فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences - Volume:9 Issue: 4, 2018
  • Volume:9 Issue: 4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/10/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi, Ali Rastin, Maryam Malekzadeh, Leila Ibrarahimi Ghavamabadi Page 1
    Background
    The perception that water treatment and supply systems are not safe against accident and human errors as well as disease outbreaks is growing. Many major events around the world have been attributed to human error. In general, human errors are defined as situations where planned series of mental or physical activities fail to achieve its desired result.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed to predict human error in the Khorramabad water treatment plant. Human error in the telemetry control room as well as relevant units was assessed with standard charts, tables, and reference work sheets. At first, all different activities of the unit were considered after interviewing the workers as well as consulting with supervisors and also by hierarchical task analysis HTA. Then the SHERPA method was applied to identify potential human errors.
    Results
    Seventy-nine human errors were identified in various job tasks. Results showed that 51.8% of them are action errors, 38.4% are checking errors, 7.59% are retrieval errors, 0.006% is communication errors, and 0% for selection errors.
    Conclusions
    It can therefore be concluded that the most prevalent errors are checking and action errors. Thus, it is suggested that work instructions, staff training, and employing inspection operators to monitor the performances should be considered as a priority. Furthermore, it can be concluded that SHERPA is appropriate for many industries such as water treatment plants.
    Keywords: Human Error, SHERPA, Water Treatment Plant
  • Sajad Zare, Yaser Sahranavard, Hossein Ali Hakimi, Davoud Hassanvand, Masoumeh Karami, Mohammad Nabi Farokhi Page 2
    Background
    One of the most common harmful factors in the workplace is noise. Noise control is a factor beneficial for health and safety in the workplace.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to design and manufacture a silencer for the cooling tower pump of Sarcheshmeh Copper power station in order to control noise.
    Methods
    In this study, sound pressure level was measured by the use of a sound level meter (B & K 2260). Measurement was carried out in the light of ISO 1996 standard. After studying technical and acoustic features of the noise source, a dispersive-absorptive silencer was designed to control noise pollution generated by the cooling tower pump of the thermal station. After analyzing the frequencies of sound pressure level and using available data, a cylindrical silencer (with a diameter of 1.5 m and height of 3 m) was designed and manufactured. The internal part of the silencer was filled with different columns of absorbent material covered with punched metal. Therefore, the silencer consisted of (1) acoustic diffuser, (2) acoustic chamber, and (3) acoustic channels.
    Results
    Measurements showed that, at a distance of 1 m from the source, sound pressure level reduced from 127 dBA before installing the silencer to 79 dBA after the installation, resulting in a reduction of 48 dBA.
    Conclusions
    Using a silencer with absorbent material (glass wool) is very effective in reducing the noise generated by the pump.
    Keywords: Silencer, Noise, Sound Pressure Level, Thermal Power Station
  • Somayeh Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali, Hossein Najafzadeh, Zeinab Asadi Page 3
    Background
    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic parasitic infection with a worldwide distribution. Ergosterol and stigmasterol, equivalent to mammalian cholesterol, are the key sterols in Leishmania species, and thus can be used as proper targets for drugs.
    Objective
    Because amiodarone (AMD) and ketoconazole (KTZ) inhibit the sterol biosynthesis in trypanosomatid parasites, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of AMD and KTZ, acting individually or in combination, against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes.
    Methods
    For each stage, drugs were added to the growth medium 24 hours after starting the cultures with 106 parasites/mL. Replication of L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes were investigated in the presence and absence of AMD and KTZ. Isobologram construction and calculation of the FIC were performed.
    Results
    Minimum concentration, which produces total death of parasites against promastigotes and axenic amastigotes, was 28 µM and 12 µM for AMD and 1 µM and 0.75 µM for KTZ. According to the concave isobologram and fractional inhibitory concentration
    Conclusions
    Both drugs in synergy could be effective in arresting parasite proliferation at doses lower than those required when used alone, reducing the potential cost (KTZ) or toxic effects (AMD) involved.
    Keywords: Amiodarone, Ketoconazole, Isobologram Curve, Leishmania Infantum
  • Hossein Ali Rangkooy, Payam Rashnuodi, Amir Hossein Mazaheri, Mohsen Monjezi Ali Salehi, Fariba Khanmirza Page 4
    Background
    Illumination is a physical factor in workspaces. This factor is an important risk factor for vision health, employees comfort, preventing accidents etc. and should be standardized.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at assessing and redesigning the illumination in a steel manufacturing company.
