فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:6 Issue:3, 2017
  • Volume:6 Issue:3, 2017
  • 88 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/08/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Response of okra (Abelmuschus esculenthus L. Moench) to combined organic and inorganic foliar fertilizers
    A. I. Afe, F. Oluleye Page 189
    Aim: This study investigated the effects of combined organic poultry manure (PM) and inorganic foliar fertilizer (FF) on growth and yield of okra (Abelmuschus esculenthus L. Moench).
    Materials And Methods
    Field trials were carried out at Shao and Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, respectively, in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. The treatment consisted of PM at 10.0 t/ha, combinations of FF with 10.0, 7.5, 5.0, or 2.5 t/ha, FF alone and control without fertilizer arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times.
    Results
    Combinations of PM and FF influenced the growth and fruit yield of okra. PM at 10.0 t/ha plus FF produced the highest plant height of 48.40 and 58.50 cm in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Also, highest number of fruits per plant and fruit yield was obtained at the same treatment over the two years. The control, without fertilizer, showed significantly longer days to flower compared with other treatments in the two years.
    Conclusion
    The highest yield obtained at PM 10.0 t/ha was not significantly different from PM 7.5 t/ha . Hence, poultry manure applied at 7.5 t/ha is therefore recommended.
    Keywords: Foliar fertilizer, Okra fruit yield, Poultry manure, Soil-applied, Yield component
  • Growth and proximate composition of Amaranthus cruentus L. on poor soil amended with compost and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi
    Oyeyemi A. Dada, Francis Imade Page 195
    Purpose
    The study was carried out to examine growth, shoot yield, dry matter and proximate composition of Amaranthus cruentus on poor soil augmented with compost or AMF either singly or in combination.
    Methods
    The experiment was arranged in completely randomized designed in six replicates with four treatments. Four treatments: comprised control and three other amendment types derived from the application of compost made from cattle dung and maize stover, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi singly or in combination with compost. The treatments were applied a week before sowing to allow for proper mineralization. Growth characteristics, chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid content and proximate composition were assessed.
    Results
    The results revealed that the compost supplied sufficient plant nutrients needed for improving biological and economic yields of Amaranthus cruentus . Application of compost significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced growth, dry matter and fresh shoot yield of A. cruentus. Applying of combination AMF and compost to nutrient limiting soil had no significant (P ≥ 0.05) effect on yield and yield components of A. cruentus. Proximate composition of A. cruentus was significantly enhanced in pots augmented with compost better than pots amended with the combination of AMF and compost.
    Conclusions
    Application of compost to nutrient deficient soil promoted growth, fresh shoot and dry matter yield of A. cruentus. Similarly, proximate composition of the crop was appreciably influenced by compost application.
    Keywords: Amaranthus cruentus, AMF, Compost, Proximate composition
  • Vermicompost and vermiwash as supplement to improve seedling, plant growth and yield in Linum usitassimum L. for organic agriculture
    Cinny Makkar, Jaswinder Singh Page 203
    Purpose
    To study the organic production in two varieties of Linum (Linseed) crop using different proportions of vermicomposts and combination of vermiwash as an environment friendly substitute to chemical fertilizers for organic farming of Linseed.
    Method
    Vermicompost prepared from cattle dung was mixed in different proportions, i.e. 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% vermicompost v/v with soil and commercial potting media (Perlite, Peat and Coconut coir). To study the germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth and yield in two varieties of Linum usitassimum L. LC-54 and LC-2063 were grown in a polyhouse for a 2 years trial. A total of 960 seedlings and 240 plants were studied for assessment of result in 24 treatments. Additional treatments with foliar application of 1:1 v/v vermiwash and recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer were done to determine and compare the role of vermicompost, vermiwash and inorganic treatment.
