فهرست مطالب

Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine - Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2017
  • Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/04/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Mehrdad Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehravar Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Sohrab Kazemi, Aliakbar Moghadamnia * Pages 135-145
    Cadmium poisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. It is one of the global health problems that affect many organs and in some cases it can cause deaths annually. Long-term exposure to cadmium through air, water, soil, and food leads to cancer and organ system toxicity such as skeletal, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous, and respiratory systems. Cadmium levels can be measured in the blood, urine, hair, nail and saliva samples. Patients with cadmium toxicity need gastrointestinal tract irrigation, supportive care, and chemical decontamination traditional-based chelation therapy with appropriate new chelating agents and nanoparticle-based antidotes. Furthermore it has been likewise recommended to determine the level of food contamination and suspicious areas, consider public education and awareness programs for the exposed people to prevent cadmium poisoning.
    Keywords: Cadmium, Poisoning, decontamination, nanoparticles, chelating agents
  • Mohammad Zamani, Amin Vahedi, Zahra Maghdouri, Javad Shokri-Shirvani * Pages 146-152
    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that has infected more than half of the world's population. This pathogen colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is usually acquired during childhood. It is an important cause of peptic ulcers, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. Among the risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori infection, poor socioeconomic status, poor sanitization and hygiene practices, and contaminated food and water, are the most significant ones. The main route of H. pylori transmission is still unknown. Studies show that H.pylori bacteria can spread directly from one person to the other, or indirectly from an infected person to the environment. Person to person transmission is divided into fecal-oral, gastric-oral, oral-oral, sexual routes. Presently, interpersonal pathways are more acceptable than environmental exposure routes. Literatures indicate the presence and survival of H. pylori in food samples, such as milk, vegetables and meat, and suggest these foods may play an important role in the environmental transmission of this pathogen. In addition, other studies report the presence of H. pylori in the gastric tissue of some animals (e.g. sheep and cow) and therefore, it is likely they participate in the food chain transmission as reservoirs besides human. Although there are findings which indicate the probable role of food products in the environmental transmission of H. pylori, there is still not enough direct evidence to confirm this and more studies are needed. However, attention to food contamination sources (unhygienic water) and controlling them may prevent transmission of pathogens associated with health.
    Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Transmission, Food, Water, Reservoir
  • Jila Masrour-Roudsari, Soheil Ebrahimpour * Pages 153-158
    Cancer is a complex group of diseases with multiple eventual causes. The underlying causes are not fully known. Thus, learning more about the known causes of cancer is an important issue. Moreover, among these factors, infection and its association to cancers is controversial. Although, it seems that the genome instability of the cells can initiate cancer development. The purpose of this review was to present the role of infection in the development of cancer. Infectious agents, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) contribute to the pathogenesis of different cancers. These cancers include hepatocellular carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cervical cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Screenings of infectious diseases in cancer patients may open up areas of research in the identification of optimizing cancer control strategies.
    Keywords: Infection, Cancer, Prevention, Virus, Bacteria
  • Shahla Ansari, Azita Azarkeivan, Ghasem Miri-Aliabad *, Saeed Yousefian, Tahereh Rostami Pages 159-164
    Background
    Cardiac complications due to iron overload are the most common cause of death in patients with thalassemia major. The aim of this study was to compare iron chelation effects of deferoxamine, deferasirox, and combination of deferoxamine and deferiprone on cardiac and liver iron load measured by T2* MRI.
    Methods
    In this study, 108 patients with thalassemia major aged over 10 years who had iron overload in cardiac T2* MRI were studied in terms of iron chelators efficacy on the reduction of myocardial siderosis. The first group received deferoxamine, the second group only deferasirox, and the third group, a combination of deferoxamine and deferiprone. Myocardial iron was measured at baseline and 12 months later through T2* MRI technique.
    Results
    The three groups were similar in terms of age, gender, ferritin level, and mean myocardial T2* at baseline. In the deferoxamine group, myocardial T2* was increased from 12.0±4.1 ms at baseline to 13.5±8.4 ms at 12 months (p=0.10). Significant improvement was observed in myocardial T2* of the deferasirox group (p
    Conclusion
    In comparison to deferoxamine monotherapy, combination therapy and deferasirox monotherapy have a significant impact on reducing iron overload and improvement of myocardial and liver T2* MRI.
