational and administrative land use and services that have accumulated in it.According to the mentioned subjects above, the main objective of this study is to assess Tehran's status and capability in accessibility to indicators of the creative city.It has used the Creative City Index (CCI) to achieve this goal and to measure creativity in Tehran.Then, the state of this city was compared with that of other cities of the world to determine its relative position to better understand the situation of creativity in Tehran.
    Methodology
    The current studyin terms ofthe categoriesis and applied - developmental research and its methodology is descriptive - analytic.Fordatacollection, there have beentwodocumentaries and the libraryandthe required data was collected from affiliate organizationsin Tehran,the statisticsagency as wellas some data from theinternational organization and resources.To collect statisticsof thestudyinsix international cities, surveys of Beijing AcademyofScience and Technology Research Center inabout creative cities were used.CCI has proposed in 2010 by the Academy of Beijing Science and Technology Research Center.Also in this study, VIKOR was used in order to rank the studied cities and Shannon entropy forweights ofthe index.
    Results
    Due to the use of VIKOR to rank the cities, the city of Cardiff and London (in the UK), respectively, ranked first and second. Brisbane, Berlin, Melbourne, Bremen have the ranks of third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh place is the city of Tehran, respectively. Tehran has a high distance from other cities in most indexes of the creative city, even though in some of them it has a moderate state. To understand the issue better, we are going to mention each of the five criteria and indicators related to them that are studied separately to determinate the position of cities, especially Tehran's position on each of the criteria and indicators.
    Among cultural and art indicators, Tehran has a good status in some of them like, the numberof charitableorganizationsper 10,000 people, the number of peopleentering the cinema and partly on the index of a number of peopleentering libraries.The best place of this city among 15 indicators in this part is the index of a numberof charitableorganizationsper 10,000people that has the second position after London. Tehran has to work very much in some indicators such asaccommodations for foreign tourists, the number of hotels, cinemas, cinema seats, concert hall and theater, museum, library, tourist facilities and a number of festivals.
    Tehran has a better situation in the number of Arts and Cultural University for higher education per 10,000people, and partly in the index of the number of higher education institutions per 10,000 people. Themost importantofthese factors can be because of a centralized system and centralization facilities and services in the capital city.Furthermore, it has not a good rank in comparison with other cities in some other indexes like the percent of people whoare activeinthe research and developmentof the activitiesof the total population, the percentageofgraduated students fromuniversities.
    Tehran does not have a good status in indicators of globalization. Geographer John Rennin Short in his article justified some causes of this low rank. He called "black holes" for some cities. Black holes are cities where they have a good capacity and position for having a good geographic location, human resources but they could not have an active role in the global system. He believed Tehran is a city which has a potential of a global city but because of the challenge with the political system, it could not be able to enter into global cities network yet and the global economy as well.
    In terms of technology indicators, Tehran does not have a good status either. With regard to the role of information technology andespeciallythe Internet in providing innovative and creative areas of the city residents, some reasons have created this problem like the Internet being expensive, and poor quality and lack of width among the most importantbroadband of Internet in the country.
    Among diversity and resilience indicators, its position is not bad totally. Among 39 indexes studied in this research, Tehran has the best rank only in the index of the percentage of the population aged 15-24 from the total population.
    Conclusion
    Tehran with all its potential has the substrates for the formation of the creative city, but it has deficiencies in many of the creative city indicators. The result, especially in the field of diversity and tolerance shows that if Tehran wants to go toward the creative city through the Florida theory (the attraction of international creative class), it will be unsuccessful, however Tehran is likely to be successful in attracting the creative class inside Iran, but in fact, according to the results of research and specific ideological confrontation with the global economic system, Tehran does not have the ability of competition with American and European cities in attracting the international creative class. In other words, while Tehran has fundamental deficiencies in maintaining its creative class, it cannot be successful in the attraction of international creative class. However, according to the finding Tehran has two solutions for the realization of the creative city. Firstly, improving the creative urban environment, and then maintaining creative citizens and creative class through providing decent living conditions and fulfilling their expectations.
    Keywords: Creative city, CCI Index, Training, retaincreativecitizens, Tehran
  • Nahid Sajjadian, Parivash Oraky, Morteza Nemati Pages 87-105
    Introduction
    Security is one of the basic requirements for a city and a tenet for the emergence and persistence of urban comfort that get further importance, and are extended as urbanism and urban population density rises (Shaiye, 2007). The Social Security as part of the social, economic and political policy within each unit is of great importance (Orkut, 2015). The concept of social security and citizen's sense of security can be a key element in order to achieve the ideal city and away from harm-urban and social biases be considered.
