فهرست مطالب

Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases - Volume:12 Issue:2, 2017
  • Volume:12 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Davood Yadegarynia, Sara Rahmati Roodsari * Page 1
  • Hossein Masoumi-Asl, Mohammad Rahbar, Anoushirvan Soltani, Zahra Pezeshki, Khadijeh Khanaliha *, Goodarz Kolifarhood Page 2
    Background
    Healthcare workers (HCW) such as medical, dental, nursing and midwifery workers are at high risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV through sharp injuries of needlestick.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) among healthcare workers in Milad hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2007 to 2011 and investigate the related factors of needle sticking in the hospital in order to decrease the risk of infectious diseases transmission due to needlestick injury.
    Methods
    This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among healthcare workers including nursing staff, physicians, gynecologist, laboratory staff, cleaners and garbage collectors in Milad hospital in Tehran, Iran, over a five-year period from 2007 to 2011. All of the NSIs data was obtained from infection control committee in Milad hospital. Questionnaire sheets were filled up and all of the information was rechecked one more time by experts. The information included demographic questions and NSI related questions. Vaccination for HBV and titer of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were recorded. The association between demographic and needlestick characteristics was tested through working shifts.
    Results
    In the current study, 608 out of 3806 hospital staff including 209 (34.3%) male and 399 (65.7%) female had NSIs over a five-year period in Milad hospital. Most of the NSIs was observed in enrolled nurse, nursing sister and midwife groups 308 (50.7%) followed by servants 122 (20.1%) and the lowest was found in laboratory staff 14 (2.3%). Staff who worked in the internal medicine ward 95 (15.6%), emergency ward 72 (11.8%) and intensive care unit (ICU) 58 (9.5%) had experienced NSIs. There were uniform time patterns of NSIs by working shifts; therefore, the lowest number of the injuries occurred in the start of working shift (7:00 am, 01:00 pm and 07:00 pm) and increased along the time. Most of the NSIs occurred through taking blood and injection 182 (29.9%). Compared to NSI data by working shift, the greater number of the injuries occurred in the evening and night, but it was not statistically significant through needlestick characteristics (P value > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Nurses are at the highest risk for NSIs and servants the second. Staff training, proper use of protective equipment, proper disposal of infectious waste and vaccination of all staff against HBV might be effective measures towards reduction of the number of NSIs.
    Keywords: Health Personnel, Hospitals, Needlestick Injuries
  • Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh Namvar, Seyed Asghar Havaei *, Masoumeh Douraghi * Page 3
    Background
    Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis, are considered as commensal bacteria of human skin and oral-nasal mucosa. Because of having many various virulence factors as well as the emergence of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, this microorganism is regarded as a major cause of hospital-acquired bacteremia and invasive nosocomial infections.
    Objectives
    Due to the significance of S. epidermidisassociated infections in different health care units, the aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of S. epidermidis in true infection-associated isolates.
    Methods
    In our cross sectional study, a total of 183 S. epidermidis strains was collected during 8 months. Only 40 strains, which were identified as “true” infection-associated strains, were assessed via antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Finally, strains with specific assigned pulsotypes were also analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST).
    Results
    Specimens were most commonly obtained from the bloodstream, wound, and catheter. More than half (75%) of the tested strains were found to be resistant to cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin (60%), while 45% of strains showed resistance to tetracycline. Using PFGE, 3 clones (A, B and C) were identified. According to MLST, the frequency of ST2 and ST5 was more prominent than the other STs.
    Conclusions
    In accordance with the life cycle of S. epidermidis, molecular characterization of invasive isolates is essential for controlling the epidemic strains in health care units.
    Keywords: Nosocomial Infections, Multidrug, Resistance (MDR), Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Soheila Rouhani, Saber Raeghi *, Hadi Mirahmadi, Majid Fasihi Harandi, Ali Haghighi, Adel Spotin Page 4
    Background
    Fascioliasis is a neglected zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola species is critical because of their different epidemiology.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at identifying Fasciola spp. based on spermatogenesis and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND1) gene.
