فهرست مطالب

Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery  - Volume:6 Issue:1, 2018
  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/11/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Mohammad Razi * Pages 1-2
    Japanese orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Masaki Watanabe, established himself as the “father of modern and interventional arthroscopy” by developing sophisticated endoscopic instruments, using electronics and optics, which became popular in Japan in the post–World War II (1). Before him, Professor Kenji Takagi in Tokyo has traditionally been credited with performing the first arthroscopic examination of a knee joint, in 1919. He used a 7.3 mm cystoscope for his first knee arthroscopies (2). In 1969, Dr. Richard O’Connor visited and studied with Watanabe. Then he popularized knee arthroscopy in United State in 1960-70s (3). Dr. Heshmat Shahriaree began experimenting with ways to excise fragments of menisci (4)...
    Keywords: Iranian Society, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy, Sports Traumatology, ISKAST
  • Hadi Makhmalbaf, Omid Shahpari * Pages 3-7
    Medial collateral ligament (MCL)injury, is one of the most common ligament injuries of the knee,mostly results from a valgus force.Restoration of function and going back to the pre-injury level of function is the aim of treatment in ligament injuries of the knee. There are multiple soft tissue structures in medial side that play an important role in connection with each other to retain medial side stabilization and resists against valgus forces.MRI is now the most reliable and accurate investigation tool, this not only shows the exact site of the injury to the MCL, but also shows other ligament or soft tissue and bony injuries.we recommend a new classification of MCL injury classification based on pathoanatomy,MRI and clinical findings as a guide for patient selection and early surgical intervention.
    Keywords: Classification, Medial Collateral Ligament, MCL
  • Santiago Pache, Zachary S. Aman, Mitchel Kennedy, Gilberto Nakama, Gilbert Moatshe, Connor Ziegler, Robert F. Laprade * Pages 8-18
    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the largest and strongest ligament in the human knee, and the primary posterior stabilizer. Recent anatomy and biomechanical studies have provided an improved understanding of PCL function. PCL injuries are typically combined with other ligamentous, meniscal and chondral injuries. Stress radiography has become an important and validated objective measure in surgical decision making and post operative assessment. Isolated grade I or II PCL injuries can usually be treated non-operatively. However, when acute grade III PCL ruptures occur together with other ligamentous injury and/or repairable meniscal body/root tears, surgery is indicated. Anatomic singlebundle PCL reconstruction (SB-PCLR) typically restores the larger anterolateral bundle (ALB) and represents the most commonly performed procedure. Unfortunately, residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after SB-PCLR has led to the development of an anatomic double-bundle (DB) PCLR to restore the native PCL footprint and co-dominant behavior of the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles and re-establish normal knee kinematics. The purpose of this article is to review the pertinent details regarding PCL anatomy, biomechanics, injury diagnosis and treatment options, with a focus on arthroscopically assisted DB-PCLR.
    Keywords: Double bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Posterior cruciate ligament, Posterior knee laxity, Stress radiographs
  • E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan * Pages 19-22
    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well established technique for the treatment of medial osteoarthritis of the knee with varus malalignment. The outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after HTO remains uncertain. The aim of this paper is to revise the literature with the aim of answering the following question: Does a previous (HTO)influence the long-term function or survival of a TKA?. The search engine was MedLine. The keywords used were: total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. One hundred and ten articles were found. Of those, only 19 were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic and the question of this article. The reports published so far have a low grade of evidence (levels III and IV). Most of them are prospective case series (level IV). One is a systematic review of level III studies reported in 2009. Two recent studies based in a great number of cases (registers) showed similar survival in the 2 groups: around 92% at 10 years, and 88% at 15 years. The review of the literature suggests that a previous HTO does not influence the function or survival of a TKA in the long-term.
    Keywords: Function, Previous high tibial osteotomy, Results, Survival, Total knee arthroplasty
  • Jorge Manrique, Mohammad Rasouli, Camilo Restrepo, Mitchell G. Maltenfort, Jonathan Beri, Jeffrey Oliver, Raj Patel, Javad Parvizi * Pages 23-26
    Background
    There is an information gap in literature regarding postoperative outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with hardware in-situ from the previous knee surgery. The present study aims to evaluate impact of retained hardware on short-term outcome of TKA patients.
    Methods
    Perioperative radiographs of patients who had undergone TKA between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed and patients in whom partial or complete retention of hardware was evident after TKA were included. These patients were matched in 1 to 2 ratio based on age ( 2 years), gender, surgeon and year of surgery to a group of patients that underwent primary TKA without hardware in the affected knee. The average follow up of these patients was 43.45 (range 12-155.2) months. Complication rates were compared between the two groups using statistical tests that took into account the matched data structure.
    Results
    We included a total of 55 cases and 110 controls. The incidence of complications was higher, although not all statistically significant, in the case group. Only mechanical complications were significantly different in the cases group (5.5% versus 0%, P=0.01). Time to event analysis using the mixed-effects Cox model didn’t show a statistically significant difference between two groups for various outcomes.