    Results
    Substituting soil with 60% (v/v) vermicompost in LC-54 and with 40% (v/v) vermicompost in LC-2063 improved the performance of seeds, root morphology and stem growth. Life cycle of crop was shortened in two varieties of Linseed raised under different treatments of vermicompost and vermiwash. Performance of LC-54 was better at 60% and that of LC-2063 was at 40%, which can be attributed to their genotypic differences. Vermicompost proportion above 60% was of no use at any stage of life cycle in both the varieties of Linum. Germination and yield were further improved when foliar application of vermiwash was integrated with vermicompost for nutrient management when compared with recommended chemical fertilizer treatment and control.
    Conclusion
    Bio-efficacy of vermicompost and vermiwash for production of organic Linseed crop has been well established with enhanced yield.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Earthworm, Linseed, Organic farming, Plant growth, Vermicompost
  • Organic and inorganic fertilizer application enhances the effect of Bradyrhizobium on nodulation and yield of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) in nutrient depleted and sandy soils of Ethiopia
    Anteneh Argaw Page 219
    Purpose
    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of the integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizer effect on Bradyrhizobium effectiveness on nodulation and yield of peanut at the major growing areas of Eastern Ethiopia, Babillae and Fedis sites.
    Methods
    Systemic combination of compost, manure, Bradyrhizobium inoculation and NP application was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.
    Results
    The result showed that Bradyrhizobium integrated with organic inputs significantly improved the nodule number at Babillae while Bradyrhizobium when applied with DAP resulted in a significant increase of nodulation at Fedis site. The highest total biomass and total pods weight at both sites were found to record when Bradyrhizobium integrated with manure and compost. Integration of Bradyrhizobium, manure and compost at Fedis and Bradyrhizobium with manure at Babillae was found to increase the kernel yield by 44 and 66.6% over the control check, respectively. Integration of Bradyrhizobium, manure and compost at Babillae and Bradyrhizobium with starter N at Fedis significantly increased plant N accumulation. The effect of organic and inorganic application on soil N and organic carbon content was not significant at Fedis, but the slight increase was observed in Babillae site. A significant increase in the soil available P by organic and/or DAP application was found in either of the experimental sites.
    Conclusion
    Organic fertilizer when integrated with Starter N and DAP is better in improving the effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium, nodulation and yield of peanut in either of the sites.
    Keywords: Available P, Compost, Manure, Soil properties, Soil N, Soil organic carbon
  • Valorization of various sources of rabbit manure in agro-piscicultural system in Benin (West Africa): dynamics and effect of mineralization upon quality of fresh water
    Richard Adande Page 233
    Purpose
    Rising demand of fish generates various pressures on aquatic ecosystems, causing its deterioration and the loss of its biodiversity. With the aim of a better management and fish production in a salubrious environment, this study proposes the utilization of organic fertilizers from rabbit manure.
    Methods
    The treatments consisted of manure of rabbits fed with: manufactured diet (T1), improved diet with Ipomea aquatic (T2), improved diet with Elaeis guineensis (T3), and improved diet with Panicum maximum (T4). Indeed, experimental design was a completely randomized block design with three replications. 6 g in 10 L of water from the different manures from each diet was followed during 50 days. Various nutrients were measured.
    Results
    After the mineralization process, the best manure which released more nutrients was T4 with measured proportions of N-NO2−, N-NO3−, N-NH3, P-PO43−, Ca2, Mg2, K, and suspended matter being 0.06 ± 0.0, 0.38 ± 0.1, 0.85 ± 0.1, 8.27 ± 0.9, 12.11 ± 0.8, 4.47 ± 0.3, 3.02 ± 0.2, and 140.78 ± 18.6 mg/L, respectively. The highest content of phosphorus and nitrogen was recorded in T4 and T2, respectively. The principal component analysis showed a positive correlation between P-PO43−, Ca2, Mg2, MES, conductivity, and salinity during mineralization.
    Conclusion
    Manure from rabbits fed by an improved diet with P. maximum (T4) was recommended for agro-piscicultural production system.
    Keywords: Rabbit manure, Mineralization, Water, Nutrient, Agro-piscicultural
  • Isolation and identification of bacteria from rotary drum compost of water hyacinth
    Isha Vishan, Senthilkumar Sivaprakasam Page 245
    Purpose
    The present work aims to isolate and identify bacterial community from the rotary drum compost of green waste such as the water hyacinth. Compost quality was also investigated with the physicochemical parameters and the heavy metal analysis.