    In fact, feeling of insecurity is a major obstacle to a citizen’s social activities especially in certain arenas,which causes the continuation and intensification of certain social anomalies, while on the other hand,it reduces identity values and social capital. Thus, the study and identification of influential factors in this regard are very important. The problem is that the city of Izeh in recent years has faced rising criminal charges as the city has had physical growth and fluctuations in its population. Therefore, this research aims to examine the sense of social security of citizens and the factors affecting it in Izeh. The principal questions are as follows: Are urban spaces, as a factor in citizen's feeling of insecurity, effective? Do the sense of belonging to the neighborhood, knowing the neighborhood and the duration of residence in the neighborhood affect the citizen's feeling of security?
    Method
    The research was an applied and descriptive-analytic research. The data were gathered using library search and field study (questionnaires and interviews).The target population included all citizens over 15 years of age of the five districts of Izeh. Cochran formula was used to obtain a sample of 322 people. To have high accuracy, 347 samples were selected according to the population of each region. For the reliability of the questions, the questionnaireswere distributed to 30 residents. TheCronbach's alpha coefficient was0.81 percent, which showed that the internal correlation of variables wasgreat. Finally the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software.For map editing, GIS software(Krigin model) was used.The city of Izehis the capital of Izeh province with a population of 5115 in 1966 and 122013 people in the2011 census.In fact, 116,898 people were added to Izeh population during the years 1966-2011.
    Results
    According to the results of the questionnaires distributed in five districts, 53.89% of the population were females and 46.10% were males. The results show that given the obtained mean, citizens of Izeh have feeling of spatial insecurity. Eastern citizen's feeling of insecurity is the highest, while western citizen's feeling of insecurity is the lowest.
    In this study, according to the mean obtained from the five districts, the eastern region is one of the poorest and most disadvantagedspaces. In terms of spatial security, they have the worst condition with mean of 2.3. Among the five districts of the city, there is difference regarding the sense of spatial security, but there is no difference regarding feeling of social security. Furthermore, the duration of residence in the neighborhood has no relationship with feeling of social security of citizens.On the contrary, the results ofFathiand Rezvan showed that the duration of residence in the neighborhood has a relationship with feeling of insecurity among citizens. However, the satisfaction level of the neighborhood, a sense of belonging and ownership, and a sense of security and comfort inthe residential neighborhood has a significant inverse relationship with the citizen's feeling of insecurity.
    Conclusion
    The Criminology Research Center in Paris states that 23 percent of young offenders find a chance to commit crime in urban spaces with high population density and housing problems, which can be a reminder that urban structure and its problems can affect the rate of crime and consequently affect the security of citizens. This can involve the possibility of drop in the sense of security from the perspective of citizens in terms of economic, cultural and even religious issues. That is why strategies focusing on citizen safetycan affect all aspects of policy and decision making processes in the field of urban planning.According to Jacobs (1961), Volleyball and Fallic (2006) and according to the results obtained from the London Conference, when resident's feeling of security about their living place rises, it makes the people have control and supervision over their neighborhood, followed by a sense of ownership and belonging together. This increases satisfaction, which increases resident's relative comfort.
    Keywords: Citizens, Izeh, Security feeling, Social security, Urban space
  • Mohammadreza Akhavan Abdollahian, Masood Taghvaei, Hamid Reza Varesi Pages 107-126
    Introduction
    One of the important issues in crisis management is providing settlement and help to the injured. In fact, the location of rescue and help centers should be designed in such a way that after the incident, there is the best chance ofgiving response to victims. In this regard, one of the important tasks of urban planners is to identify suitable locations for evacuation and settlement centers after an accident. Sabzevarn as an important city over the past few decades and located in Khorasan Razavi province has witnessed a rapid development. According to its placement near the borders of East, it has different potentials and needs a Crisis Management Study. Therefore, the present study, in the first stage, intends to identify efficient measures to locate rescue and evacuation centers and to prioritize these indicators according to the conditions of Sabzevar. Then in the next stage, the research locates these centers in the city of Sabzevar. According to the conceptual framework, it can be concluded that the issue of location of rescue and settelment centers is in connection with the discussion of passive defense. This is also in line with actions before the event and at the municipal level (local) of crisis management.