    Keywords: Thalassemia major, Deferoxamine, Deferasirox, Deferiprone
  • Mehdi Haghdoost, Sepehr Taghizadeh, Majid Montazer, Parinaz Poorshahverdi, Ali Ramouz *, Sanam Fakour Pages 165-171
    Background
    A decreased rate of successful helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection treatment has revealed serious demand for more effective regimens to eradicate infection. Therefore, probiotics have recently been considered to increase the rate of antibiotic regimens efficacy in H. pylori infections. In current randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the effect of double strain probiotic combination with standard triple therapy (STT), in the eradication rate of H. pylori infection.
    Methods
    In current randomized placebo-control study, all patients (176 subjects) underwent the STT for 10 days. However, the study group received triple therapy for the eradication of H. pylori with supplement of Lactobacillus probiotic for 4 weeks and placebo was administered to control group, as well. Adverse effects of the antibiotic regimen were recorded for all patients. Six weeks after the cessation of probiotic intake, all patients underwent H. Pylori with fecal antigen of test, followed by a recurrence evaluation six months later.
    Results
    There was no significant difference in demographic data and presenting symptoms between the study groups. The eradication rate of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in probiotic group (78.4%), compared to that of placebo group (64.8%) (P=0.033). In addition, adverse events were significantly less prevalent in patients that received probiotic (P=0.047). Nonetheless, there was no significant difference in terms of infection recurrence during a 6-month follow-up (P=0.07).
    Conclusion
    Double strain probiotic in combination with STT increased the eradication rate of H. pylori infection, while the adverse events due to antibiotic therapy decreased
    Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Standard triple therapy, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Recurrence
  • Mehrdad Farrokhi, Hamidreza Jahanbani Ardakani *, Masoud Etemadifar, Mahboobeh Fereidan-Esfahani, Hossein Changaei, Nazila Aghadoost, Negin Moradkhani, Ameneh Jahanbani-Ardakani Pages 172-177
    Background
    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorder, affects 2.3 million people around the world. Cancer kills around 7.5 million people annually. Both diseases have similar risks and intertwining molecular causes. Most studies focusing on MS and cancer have found an insignificant difference or reduction in the amount of cancer found in the MS community.
    Methods
    We performed a cohort study using data from Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) and Isfahan cancer society and followed-up for 8 years on average (2006-2014). All of the 1718 MS patients were diagnosed according to McDonald’s criteria, then standardized incidence ratio and the numbers of expected cancer case were calculated.
    Results
    While patients had an insignificant change in cancer prevalence, men had fewer cancer cases and women showed an increased prevalence of cancer. Certain types of cancer proved statistically significant. Breast cancer, nervous system cancers, and lymphoma were elevated in the cohort.
    Conclusion
    Our results support the hypothesis that MS significantly affects certain cancers in a protective or associative manner. All cancer rates, except breast cancer, cancers located in the nervous system, and lymphomas were reduced in cohort, suggesting that unregulated immune function may provide protective effects to MS patients against cancer.
    Keywords: Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, Cohort, Isfahan, Iran
  • Soheila Moein, Durdi Qujeq *, Mostafa Vaghari Tabari, Mehrdad Kashifard, Karimollah Hajian Pages 178-182
    Background
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. In the past decades, fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a useful biomarker for the differential diagnosis between IBD patients and healthy controls. We designed this study to evaluate the diagnostic ability of fecal calprotectin (FC) and conventional inflammatory markers in IBD patients.
    Methods
    Thirty patients who underwent colonoscopy were cases and thirty healthy subjects undergoing colonoscopy as part of a medical check-up were the controls. These 2 groups were evaluated with regard to age and sex. Severity of the disease was evaluated based on disease endoscopic index. FC, Cross reactive protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured using ELISA, colorimetric and Westergren methods, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed by independent test, correlation test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A p
    Results
    Fecal calprotectin level in the case group increased compared to control group (p
    Conclusion
    Discriminating IBD patients from healthy controls was better for FC than conventional inflammatory markers. Additionally, the results produced by FC correlate with the severity of IBD.
    Keywords: Calprotectin, Inflammatory bowel disease, Marker, Severity
  • Mehdi Maghbooli, Hossein Chiti, Sakineh Taheri, Masoud Asadi-Khiavi * Pages 183-189
    Background
    Autonomic neuropathy and vital organ dysfunctions are the known complications in type 2 diabetes Mellitus (DM). Genetic endowments involving individuals make subtle differences in physiological systems, particularly at the time of sickness. Hence, the presented study was designed to evaluate the vasomotor system in healthy people and type 2 DM cases for determining any functionality differences between the mentioned groups.