    Methods
    One hundred and fifty adults with fascioliasis were selected from the Eastern provinces of Iran, based on spermatogenetic ability, measurement criteria, and ITS (nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers) 1 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. Then, their genetic diversity indices and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed using mitochondrial DNA marker of Fasciola population spread in the East of Iran.
    Results
    Aspermic F. gigantica was observed in the eastern part of Iran. Partial sequences of mtDNA showed new haplotypes in both species. Pairwise fixation index between different F. gigantica populations calculated from the nucleotide data set of ND1 gene were statistically significant and showed the genetic differences in pairwise population.
    Conclusions
    The results of the study showed that F. hepatica, lives in this region of Iran, had different genetic structures compared with the other Fasciola populations in the world. Fasciola gigantica present in the East of Iran had different genetic structures, compared with the other Fasciola population, based on genetic index.
    Keywords: Spermatogenesis, Phylogenetic, ND1, Iran, Fasciola spp
  • Sajad Cheraghsahar, Siros Kazemi, Mehdi Birjandi, Mohammad Yarahmadi, Shahram Mahmoudi, Rasoul Mohammadi, Asghar Sepahvand * Page 5
    Background
    Otomycosis is a globally distributed superficial infection of the auricle and external auditory canal. Its incidence differs in various geographical regions due to the different climatic conditions.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of otomycosis in Khorramabad, Lorestan province, western Iran, using mycological besides clinical criteria.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a total of 79 patients clinically suspected to otomycosis were recruited from April 2014 to April 2015. Specimens were collected using sterile swabs. All the specimens were subjected to direct examination using 10% KOH, and culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, malt-extract agar, and Czapek Dox agar. CHROMagar candida and carbohydrate assimilation profile in API 32 C were used for the identification of yeasts.
    Results
    Among 79 patients, 15 (19%) were confirmed for otomycosis. The most common agent was Candida albicans (5, 33.33%), followed by Aspergillus flavus (4, 26.64%), Penicillium spp. (3, 19.98%), A. niger (2, 13.32%), and Alternaria spp. (1, 6.66%). Females were the dominant involved group (11, 73.33%) and itching was the most frequent clinical compliant in 100% of cases with otomycosis.
    Conclusions
    Regarding the dissimilarity in fungal spectrum in our study and other investigations and unspecificity of clinical signs and symptoms for otomycosis, mycological examination could be a beneficial measure for accurate diagnosis and treatment of otomycosis.
    Keywords: Otomycosis, Iran, Aspergillus, Candida
  • Farnaz Heidarian, Zahra Noormohammadi, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Masoud Alebouyeh* Page 6
    Background
    Some studies show that the gut microbiota is an essential risk factor in driving inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are some evidences regarding the involvement of Streptococcus spp. in the pathogenesis of IBD. In this study we compared proportions of Streptococcus spp. in feces of IBD patients and control volunteers.
    Methods
    The freshly prepared stool samples were collected from 29 patients with IBD and 29 healthy volunteers. Disease activity was measured by means of standard clinical indices. Total DNA was extracted from the stool samples and used for relative quantification of Streptococcus spp. based on the real-time PCR method in the patient’s and control’s groups.
    Results
    Results showed a relative increase in abundance of Streptococcus spp. (0.0006 to 34.2 fold increase) and greater population diversity among IBD patients compared with the control group (mean ± standard deviation 2.94 ± 0.37 versus 1.07 ± 0.31). Patients with increased Streptococcus spp. levels represent a higher rate of neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration than those with the lower levels; however, this increase was not statistically significant. Analysis of body mass index indicated a significant difference between IBD patients and healthy people (P value 0.02).
    Conclusions
    The determined correlation between increases in abundance of Streptococcus spp. and IBD suggests possible involvement of this bacterial genus in promotion or severity of the disease.
    Keywords: Microbiota, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Disbiosis, Streptococcus spp
  • Reza Bahhaj, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei *, Esmaeil Fallah, Karim Shamsasenjan, Abdolrasoul Safaiyan Page 7
    Background
    Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide parasitic infection, is considered as a transfusion-transmitted disease.