    Method
    In terms of objectives, the study is applied, and according to the nature, it is analytical-descriptive (case study). Data were collect from library resources as well as a series of reports, documents and statistics.In the literature review, domestic and international sources have been used. Furthermore, in the prioritization of criteria in Sabzevar, case study method is used.The aim of this study is to identify appropriate and efficient indicators to locate evacuation and help centers.The study also seeks to prioritize the conditions and criteria with regard to the existing conditions in Sabzevar. Thus, first, the main domestic and international literature review have been searched for concepts related to passive defense. Then appropriate indicators have been identified for the location of evacuation and rescue centers. The next step is to review the documents and maps ofSabzevar to prioritize criteria in order of importance.
    Results And Discussion
    After knowing the location of evacuation and rescue centers, it is necessary to prioritize these criteria and to arrange them in order of importance according to the research goal. The study revealed criteria and their priorities for the location of evacuation and rescue centers in Sabzevar by TOPSIS model. For this purpose, three variables including time of victim's arrival in evacuation centers, rescue services by officials andthe decrease of vulnerability.Finally, after the calculation with TOPSIS model, it became clear that the criterion of proximity to residential areas has the highest priority in positioning of rescue centers in the city of Sabzevar. On the one hand, due to relatively high population density in the central urban regions of Sabzevar and increase the vulnerability of these areas in the event of an accident, and on the other hand because of the importance arrival time of residents and victims in the centers, this criterion is the most important in Sabzevar. Being close to the road network in the city of Sabzevarhadthe second priority.In addition, criteria for proximity to the fire station, proximity to medical centers and distancefrom dangerous urban facilities had respectively the third and fourth priorities.
    Then, the positioningof rescue centers inSabzevar was performed using analytic hierarchy process. In this study, the positioning of rescue centers was done according to previous prioritized criteria and using AHP-GIS techniques. The results showed to find the location of rescue centers was in Sabzevar, according to the criteria of having access roads,the best location is in the proximity of grade-1roads. Also according to the criteria for residential use and treatment, the best location is around the area, in which residential areas and health centers are adjacent. According to the criteria of distance from dangerous urban utility centers,the location of centers in the proximity of these dangerous infrastructures is not appropriate. Finally, all the mentioned criteria and sub criteria are analyzed uniformly and locations that were individually determined in each criterion were combined.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that criteria including proximity to residential areas, closeness to health centers and fire stations, access to roads and distance from dangerous urban utility centers have the most important roles in positioning of settlement and rescue centers. Then for positioning the rescue centers by AHP-GIS method, these criteria were displayed in form of locations, and finally it was determined that the best location for establishment of rescue centers is north, northwest, south and west of Sabzevar, which respectively include Taleghani St, Dr. ShariatiSq, Imam Reza St and Imam Khomeini St.
    Keywords: Prioritization, TOPSIS model, Analytic hierarchy process, Rescue, settlement centers in Sabzevar, Positioning, Crisis management
  • Ahmad Pourahmad, Amirhossein Khademi, Moslem Zargham Farad Pages 127-139
    Introduction
    Nowadays, many cities’ older areas face different problems due to the population growth, urban sprawl and lack of new services to old city centers (Asadian&Sayahi,2012), increasing the rate of urban deterioration as a living creature (Lotfi&Malekshahi,2011), turning them into the residence of low-income immigrants (Khademi &Jokar,2015). Consequently, in order to reconstruct and prevent further distressing of such areas, urban managers have conducted various plans in cities; most of them were unsuccessful (Maleki,2005). One of the most important factors which hinders achieving the goals of such plannings can be attributed to the lack of public participation (Zadeh &Andalib,2014). Participation can be described as a social, public, coherent, multi-dimensional and multi-cultural process whose purpose is to attract people to play their role at every stage of development. The mentioned process, possesses various specific institutional, social, economic and cultural aspects which are vital to improve the level of participations. In the comprehensive plan for the 14th municipal district, this city is known as a district with high distress level, particularly in its western part. The population density of this district is high and 60% of its houses are under 100 m2. Therefore, the goal of this study, while investigating the necessity and outcomes of public participation, is to develop efficient solutions in order to bring about participation of citizens in the process of modernization of the 14th municipal district worn out texture and recognizing the main indexes of this field for improving participation projects in other worn out texture of Tehran and other Iran cities. To this end, this study has based its primary presumption on low participation willingness of the 14th district worn out texture in the reconstruction process of such areas. Meanwhile, we have assumed that financial factors play the most important role in the decrease of studied residents’ willingness to participate in this sector.
    Methodology
    The utilized method in this research is a descriptive-analytic one and data collection has been achieved using questionnaires distributed among householders in 1394 in worn out texture of 14th municipal district. Data collection was done using field surveys in order to investigate public participation in modernization and reconstruction of studied worn out texture. In this regard, questionnaires were completed based on quota random sampling with a sample size of 380 house numbers. Such sample size was achieved using Cochran method. In the reliability study of the questionnaire, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient turned out to be 0.77 which depicts the inherent reliability of the questionnaire. SPSS was used to analyze each of the indexes.
