فهرست مطالب

Current Journal of Neurology - Volume:16 Issue: 56, 2017
  • Volume:16 Issue: 56, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Gholam Ali Shahidi, Mohammad Roohani, Mansour Parvaresh, Bahram Haghi-Ashtiani, Maryam Saeeedi, Romina Rashedi, Zeynab Noori-Motlagh Pages 107-111
    Background
    The objective of our study was to assess Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score in Parkinson disease (PD) patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) 6 years after their surgery and to compare their UPDRS score 6 years after DBS with their score before surgery and 6 months after their operation.
    Methods
    In this cross sectional study which was carried out at Neurology Department of Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences between 2008 and 2014, 37 patients with advanced PD were enrolled using non-randomized sampling method.
    All of the patients underwent STN DBS surgery and one patient died before being discharged, therefore; we started our study with 36 patients. The UPDRS III total score at preoperative state, 6-month follow-up and 6-year follow-up state were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance.
    Results
    Thirty-seven patients (26 men and 10 women) with mean age of 50 ± 3 ranging from 32 to 72 years underwent STN DBS surgery. All patients were suffering from advanced PD with mean period of 11.3 ± 1.9 years. All patients except one were followed up for six months. And 14 patients (8 men and 6 women) were included in a six-year follow-up. The UPDRS score measurements before surgery, at
    6-month follow-up and 6-year follow-up were
    18.22 ± 2.88, 12.80 ± 3.14, 25.0 ± 11.8, respectively. Significant increase in UPDRS score was observed between the preoperative and six-year follow-up period (P
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, this study suggests that total UPDRS score will increase at 5 years following STN DBS and also showed that resting tremor, one of UPDRS sub-scores, will improve over time and the benefit of DBS will be persistent even after 6 years.
    Keywords: Parkinson Disease, Deep Brain Stimulation, UPDRS
  • Mehdi Farhoudi, Kaveh Mehrvar, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Mazyar Hashemilar, Manouchehr Seyedi-Vafaee, Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabad, Reza Rikhtegar, Babak Saber-Maroof, Mohammad Abutalebi, Mahsa Rezaei, Sahar Vaferi, Alireza Aghili, Omid Ebrahimi Pages 112-117
    Background
    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and first cause of disability in adults in the world. About 80% of all stroke deaths occur in developing countries. So far, the data on stroke epidemiology have been limited in Iran. Therefore, this study was focused on stroke demographic data, risk factors, types and mortality.
    Methods
    A retrospective study was done in two university tertiary referral hospitals in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, from March 2008 to April 2013. Patients diagnosed with stroke were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, stroke subtypes, duration of hospitalization, stroke risk factors and hospital mortality rate were recorded for all the patients.
    Results
    A total number of 5355 patients were evaluated in the present study. Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 13.8 years, and 50.6% were men. Final diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made in 76.5% of the patients, intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with or without intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in 14.3% and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 9.2%. Stroke risk factors among the patients were hypertension in 68.8% of the patients, diabetes mellitus (DM) in 23.9%, smoking in 12.6% and ischemic heart diseases (IHD) in 17.1%. Mean hospital stay was 17.3 days. Overall, the in-hospital mortality was 20.5%.
    Conclusion
    Compared to other studies, duration of hospital stay was longer and mortality rate was higher in this study. Hypertension was the most common risk factor and cardiac risk factors and DM had relatively lower rate in comparison to other studies. Because of insufficient data on the epidemiology, patterns, and risk factors of stroke in Iran, there is a necessity to develop and implement a national registry system.
    Keywords: Stroke, Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Iran
  • Mehri Salari, Ahmad Chitsaz, Masoud Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza Najafi, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Maryam Bemanalizadeh, Fatemeh Panahi, Hosna Mirzajani Pages 118-124
    Background
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms, but non-motor symptoms (NMS) have high prevalence in PD and often antecede motor symptoms for years and cause severe disability. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of NMS in patients with PD.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan, Iran, on patients with PD. The prevalence of NMS was evaluated by the NMS questionnaire, the NMS scale, and Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used for assessing cognition.
    Results
    A total of 81 patients, including 60 men and 21 women, were recruited for this study. The prevalence of NMS was 100%, and the most commonly reported symptom was fatigue (87.7%); there was a strong correlation between NMS and the quality of life (QOL) of patients with PD (P
    Conclusion
    This study showed that NMS are highly prevalent in the PD population and adversely affect QOL in these patients. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve QOL and can help in disability management of patients with PD.
    Keywords: Non-motor Symptoms, Parkinson Disease, Quality of Life
  • Maryam Khooshideh, Majid Ghaffarpour, Sama Bitarafan Pages 125-129
    Background
    To date, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is the treatment of choice for prevention of seizure in eclampsia and preeclampsia. However, there are some limitations in the administration of MgSO4 due to its tocolytic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsant and tocolytic effects of MgSO4 and another drug, phenytoin, in patients with eclampsia and preeclampsia.
    Methods
    This clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women hospitalised with eclampsia or preeclampsia, during 2014–2016. The subjects were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using blocking method based on disease (eclampsia or mild and severe preeclampsia). One group received MgSO4 (group M) and another group received phenytoin (group P) as treatment. Each group consisted of 110 and 65 women with mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively (subgroup A), and 25 women with eclampsia (subgroup B). Duration of labor, the number of cesarean sections, convulsions and Apgar scores of infants were compared between the two groups and were considered as treatment outcomes.