    Objectives
    Due to ignorance about Toxoplasma infection in blood donors monitoring and its important role in provision of safe blood and blood products and also poor information about the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors, this study was conducted to assess anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and associated risk factors among blood donors in northwest of Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross- sectional study, 194 serum samples were collected from healthy blood donors who referred to Tabriz Blood transfusion organization (East Azerbaijan, Iran) during April and June 2014 and tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The questionnaire consisting of demographic and risk factors were filled for all the participants.
    Results
    From 194 donors, 75 (38.66%) and 2 (1.03%) individuals were seropositive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. In the present study, anti-T. gondii antibodies in first-time donors was significantly higher than those in regular blood donors (P
    Conclusions
    Considering the medical importance of blood transfusion and high rate of anti- T. gondii antibodies in healthy blood donors, it seems that effective monitoring of infection is required to prevent transfusion- transmitted toxoplasmosis.
    Keywords: Chemiluminescence, Blood Transfusion, Blood Donor, Iran, Toxoplasma gondii
  • Samira Ghaderi Afshari, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Hossein Goudarzi, Mahboobeh Satarzadeh Tabrizi, Mehdi Goudarzi *, Bahareh Hajikhani, Mohsen Heidary, Hadi Azimi Page 8
    Background
    Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have been recognized as one of the most important causes of infection in burn patients that have recently shown a frequent and rapid development of antibiotic resistance.
    Objectives
    The present study described the distribution of different SCCmec types and antibiotic resistance pattern among MRSA strains isolated from burn patients in a referral burn center in Tehran, Iran.
    Methods
    During a 12-month study, 189 MRSA isolates were obtained from burn patients. Standard culture and biochemical tests were used for identification of MRSA isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disc diffusion method and the presence of mecA, nucA, pvl, and tst encoding genes was determined using PCR method. In addition, the different SCCmec types were determined using multiplex PCR.
    Results
    All the MRSA isolates were observed to be resistant to amoxicillin and penicillin and sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin. The rates of resistance to other antibiotics varied from 86.2% for amikacin to 17.5% for quinupristin-dalfopristin. MDR was observed in all the isolates. Six different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among our isolates. Based on the multiplex PCR assay, the two different SCCmec types were detected as 71.4% type III and 28.6% type IV. In total, 8.5% of isolates harbored pvl toxin encoding gene all of which belonging to SCCmec type IV. Furthermore, 33 isolates (17.5%) harbored tst encoding gene.
    Conclusions
    The results showed low diversity of SCCmec type among circulating MRSA in the burn center with relatively high prevalence of SCCmec III. These findings support the need for more studies to elucidate distribution of different SCCmec types among MRSA isolated from burn patients.
    Keywords: SCCmec Type, MRSA, Burn Patient
  • Shekufeh Pouladian, Minoo Movahedi, Rasoul Mohammadi * Page 9
    Background
    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a widespread and frequent infection affecting up to 70% of healthy women, and some of them affected by recurring resistant forms of the disease. The main risk factors are hormone replacement therapy, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic usage, pregnancy, oral-contraceptives, and insufficient therapy. Candida albicans is the most etiologic agent of Candida vaginitis capable of colonizing on the mucous membrane of genitourinary tracts of healthy humans. The aim of the present study is to identify Candida species obtained from patients with vulvovaginitis by molecular techniques.
    Methods
    Between 2015 - 2016, 108 suspected patients were evaluated for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Suspected patients were divided into 3 groups and each group took only 1 antifungal agent including clotrimazole, miconazole, and nystatin, respectively. Direct microscopic examination, culture, and fragment size polymorphism (FSP) technique were used for identification of clinical isolates
    Results
    Of the 108 patients, 59 (54.6%) had both positive culture and direct microscopic examination. The duration of disease was between 3 to 365 days. Candida albicans was the most prevalent Candida species isolated from patients (74.5%) followed by Candida glabrata (17%). The correlation between the kind of antifungal agents and recovery of patients was not statistically significant (P value = 0.056).