    Results
    The results of this study show that the willingness of stuided area residents to participate in the modernization process of worn out text has been moderate. The T-test has confirmed the moderate condition. Other reuslts indicate that one the the most important factors which leads to more public participation levels, is presenting an economic, social and environmental perspective of the district and area after the modernization process to the residents. The results of this study for state factors and infleuntial institutions in the field of modernization show that the most important factos which have an effect on the residents participation level is “banking facilities predicted for modernization” and “assurance from the realization of private and state sector contractors vows”. For the case of environmental and framework factors, “accessibility to health centers”, “area of inhabitant places” and “visual beauty and quality of buildings in that area” were the most important ones. For the case of economic factors, “family capability in saving and returning the loans”, “satisfaction from housing deposits” and “waiting time to receive loans” play the most sifnificant roles in participation. On the other hand it was revealed that in the studied area, the reluctance of resdients in staying in the quarters, depsite the feeling of belonging to the quarter and also Tehran, is an indication of lack of satisfaction from life low quality in such quarters. Among social indexes, saftey, robbery, and drug usage in the quarters were the pscychological dysfunctions affecting the citizens.
    Conclusion
    The 14th municipal district of Tehran is known as one of the districts with the highest level of worn out in which, the subdistricts 1, 2 and 4 constitute 98% of worn out texts. In concluding the study, it can be mentioned that in the studied district, success in modernization of such high volumes of d worn out texts is not possible solely through financial and banking packages and various economic, social, environmental and institutional factors are influential and neglecting them, reduces the efficacy of modernization plans alongside the public participation. This shows the interconnection of different urban issues and results from the complicated nature of cities.
    Keywords: Public participation, Quality of life, The 14th municipal district of Tehran, Worn out text
  • Aliakbar Anabestani, Masoumeh Hosieni, Hashem Talebi Pages 141-159
    Introduction
    Tourism development is considered as one of the most important guidelines of planning, through which the rapid growth of tourism industry in the world, planning for its development, and keeping up with the streams of planning for tourism development are necessitated. One of the goals of tourism is to provide comfort, security, and tranquility for the tourists without which the development of this industry or even its mere existence is rendered meaningless. The presence and performance of the police is effective in maintaining security for the tourists as well as providing the proper context as to support local businesses through supporting visitors. Consequently, given the significance of tourism and security along with the role of the police in this area, the necessity of conducting research in this regard is demonstrated. To this end, the present study is an attempt to investigate the role of the police in the security of tourists in Shandiz city, one of the most important tourism destinations in Khorasan-e-Razaviprovince. According to its theoretical framework, this study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:• What is the status quo the tourists’ sense of security in Shandiz city?
    • Does the role of the police affect the tourists’ sense of security in a positive way?
    Research
    Methodology
    The method used in this study is descriptive-correlational. Data collection was carried out through questionnaires and interviews. The population and target group of the study consisted of people who were visiting Shandizcity as domestic tourists. According to the Cochran formula, the sampleincludes 384 accessible people. The Cronbach’s alpha was used to indicate the consistency of the study, the value of which was acceptable. Data were examined for all the variablesusing SPSS 22 software and Likert’s five-point scale, ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). To provide an analysis of the data, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression test were used.
    Results And Discussion
    The results ofone sample t-test showed that the security of tourists is more than average, hence in a proper status. Furthermore, the test results for assessing the aspects of the tourists’ sense of security demonstrated that aside from the dimensions of urban environment, other aspects of tourists’ security are of proper status. Pearson correlation test was used to verify the second hypothesis. The results showed a positive correlation between the role of the police and tourists’ security in Shandiz. The threefold aspects concerning the role of the police have been of positive, meaningful effects on tourists’ security. Additionally, the relationship between the role of the police and tourists’ security in Shandizwas investigated through multiple linear regression model. The coefficient value specified for this model indicates that 61% of changes regarding the dependent variable is explained through independent variables including the police performance role, their capabilities, and their intensity.