    Results
    Convulsion rate was significantly lower with MgSO4 than phenytoin (P = 0.001). No seizure occurred in patients with mild preeclampsia in group P. Duration of stage one of labor (P
    Conclusion
    Although MgSO4 is more effective than phenytoin for prevention of convulsion in eclampsia and severe preeclampsia, phenytoin may be considered for treatment of special conditions such as mild preeclampsia. Due to the tocolytic effects of MgSO4 on increasing the duration of labor, the increased risk of cesarean section and the potential for toxicity, physicians should critically consider the best drug according to the condition of the patient.
    Keywords: Phenytoin, Magnesium Sulphate, Caesarean Section, Eclampsia, Pre-Eclampsia
  • Mahsa Arzani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Hamed Rezaei, Abdorreza Naser-Moghadasi Pages 130-135
    Background
    Isolated relapsing optic neuropathy is a recurrent painful optic nerve inflammation without any sign of other demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, and the attacks are purely responsive to steroid therapy.
    Methods
    Recurrent isolated optic neuritis (RION) was diagnosed in patients who presented with at least two disseminating episodes of optic neuritis, and negative clinical, para-clinical, and radiological features of the demyelinating, infiltrative and vasculitis disorders involving optic nerve. The patients were assigned into two groups, chronic recurrent isolated optic neuritis (CRION) entailing patients with steroid dependent attack of optic neuritis and RION patients without steroid dependent attack of optic neuritis. They were monitored over a median of 4.0 ± 2.5 years.
    Results
    There were 16 women and six men with CRION and RION; with the median age of 31.7 ± 9.8 (29.3 ± 9.7 for women and 37.7 ± 7.7 for men). The women to men ratio was 2.6:1. The mean optic neuritis attack was 2.95 ± 1.32 in total. Eight patients were RION while 14 patients fulfilled CRION criteria and took long term immuno-suppressive drugs. In their follow-up, 4 out of 14 CRION cases (28.5%) showed clinical and concordant para-clinical features of NMO spectrum disorder. The analysis of demographic data showed that the average number of ON attacks in CRION patients (3.79 ± 2.32) was significantly more than the average in patients with RION (2.25 ± 0.46, P = 0.02).
    Conclusion
    CRION is a disease which requires aggressive glucocorticoid and long-term immunosuppressive therapy to restore visual acuity.
    Keywords: Chronic Recurrent Isolated Optic Neuritis, Recurrent Optic Neuritis, Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder, Multiple Sclerosis
  • Deb Kumar Boruah, Shantiranjan Sanyal, Arjun Prakash, Sashidhar Achar, Dhabal D. Dhingani, Binod Sarma Pages 136-145
    Background
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in bilateral symmetrical Hirayama disease and find out MRI features which are probably more indicative of symmetrical Hirayama disease, thereby help in differentiating this entity from other motor neuron disease (MND).
    Methods
    This prospective as well as retrospective study was carried out from December 2010 to September 2016 in a tertiary care center of northeast India on 92 patients with Hirayama disease. Only 19 patients having bilateral symmetric upper limb involvement at the time of presentation were included in this study sample.
    Results
    Nineteen patients, who constituted 20.6% of 92 patients of clinical and flexion MRI confirmed Hirayama disease were found to have bilateral symmetrical wasting and weakness of distal upper limb muscles at the time of presentation. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of onset of the disease process was 21.7 ± 3.8 years with mean ± SD duration of illness of 3.6 ± 1.3 years. MRI revealed lower cervical cord flattening in 13 (68.4%) patients which was symmetrical in 6 (31.6%) patients and asymmetrical in 7 (36.8%) patients. In the majority of these patients, T2-weighted images (T2WI) cervical cord hyperintensities were found extending from C5 to C6 vertebral level. Seven (36.8%) patients in our study showed bilateral symmetric T2WI hyperintensities in anterior horn cells (AHC).
    Conclusion
    Bilateral symmetrical involvement of Hirayama disease is an uncommon presentation. Symmetrical cervical cord flattening, T2WI cord and/or bilateral AHC hyperintensities were the major MRI findings detected. Flexion MRI demonstrated similar findings in both bimelic amyotrophy and classical unilateral amyotrophy. However, flexion MRI produced some distinguishing features more typical for bilateral symmetrical Hirayama disease which help to differentiate it from other MNDs.
    Keywords: Monomelic Amyotrophy, Wasting, Lamino-dural Space, Anterior Horn Cells, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Debraj Sen, Anusree Majumder, Vijinder Arora, Neha Yadu, Ritwik Chakrabarti Pages 146-155
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. However, current therapies do not prevent progression of the disease. New research into the pathogenesis of the disease has brought about a greater understanding of the “amyloid cascade” and associated receptor abnormalities, the role of genetic factors, and revealed that the disease process commences 10 to 20 years prior to the appearance of clinical signs. This greater understanding of the disease has prompted development of novel disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) which may prevent onset or delay progression of the disease. Using genetic biomarkers like apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4, biochemical biomarkers like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid and tau proteins, and imaging biomarkers like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to detect preclinical AD and also monitor its progression in asymptomatic people. These biomarkers can be used in the selection of high-risk populations for clinical trials and also to monitor the efficacy and side-effects of DMT. To validate and standardize these biomarkers and select the most reliable, repeatable, easily available, cost-effective and complementary options is the challenge ahead.
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease, Amyloid, Biomarkers, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography
  • Moussa Toudou-Daouda, Hamid Assadeck, Boubacar Efared Pages 156-158
  • Safa Najmi, Armaghan Ghareaghaji-Zare, Saeed Ghazanfari-Amlashi Pages 159-161
  • Masoud Mehrpour, Fahimeh H. Akhoundi, Babak Zamani Pages 162-163