فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/04/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammadhadi Farahzadi* Pages 74-76
  • Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Soheila Noori*, Aliakbar Taj Firouze, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Jamshid Ayatollahi Pages 77-84
    Introduction
    Iran is one of the major focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the world. Despite continued control efforts, the incidence of CL has increased in the many areas of Iran. the counties of Ardakan, Khatam, Bafgh, Abarkuh and Yazd are endemic places for cl in Yazd province that have occurred outbreak in them during March 2015 to March 2016.The aim of this paper was to identify the Epidemiological and clinical Aspects of Leishmaniasis in patients that were reported from these five endemic foci during outbreak .
    Methods
    This descriptive study was conducted on 150 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients that were referred to the provincial health center during outbreak from March 2015 to March 2016. Clinical and demographic information of patients were registered and analyzed by SPSS 23 software.
    Result
    From 150 cases 121 (80.2%) lived in urban areas. 93 (62%) of the patients were males. The most frequent age group was 21-30 years old (18.7%). housekeepers had the highest incidence (22.6%). (41.3%) of patients had Elementary education. Monthly family income in over half of the patients were less than a million tomans at months. The maximum number of CL cases were reported in autumn with 62(41.3%) Of the patients. 98 (65.3%) of the patients reported a history of travel in the past year. the highest rates of CL lesions were seen in feet (18.7%). In over half of the cases (52.7%), wound size was over than one centimeter and 82 (54.7%) of patients had only one wound.
    Conclusion
    In order to outbreak control, Basic measures such as Public education and education for people who travel to endemic areas and treatment of patients infected with urban type leishmaniasis as a reservoir, according to the geographical condition and carrier can be useful.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Disease Outbreak, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Yazd
  • Malihe Kolahdouzi, Gholam Hossein Halvani, Ebrahim Nazaripour Abdehgah, Maryam Rostami Aghdam Shendi, Mohsen Yazdani Aval* Pages 85-92
    Introduction
    The Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), first of all, identifies dangerous modes in a process and, then, provides proper control measures that are required to reduce the level of risk. This study aims to investigate the risk level before and after the implementation of control measures in an edible oil factory.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in an edible oil factory in Tehran, Iran. The FMEA technique was used to identify failure modes related to equipment that existed in five units of this factory. After that, in all units, Risk Priority Numbers of all the processes were assessed on the basis of the FMEA method. With regard to the Risk Priority Number (RPN), some control measures were taken to reduce the risk of events. After nine months, risk assessment was repeated, and primary and secondary RPNs were compared with each other to investigate the effects of interventions.
    Results
    The results showed that the highest probability of danger was related to the installation unit. The probability of danger in this unit before and after interventional actions was 4.5 and 3.25 respectively and the highest degree of severity was related to tool production. The marginal homogeneity test showed the positive effect of control measures on the risk level in the factory. There was a significant inference between before- and after-data in RPN in the unit tool production, neutralization unit, and installation unit. The Tests of Repeated Measure showed that there was a statistically significant inference between before- and after-data in the total average of RPN criterion (pvalue
    Conclusion
    It can be concluded that the high risk level in the factory units was reduced after the application of interventional corrective measures. These actions have been useful. It can be mentioned that the FMEA has been successfully able to identify and control the level of risk in this factory.
    Keywords: risk assessment, FMEA, edible oil factory, RPN
  • Zahra Khazir, Morad Ali Zareipour, Mahdi Abdolkarimi, Arefeh Dehghani Tafti, Tahereh Rahimi* Pages 93-101
    Introduction
    There has been a recent spike in the use of virtual social networks. However, only a few studies have explored factors that influence the use of social networks by using theories of health education among students. The present study aims to determine the predictive factors of virtual social networks among students of the Yazd University of Medical Sciences based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior.
    Methods
    In 2016 this cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 students who were selected by the stratified random sampling method. Data was collected from a questionnaire based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions and behaviors. The data collected was then analyzed via the SPSS V.16 software using descriptive statistics, Pearson product– moment correlation test, one-way analysis of variance, and regression.
    Results
    The mean age of the students was 22.28 ± 3.69 years. The results also suggested that 98.3% of them were using virtual social networks. Moreover, the findings of the regression analysis indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were predictors of intention to use social networks, while attitudes had the highest predictive power for the intention to use social networks (β = 0.38). Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis demonstrated that behavioral intention, attitudes, and subjective norms among the constructs of the theory of planned behavior could predict the behavior to use virtual space.
    Conclusion
    The use of virtual social networks by university students displayed a rising trend. Measures ought to be taken to create a right attitude about the extent and efficient use of virtual networks to ensure that they do not interfere with the students’ educational activities and real relationships.