    Methods
    Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes (case group) and sixty healthy subjects (control group) matched for age and sex were enrolled in the study. Then, the performance of vasomotor system was assessed using valsalva maneuver, cold pressor, sustained hand-grip and mental arithmetic tests and the differences were determined via statistical methods.
    Results
    According to our findings, abnormal response to valsalva maneuver was found in the case group (P=0.028) and the same response was seen about mental arithmetic evaluations. In the case of cold pressor and sustained hand-grip tests, remarkable differences were not found in both groups. Important differences were also found among vasomotor dysfunction and the time of DM labeling.
    Conclusion
    This study showed a higher incidence of vasomotor dysfunction in DM patients. However, revision in cold pressor and sustained hand-grip tests definition as well as methodology was recommended.
    Keywords: Diabetes, Vasomotor, Valsalva, Sustained hand-grip, Cold pressor, Mental arithmetic
  • Seyed-Reza Modarres, Abdolrahim Gholizadeh-Pasha, Soheil Khatibi, Sepideh Siadati * Pages 190-195
    Background
    The importance of gastric cancer, considering its progressive course and high mortality is one of the reasons we pay attention to patients’ survival and the significance of this study was to estimate survival and determine the effective factors on patients with gastric cancer.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, all patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, northern Iran during 2006-2011 were enrolled. To get information, a checklist was prepared consisting gender, age, and other factors related to survival from the start of diagnosis to the end of study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20, t-test, chi-square test and Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier.
    Results
    One hundred seventy-five patients consisting 132(75.4%) males and 43(24.6%) females entered the study. Among the 146 patients who were followed up for 50 months, 25 (14.28%) cases survived and 121 (69.15%) cases died. Survival did not have a significant association with gender, age, family history, smoking, location and type of tumor, metastasis, involved lymph nodes and treatment. Tumor stage and type of surgery had a significant association with survival in Cox regression.
    Conclusion
    Diagnosis of cancer at the early stage and type of surgery increased survival rate.
    Keywords: Gastric cancer, Survival, Tumor stage
  • Bahram Naderinabi, Alia Saberi, Masood Hashemi, Mohammad Haghighi, Gelareh Biazar, Farid Abolhasan-Gharehdaghi, Abbas Sedighinejad *, Tahereh Chavoshi Pages 196-204
    Background
    Migraine is a common type of headache. Sometimes adequate pain relief is not achieved by conventional treatments. Acupuncture and botulinum toxin-A injection are known as non-pharmacological interventions for this purpose. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of acupuncture with botulinum toxin-A injection and pharmacological treatment in controlling chronic migraine.
    Methods
    This clinical trial was conducted on patients with chronic migraine in the North of Iran during 2014-2015. Eligible patients were randomly allocated to groups receiving acupuncture (A) or botulinum toxin A (B) and controls (C) by designed quadripartite blocks. All patients were evaluated at baseline, one, two and three months after treatment using visual analogue scale (VAS) score and other parameters. The analysis of data was performed in SPSS software Version 19.
    Results
    One hundred fifty patients (48 males and 102 females) completed this study. During the 3- month study, the pain severity significantly diminished in three groups (P=0.0001), with greater reduction in group A (P=0.0001). The number of days per month with migraine, absence from work and the need for medication significantly decreased in three groups at 3 times of evaluation (p
    Conclusion
    Acupuncture, botulinum toxin-A injection and pharmacological treatment have beneficial effects on chronic migraine; however, acupuncture showed more effectiveness and fewer complications
    Keywords: Migraine, Chronic, Acupuncture, Botulinum Toxin-A, Pain Management
  • Ali Bijani, Reza Ghadimi, Ebrahim Mikaniki, Farzan Kheirkhah, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur, Mina Motallebnejad, Haleh Esmaili, Fatemeh Majidi, Robert G. Cumming, Seyed-Reza Hosseini * Pages 205-212
    The original cohort study of AHAP started in 2011 on 1616 elderly residents of Amirkola, northern part of Iran near the Caspian Sea. The main goal of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the health of the elderly in the region with the emphasis on chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. The first cohort profile was published in the International Journal of Epidemiology in 2014. The phase 1 AHAP showed the elevated level of some diseases and conditions including osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, vision problems and relatively low levels of oral health. Therefore, the second phase of this cohort started with more complete population coverage in 2016, not only to collect and record the information based on previous protocol, but also consider new areas such as nutritional status, complete eye and dental examinations and health assessment on the basis of Iranian Traditional Medicine. The new aspect of this project is to conduct clinical and laboratory examinations at the health center to extend more facilities to the elderly. In addition to serum and DNA, samples of saliva, hair and nails are collected and kept under standard conditions in the biobank of this cohort. Researchers can apply for access to data or suggest a collaborative study by submitting the proposal to AHAP committee.