    Methods
    In the current descriptive cross sectional study, illumination intensity was measured in 3 units of Kavian steel company using a network approach by TES 1339 lux meter. The units were divided into square networks, and then, redesigned using the lumen method. The current study was conducted in 2016, and the collected data were analyzed based on the statistical one-sample test.
    Results
    Average illumination intensity in hall 25, roller cutting workshop, and manufacturing and renovation workshop were 344.43 ± 166.42, 621.35 ± 240.04, and 262.05 ± 65.62 lux, respectively. The results showed a significant relationship between average illumination in these units and standard values (500 lux), (P ≤ 0.05). Given the mean deviation of illumination intensity from standard value, a renewed design is needed. After redesigning, 82 160-W high-voltage mercury lamps with 21 × 4 arrangement, 84 400-W mercury lamps with 7 × 12 arrangement, and 15 160-W lamps with 3x5 arrangement were needed for hall number 25, roller cutting unit, and manufacturing and renovation workshops, respectively.
    Conclusions
    According to these results, the degree of illumination intensity distribution was unfavorable, and implementing a plan to supply favorable illumination in the standard level for the working staff was essential. Therefore, it was suggested that the renewed design, prepared according to the standard method by the researchers in order to provide favorable illumination system in the company be executed.
    Keywords: Illumination, Illumination Intensity, Lumen Method, Lux, Steel Company
  • Iraj Mohammadfam, Saeed Bashirian, Zohreh Bakhshi Page 5
    Background
    Medication process is a powerful instrument for curing patients. Obeying the commands of this process has an important role in the treatment and provision of care to patients. Medication error, as a complicated process, can occur in any stage of this process, and to avoid it, appropriate decision-making, cognition, and performance of the hospital staff are needed.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed at identifying and evaluating the nature and reasons of human errors in the medication process in a hospital using the extended CREAM method.
    Methods
    This was a qualitative and cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital in Hamadan. In this study, first, the medication process was selected as a critical issue based on the opinions of experts, specialists, and experienced individuals in the nursing and medical departments. Then, the process was analyzed into relative steps and substeps using the method of HTA and was evaluated using extended CREAM technique considering the probability of human errors.
    Results
    Based on the findings achieved through the basic CREAM method, the highest CFPt was in the step of medicine administration to patients (0.056). Moreover, the results revealed that the highest CFPt was in the substeps of calculating the dose of medicine and determining the method of prescription and identifying the patient (0.0796 and 0.0785, respectively). Also, the least CFPt was related to transcribing the prescribed medicine from file to worksheet of medicine (0.0106).
    Conclusions
    Considering the critical consequences of human errors in the medication process, holding pharmacological retraining classes, using the principles of executing pharmaceutical orders, increasing medical personnel, reducing working overtime, organizing work shifts, and using error reporting systems are of paramount importance.
    Keywords: Medication Process, Medication Error, Extended CREAM, Patient Safety
  • Zerf Mohammed, Mokkedes Moulay Idriss, Ben Amer Belkacem Nora, Mabrouki Fatiha Page 6
    Background
    Previous Algerian epidemiologic studies have revealed that obesity has become an epidemic in many parts of the community, due to the cumulative body mass index (BMI) allied to upper total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol asserting by medical scholarships in these topics.
    Objectives
    This study aimed at evaluating the association between anthropometric risk index with lipid profiles among some Algerian females.
    Methods
    This case-control study was performed female workers and spinster at the OPAPS laboratory during academic years 2015 and 2016. All participants in this study accepted venous blood withdrawal under fasting conditions and anthropometric measurement (weight, height, waist size (WC) and BMI). The SPSS 22 software using Levene’s statistic, independent t-test and the stepwise multiple linear regression was performed on the data.