    Conclusion
    The results of t-test demonstrated the fact the extent of satisfaction regarding the status quo of tourists’ security in Shandiz city is at an average, proper level which has resulted in their inclination to make a second trip to this city. Moreover, it can be stated that in a micro scale, the extent of satisfaction towards financial security and people’s safety were high while the security of urban spaces was considered as low. Also, according to Pearson correlation test, there exists a positive, meaningful relationship between the aspects regarding the role of the police and sense of security. Given the intensity of correlation coefficients, the highest coefficient (.266) belonged to the intensity of relationship between the performance of the police and the financial dimension concerning the sense of security, whereas the lowest coefficient (.226) was related to the aspect of enthusiasm and urban spaces. The results of multiple linear regression test showed a positive, meaningful effect concerning the sense of security on the role of the police. Furthermore, the value of the modulated coefficient shows that the developed model has been able to justify 61% of the changes regarding the dependent variable. Among the aspects of the role of the police, their performance has been recognized as the most effective.
    Keywords: Tourism, Security, Police, Shandizcity
  • Hassan Mahmoudzadeh, Khalil Didhban, Syed Ali Sadeghzadeh Sadat Pages 161-175
    Introduction
    The investigation of land cover and land use changes has been important since ancient eras and these changes mainly occur in two ways: the first types of these changes take place by the means of natural factors such as erosion, tectonic forces and floods and the second types take place by human factors. In recent years in many parts of the world, human oriented activities were the most effective factors in changing land use, land cover and urban development. Nowadays population growth,on one hand and limites resources,on the other hand, result in changing of the application of lands. Land use changes in agricultural areas neighboring the cities is an important factor which has a vital role in supplying food and maintaining food security as well as earning money for urban population which have rapid growth. Vicinity of agricultural and horticultural areas with cities of Iran as ecological reserves, has increased the necessity of conducting this study. The present study aims to minimize the extent of use changes and lessen challenge of ecological destruction via development scenarios.
    Methodology
    In this study logistic regression model has been used, which is a special kind of multiple regressions and in which the dependent variable is discrete. Contrary to other linear models, the least square method was used in logistic regression. Maximum probability method was used for estimation of characteristics and factors of each independentvariable. Therefore,the logistic regression equation is as follows: { }{ }{ }….{ }
    Different data and softwares were used toward implementing the regression model. The soft wares used are:Ecognition¡Idrisiselva and Arc GIS. Images were received through satellite Landsat 5 in 1986 and Landsat 8 in 2014 from USGS site (United State Geological Site). Regarding the location of Mahabad which is situated in pass 168 and rows 34 and 35, we received two frames each year. Pre-process operations including image mosaic, subset and radiometric correction were implemented on images before classification operation by Flaash method in ENVI environment. For increasing accuracy of multi-spectral images of Landsat 8 bands which have low local resolution and high spectral resolution fusion operations were implemented combined with 15 meters panchromatic band. Classification was conducted through the Fuzzy method in the Ecognition environment. Then, classified images were transformed into ASCII format in Arc GIS environment for entering the software environment of Idrisiselva, and their format were changed into RST format in IDRISI environment software for preparing variables. Logistic regression command was used for modeling in the software Idrisi environment. To do this, we entered the amount of change in urban development from 1986 to 2014 into the model environment as a dependent variable and other involved factors in urban development as independent variables, respectively. We used Fuzzy method for scenario building and zoning of developed areas, in which developed areas were categorized into four classes: very proper, proper, improper and very improper.
    Results
    The investigation of land use changes from 1986 to 2014 determined that land uses decreased with urban development every year. Land use changes are as follow: building lands increased from 989.86 ha to 2000.02 ha. Water resources (dikes and rivers) had decreasing trend from 841.85 ha to 564.16ha. Irrigated arable lands decreased from 2889.17 ha to 1195.378 ha in 1986, and also rocky lands decreased from 10045.42 ha to 7572.78 ha. In this study, investigation of urban development from 1986 to 2041 shows that land use change will be increased in proportion with population growth.
    Conclusion
    Results of the study showed that in the city of Mahabad, land use changes doubled with the twofold growth of the population in the mentioned period. Development in the third period was lower than twofold. Generally, changing land use could be predicted for future years through using different models of forecasting and through using geographical information system techniques and remote sensing as well, and allowing controlling and management of urban development trends, considering ecological and risk factors, and prohibit from entering residential areas into risky areas. These bestow help and information to urban managers to solve the problems. By introducing solutions urban development can be managed and controlled in a desired way. Considering urban development and reducing arable lands by making urban belt prohibits urban development in agricultural lands and prohibits approaching to natural risks areas, stabilizes land use in a programmed form and prevents hasty urban development. On the other hand, for identifying areas prone to urban development, and for preventing unlawful building by making barrier in the way of rushed urban development,we should establish an exact plan from an economic point of view.
    Keywords: Logistic regression model, Mahabad, Land use change, Urban development