    Keywords: Virtual social networks, university students, theory of planned Behavior
  • Soheyla Kalantari*, Fatemeh Mehravar*, Farhad Kord, Samieh Ghana, Seyyed Ali Aghapour, Rasoul Mohammadi, Leila Fazeli Aref, Ahmad Heidari Pages 101-108
    Introduction
    Trauma is one of the most common health problems worldwide, which results in many cases of physical disability every year. Considering the importance of the occurrence of trauma, this study was conducted to determine its epidemiology in trauma patients of the Trauma Center of Gorgan County, Golestan Province.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 17941 Iranian trauma patients attending the Trauma Center of 5 Azar Educational Hospital, Gorgan County, from the beginning of 2013 through 2014 using the census method. The patients’ data were collected using a checklist designed by the Treatment Deputy of Golestan University of Medical Sciences on morning, evening, and night shifts by trained personnel. The data were analyzed with the STATA software version 12.
    Results
    Most of the trauma patients were male and belonged to the age group 21-35 years. Alley, street, and house were the most common trauma locations. Injury, motorcycle accident, and falls from height were the most common types of trauma. As for the outcome, most trauma patients were “treated”.
    Conclusion
    With advances in technology, due to the increase in the number and speed of vehicles and changes in the lifestyle, trauma is one of the major causes of mortality and disability in the world. Knowledge of the epidemiology of trauma in the world can help to lower its prevalence and incidence.
    Keywords: Trauma, Epidemiology, Accident, Injury
  • Naghmeh Ghorashi, Abbas Alavi Rad* Pages 109-116
    Introduction
    The causal dynamics between environment, health expenditures and economic growth has recently started to be studied in the economics literature for both developing and developed countries.
    Methods
    This study examines the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, health expenditures and economic growth using dynamic simultaneous-equations models for Iran over the period 1972-2012.
    Results
    Our empirical results show that there is bidirectional causality relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth; there is also unidirectional causality relationship from health expenditures to economic growth. The positive bidirectional causality relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth will be very important to environmental quality in next years in Iran.
    Conclusion
    It is clear that government would like to increase economic growth over the period of next Five-Year Development Plan. It seems that policymakers must examine the requirements for investment to promote environmental protection and increase the technological transfer to reduce the environmental damage.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, Health expenditures, Economic growth, Dynamic simultaneous equation models, GMM
  • Babak Shiravand, Ibrahim Salmani*, Farrokhlagha Servat Pages 117-123
    Introduction
    Biological attacks are a phenomenon that started on a serious note in the twentieth century and such weapons are being developed every day.The agent of plague is one of those listed as biological weapons by the Weapons Convention. So, the danger of its biological or bioterrorist applications by the enemy is possible and poses a serious threat. The purpose of compiling this article is to update information of health personnel about plague and the bioterrorist aspect of this disease.
    Methods
    This article is a review study which had been undertaken based on articles searched from the library and the internet (1990–2016).
    Results
    More than 2000 species of bacteria have been identified in three main groups of bacillus (rod-shaped), cocci (round and oval) and spiral (helical) but only approximately 100 species have been identified as pathogenic and less than 10 species are used as suitable biological agents for military application and the plague agent is one of them. Yersinia pestis is a type of gram-negative anaerobic coccobacillus from the Enterobacteriaceae family and if it is stained with Wright, Giemsa or Wayson it can be seen as bipolar under a microscope.
    Conclusion
    Nowadays, despite development of science and technology, humans are not able to predict time and location of this type of attack. So, we should be prepared for this unavoidable eventuality. Considering the importance and necessity of preparing to deal with attacks, authors of such studies and professionals should consciously plan and try to prepare against these dangers.
    Keywords: Bioterrorism, Plague, Biological Attacks
  • Leila Nemati Anaraki, Farzaneh Sardari* Pages 124-128
    Human resource is an organizational capital and its mental health is one of the most important dimensions. The mental health has a significant effect on performance of staffs. The current research aimed to examine the mental health and its dimensions in librarians of Shahid Sadoughi university in 2016. This is a descriptive-analytical study with correlational design among librarians working in libraries of Shahid Sadoughi university. Goldberg & Hiller general health questionnaire was used to evaluate general health of librarians. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent T test, variance analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficient through SPSS software version 19. Results indicated that the mean score of librarians'' general health was 22.8±10.38 which shows that participants were healthy. Furthermore, marital status was associated with health and its components so that married individuals were less healthy. Depression rate of librarians was low but most of them suffered from physical problems, anxiety, sleep disorders, and social conflicts. Therefore, librarians'' authorities should consider such problems and develop strategic plans for them.
    Keywords: Mental health, Librarians, GHQ Quaries