    Conclusions
    Resistance to various antifungal agents and emerging of non-albicans Candida species among clinical specimens are crucial affairs in the field of medical mycology. Since VVC is a prevalent and recurrent infection, controlling of predisposing factors, personal hygiene, and appropriate antifungal therapy are extremely recommended among vulnerable population.
    Keywords: Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal, Antifungal Agents, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
  • Ali Nazari Alam, Sedighe Rafiei Tabatabaii, Ali Hashemi, Masoud Yousefi, Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini Alfatemi * Page 10
    Background
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important bacterial pathogen in children and older adults. It is associated with the highest case fatality rates in patients with pneumonia and meningitis.
    Objectives
    In the present study, we determined the phenotypic and genotypic properties of a vancomycin nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates from clinical specimens in Tehran, Iran.
    Methods
    Five pneumococcal isolates were included in the study from different clinical specimen in 2 hospitals in Tehran (Milad and Sina), Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of pneumococcal isolates were performed by the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guideline, and the presence of vanA gene was detected by PCR.
    Results
    During the study period, 5 S. pneumoniae isolates resistance to vancomycin were identified. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2 µg/mL to 16 µg/mL. All the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and erythromycin. Moreover, only 1 isolate was susceptible to penicillin. PCR results showed that all isolates were negative for vanA gene.
    Conclusions
    Our results demonstrated that an alarming rate of vancomycin resistant pneumococci may result from the uncontrolled use of vancomycin and self-medication. Moreover, multiple drug resistant pneumococci were observed especially in cefotaxime and erythromycin, which may be a major health problem in Iranian patients.
    Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Vancomycin, vanA Gene
  • Shahram Habibzadeh, Moharram Aghabalaii, Jafar Mohammad Shahi, Nasrollah Maleki * Page 11
    Introduction
    Brucellosis is one of the most common worldwide zoonotic and still remains endemic in many developing countries including Iran. Splenic abscess is an extremely rare complication of brucellosis. Here we describe the first reported case of splenic abscess due to brucellosis from Iran.
    Case Presentation
    In June 2014, a 17-year-old woman was admitted to the division of infectious diseases at the Imam Khomeini hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran, with complaints of fever, nausea, sweating, headache, anorexia, and abdominal pain during the previous 2 months. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed hypodense lesion within the spleen. Serum antibody tested positive at a dilution of 1:1280 by the Standard Tube Agglutination test (SAT), while blood culture yielded negative results. A diagnosis of splenic abscess due to brucellosis was made and started on streptomycin plus doxycycline and rifampin for 6 weeks. Two days after the initiation of the treatment, hemophagocytic syndrome occurred, which was controlled by oral prednisone. She was followed up in the outpatient department and was given further oral antibiotic treatment. After 2 months of treatment, CT results showed complete resolution of splenic abscess.
    Conclusions
    Splenic abscess due to brucellosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients who have complaints such as fever, sweating, and abdominal pain. The conservative approach of using antibiotics alone without surgical intervention can be successful in the treatment of splenic abscess due to brucellosis.
    Keywords: Brucellosis, Abscess, Spleen, Therapeutics
  • Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Zeynab Yassin *, Malihe Hassannejad Page 12
    Introduction
    Osteomyelitis is a secondary complication in 1% to 3% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Definite diagnosis of TB-associated osteomyelitis is challenging for clinicians, as biopsies of deep osteoarticular tissues are necessary.
    Case Presentation
    We present the case of a 50-year-old man, admitted to Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran in March 2014. According to his self-report, he had a chronic ulcer on his left foot since September 2012. In physical examinations, there was a painful sinus tract orifice (2 × 2 cm) on the left medial malleolus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foot revealed osteomyelitis in the left ankle. Two biopsies were taken from the wound edge, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.
    Conclusions
    Today, in the diagnosis of TB-associated osteomyelitis, it is a common practice to obtain 3 osteoarticular tissue biopsies for microbiological evaluation, PCR analysis, and histopathological assessment. We suspect that biopsies from the edge of the sinus tract orifice may help diagnose TB osteomyelitis.
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Osteomyelitis, Polymerase Chain Reaction