    Methods
    For rotary drum composting, a waste mixture of 150 kg with water hyacinth, cow dung and sawdust were prepared in the proportion of 6:3:1, respectively. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, volatile solids and the electrical conductivity were analyzed to detect the compost quality. Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cd were investigated for total heavy metals, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and water solubility tests. Consistent and active bacterial community were isolated from the rotary drum compost of water hyacinth. Culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques were approached for the isolation process.
    Results
    Twelve bacteria were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis; they majorly belonged to the Bacillus and Enterobacter family. The analysis of temperature, pH, EC, VS and heavy metals depicted the good quality of compost. Heavy metals concentration was in Pb > Ni > Zn > Cd; however, for Pb, Cd and Ni water solubility remained non-detectable, DTPA concentration for Pb and Cd was also found to be non-detectable.
    Conclusions
    The microbes in water hyacinth compost are metabolically active degrading the organic matter, surviving in the heavy metal-loaded compost environment. Thus, green waste (water hyacinth) can be utilized to isolate bacterial species in anticipation of their application in heavy metal removal in liquid and solid waste sources for micro-bioremediation.
    Keywords: Rotary drum composting, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Heavy metals, PCR (polymerase chain reaction), Micro-bioremediation
  • Vermicompost leachate reduces some negative effects of salt stress in pomegranate
    Siamak Shirani Bidabadi Page 255
    Purpose
    Growth and productivity of plant crops are negatively affected by salt stress. Vermicompost leachate (VCL) has beneficial effects on plant growth in several different ways. This experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of VCL for raising the tolerance of pomegranate against salinity.
    Methods
    A pot experiment was organized to analyze some physiological attributes and antioxidant activities of two Iranian pomegranate cultivars under different concentrations of NaCl with or without VCL.
    Results
    Salinity negatively affected the growth properties of pomegranate, while foliar spray of VCL-induced salt tolerance by reducing the accumulation of Na in the seedlings. Leaf area and shoot and root fresh and dry weight of VCL-treated pomegranate plants showed a significant increase regardless of whether the seedling growth was under non-saline or saline conditions. Chlorophyll loss and reduced photosynthesis efficiency caused by salinity were also ameliorated using VCL. Foliar application of VCL also improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes and caused a reduction in oxidative stress and electrolyte leakage.
    Conclusions
    These results suggested that VCL could alleviate the damage caused by salt stress in pomegranate by limiting the agglomeration of Na and amending the activities of antioxidant enzymes by which the efficiency of plant increases.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Fruit crops, Organic wastes, Photosynthesis efficiency, Salinity, Seedlings, Sodium accumulation
  • Improving chemical and hydro-physical properties of semi-arid soils using different magnitudes of crumb rubber
    Vahideh Sadeghizadeh, Vahidreza Jalali Page 265
    Purpose
    Iran is located on the desertification strip where it has faced water shortage and poor quality soils. So it is necessary to improve the soil structure and increase irrigation efficiency. In this context, the use of industrial wastes can increase soil’s organic matter and improve its structure, also amend environmental problems related to disposal of industrial wastes. The objective of this study was to survey the effect of crumb rubber (CR) application as soil amendment on soil water retention curve indices, soil aggregate stability and soil micronutrients.
    Methods
    In this study, different amounts of CR (0, 0.12, 0.24, 0.36 and 0.48 g) were added to every kg of the two different soil textures (loamy sand and silty clay). Pots were kept at FC moisture conditions for 6 months. At the end of incubation time, the different soil micronutrient availability, soil structural stability and soil hydraulic properties were measured.
    Results
    The results showed that application of CR as soil amendment had significant effects (p
    Conclusions
    According to our results adding CR particles can be considered as a low-cost solution in order to improve the hydro-physical and chemical properties of soils in these areas.
    Keywords: Aggregate stability, Crumb rubber, Penetration resistance, Plant available water content, Soil water retention curve