    Results
    The samples included 36 females; 18 spinsters and 18 married, their average age was 22.75 ± 2.56 years, weight ≈ 65.52 ± 4.58, BMI ≈ 25.15 ± 2.10, ABSI ≈ 0.07 ± 0.01, ABSIz ≈ -0.38 ± 0.09, TC (g/L) 1.28 ± 0.12, and TG ≈ 1.11 ± 0.17. The homogeneity of the 2 groups was based on administrative workers with the same education, the social status, age, and weight categories. On the basis of the laboratory results, records with applied anthropometric measurements as a protocol, were used in this experiment. The practical statistics with a significant set at 0.05, confirmed that total cholesterol (LDL and HDL) level as part of lipid profile increased with increasing BMI in married females in contrast to spinsters. To predict the health risk, it is important to take into account the amount of fat and calculate the cumulative risk index based on all relevant measurements and indicators, such as ABSI and ABSI z-score to capture the risk profile associated with body size and shape.
    Conclusions
    On the basis of anthropometric characters related to blood test practice, lower lipid profile was in the benefit of spinsters. The results indicate that upper lipid profile control by BMI and ABSI was inversely associated with HDL and TG. Established by the association between upper quartile of ABSI related to BMI and both HDL and TG interpret in the case of this study to the side effects of oral contraceptives causing a decrease in Apoprotein, cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides reported the case of married females. In contrast, the conclusions are in agreement with similar studies, which advised a positive relationship between upper quartile of ABSI related to BMI and triglycerides related to lower HDL cholesterol and its relationship to lipoprotein lipase activity as part of lipid profile associated with obesity as a health risk in the benefit of married versus spinster females.
    Keywords: Lipid Profiles, Body Mass Index, Married Vs Spinster
  • Hamed Jalilian, Kamran Najafi, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Yahya Khosravi, Jamshid Jamali Page 7
    Background
    Electrification of transport systems currently deserves top priority in Iran. Such systems generate a magnetic field in static or extremely low frequency ranges. Therefore, train drivers may be exposed to these fields occupationally.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to measure the intensity of static magnetic field (SMF) and extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in the subway trains of Tehran City in different train types and situations to show drivers’ exposure to SMF and ELF-MF.
    Methods
    Two AC and DC trains were randomly selected from lines 1 and 2, one AC train from line 4, and two ACi trains from line 5. The SMF and ELF-MF levels were measured based on BS EN 50500:2008 and recommendations in other studies using TES-1394 (ELF-MF meter) and HI-3550 (SMF meter). Ceiling values of ELF-MF and SMF were used for assessment of train driver’s exposure. One-way ANOVA, with Tukey post hoc test, and independent sample T-test were used for data analysis.
    Results
    Maximum SMF and ELF-MF exposures were 0.52 mT (at DC trains- in trip situation) and 7.90 µT (at ACi trains- in trip situation), respectively, and the minimum exposures to SMF and ELF-MF were measured among the drivers of ACi (
    Conclusions
    As the obtained results suggest, in none of the situations, exposure of train drivers to ELF-MF and SMF exceeded the threshold limits recommended by ACGIH. However, the effects of these fields should not be ignored because different studies have reported adverse health consequences of these fields.
    Keywords: Magnetic Field, Occupational Exposure, Train Driver, Subway
  • Amir Hossein Davoudian Talab, Gholam Reza Azari Page 8
    Background
    One way of controlling hazards in the work environment is a use of safety signs. Safety signs are among the safe information group; hence, if these signs are not understood properly it could cause an injury or even death.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study is surveying perception of safety signs and adoption with ISO and ANSI standards.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2013 to 2014 in the 3 provinces of Khuzestan, Fars, and Tehran. The study population included 370 non-monochromatic employees working in the industries. For collecting information, the standard questionnaire of the international organization for standard (ISO 9186-1) and demographic information was used. A total of 13 safety signs were utilized for determination of perception. Stratified - Random sampling method was used, then, the obtained data were utilized using SPSS-16 software and applying descriptive statistics.
    Results
    In this study, the overall rate of perception of safety signs was 78.4% with a standard deviation of 15.1%. The lowest percentage of perception was related to the sign “face shield must be worn” (53.5%). In the assessment of safety signs based on ANSI Z5353 and ISO 9186-1 standard, 62.5% and 69.2% of signs can be reached to limit of acceptable perception.
    Conclusions
    The perception patterns of safety signs are different. Assessing perception of signs show a moderate level of perception in accordance with ISO standard; however, to reach ANSI standard, implementation of intervention programs (Judgment test) is suggested due to perceptual adaptation with target population and redesign of sign with low perception.
    Keywords: Safety, Sign, Perception