    Keywords: Older People, Cohort, Ageing, Health, Iran
  • Mozzafar Hosseininezhad, Reza Sohrabnejad * Pages 213-216
    Background
    Stroke mimic is a major diagnostic challenge and may be difficult to distinguish from real strokes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequency of stroke mimics in patients with clinical signs of stroke.
    Methods
    In this cross sectional-study, the medical records of 1985 patients with stroke admitted to Poursina Hospital were enrolled using the census technique. Data collection tool was a checklist which include age, sex, imaging results (MRI and CT scan and primary and final diagnoses.
    Results
    Of the 1985 patients, 295 (14.9%) were identified with brain stroke mimics. The mean age in the group of patients with mimics and real stroke were 66.5±16.4 years and 72.4±9.6 years, respectively. The highest number of stroke belonged to 61-80 years in stroke groups (68.8%) and mimics (58.3%), respectively. There was a significant correlation between age and early diagnosis of stroke or stroke mimic (P
    Conclusion
    Due to the high number of stroke mimics, further attention is necessary to aid in differential diagnosis and clinical procedures in patients with stroke signs.
    Keywords: frequency, brain stroke, stroke mimics
  • Duminda Bandara Basnayake *, Thamara Kannangara, Laknath Welagedara, Vindhya Bandara, Janitha Herath Pages 217-219
    Background
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder which is uncommon in men. It has a wide variety of clinical presentations.
    Case Report: We report a 21-year-old male presented with one month history of fever, loss of appetite, weight loss and reduced hair growth with an examination revealing an oral ulcer, cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy simulating hematological malignancy. Investigations showed pancytopenia, positive anti-nuclear factor and double-stranded DNA, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate with normal C-reactive protein levels and hypocomplementemia. The diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus was made and treatment with oral prednisolone conferred a dramatic clinical and biochemical improvement within one week.
    Conclusion
    In the evaluation of fever of unknown origin, one should be guided by the presenting symptoms and signs of a patient and even though uncommon, SLE is a worthwhile diagnosis to investigate even in a male patient if the clinical picture is suggestive.
    Keywords: Fever of unknown origin, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Male, Lymphadenopathy
  • Ines Mahmoud, Aicha Ben Tekaya *, Rawdha Tekaya, Olfa Saidane, Leila Gafsi, Mathilde Benhammou, Fautrel Bruno Pages 220-222
    Background
    Pulmonary nodular excavation should firstly evoke tuberculosis or necrosis broncho-pulmonary tumor, particularly: epidermoid carcinoma. The case discussed here illustrated these difficulties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
    Case Presentation
    A 63-year-old woman was presented with a-three-year history of RA and a recent discovery of an excavated pulmonary nodule. Initial investigations focused on a rheumatoid origin. The evolution of the disease was worrisome and surgical exploration was deemed mandatory. The result was the discovery of a nodule of a malignant nature.
    Conclusion
    In this paper, we discussed the excavation of the pulmonary nodule, its diagnoses and management of the difficulties we encountered.
    Keywords: pulmonary nodule, rheumatoid arthritis, epidermoid carcinoma, tumor cavitation, computed tomography
  • Kamran Balighi, Kambiz Kamyab, Arghavan Azizpour *, Elahe Amini, Shabnam Fahim Pages 223-225
    Background
    Segmental pigmentation disorder (SegPD) is a rare type of cutaneous dyspigmentation. This hereditary disorder, first described some 20 years ago, is characterized by hypo and hyperpigmented patches on the trunk, extremities and less likely on the face and neck. These lesions are considered as a type of checkerboard pattern.
    Case Presentation
    Herein, we present a 26-year-old male who presented with hyperpigmented patches on his trunk, neck and upper extremities. Considering the clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of SegPD was confirmed.
    Conclusion
    SegPD is a somewhat neglected entity which should be considered in differential diagnosis of pigmentation disorders.
    Keywords: segmental pigmentation, checkerboard, Blaschkoid, dyspigmentation
  • Sayedalireza Mirsane *, Sayedmojtaba Mirsane Pages 226-227