    Conclusion
    Presence of retained hardware around the knee may predispose the patient to a higher rate of complications particularly mechanical complications of the implant after TKA. Further studies are required to investigate impact of retained hardware around the knee in patients undergoing TKA.
    Keywords: Arthroplasty, Implant-related infection, Internal fixation of fracture, Knee, Perioperative complication, Replacement
  • James Ricketts *, Paul Sherry Pages 27-33
    Background
    Hospitals may be under pressure to implement cost saving strategies regarding prosthesis choice. This may involve the use of components which are not the first preference of individual surgeons, or those they have little experience with. We aim to examine the effect of standardizing the type of femoral stem used in a single trust, and determine whether this is safe practice, particularly in those who have never used this particular stem before.
    Methods
    We report results at 2 years of 151 primary total hip arthroplasties performed using a single femoral stem. Data was split into 2 groups: those in which the operating surgeon was previously using this femoral stem, and those who were not. Radiographic outcomes measured were leg length discrepancy, cement mantle grade, and femoral stem alignment. We also report on clinical outcomes, complications, and construct survivability.
    Results
    No significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Cement quality was generally worse in those with no prior use of this stem. Leg length inequality was greater in those previously using the stem (.57mm vs 3.83mm), however this did not correlate to clinical outcomes. Alignment was similar between the groups (P=0.464).
    Conclusion
    Our findings suggest that although clinical outcomes are similar at 2 years, radiological differences can be observed even at this early stage in follow up. Choice of components for arthroplasty should remain surgeon led until long term follow up studies can prove otherwise.
    Keywords: Arthroplasty, Femoral stem, Radiographic results
  • Usman Syed, Adam J. Seidl, Ryan A. Hoffman, Justin Bianchini, Pedro Beredjiklian, Joseph A. Abboud * Pages 34-38
    Background
    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a concern in shoulder surgery, especially during arthroplasty. While many studies have explored the characteristics and efficacy of different sterilizing solutions, no study has evaluated the method of application. The purpose of this study was to compare two popular pre surgical preparatory applications (two 4 x 4 cm gauze sponges and applicator stick) in their ability to cover the skin of the shoulder.
    Methods
    Two orthopedic surgeons simulated the standard pre-surgical skin preparation on 22 shoulders of volunteer subjects. Each surgeon alternated between an applicator stick and two sterile 4x4 cm gauze sponges. Skin preparation was performed with a commercially available solution that can be illuminated under UV-A light. Advanced imageanalysis software was utilized to determine un-prepped areas. A two-tailed paired t-test was performed to compare percentage of un-prepped skin.
    Results
    The applicator stick method resulted in a significantly higher percentage of un prepped skin (27.25%, Range 10-49.3) than the gauze sponge method (15.37%, Range 5-32.8, P=0.002). Based on image evaluation, most unprepped areas were present around the axilla.
    Conclusion
    Based on our findings, the use of simple gauze sponges for pre-surgical preparatory application of sterilization solution may result in a lower percent of un-prepped skin than commercially available applicator stick. Orthopaedic surgeons and operating room staff should be careful during the pre-surgical sterile preparation of the shoulder, especially the region around the axilla, in order to reduce the potential risk of surgical site infection.
    Keywords: Applicator stick, Gauze sponge, Infection, Shoulder, Sterile preparation, Surgical site infection
  • Rajesh Govindasamy *, Ramkumar Gnanasundaram, Saravanan Kasirajan, Syed Ibrahim, Jimmy Mellepuram Pages 39-46
    Background
    Femoral shaft fractures are an incapacitating pediatric injury accounting for 1.6% of all pediatric bony injuries. Management of these fractures is largely directed by age, fracture pattern, associated injuries, built of the child and socioeconomic status of the family. We retrospectively evaluated the use of elastic stable intramedullary nail (ESIN) in surgical management of femoral shaft fractures in children and its complications.
    Methods
    Fifty two children were treated with titanium elastic nails (TEN) from June 200 to June 2014 at our institution. At the end of the study there were 48 children. Fractures were classified according to Winquest and Hansen’s as Grade I (n=32), Grade II (n=10), Grade III (n=6) and compound fractures by Gustilo and Anderson’s classification, Grade I (n=5), Grade II (n=3 ). There were 36 mid-shaft fractures, 7 proximal third shaft fractures, 5 distal third shaft fractures. The final results were clinically evaluated by using Flynn’s criteria and radiologically by Anthony et al’s criteria.
    Results
    The mean duration of follow-up was 20 months (range 12 – 40 months). All fractures healed radiologically with grade III callus formation at 9 – 12 weeks (mean 9.7 weeks). The results were analyzed using Flynn’s criteria and were excellent in 40 children (83%) and satisfactory in 8 children (17%). The soft tissue discomfort near the knee produced by nail ends was the most common problem in our study (25%). Other complications include limb shortening (n=5), Varus malunion (n=4), Nail protruding site infection (n=4) and nail migration (n 2). There was no delayed union, non-union or refractures.
    Conclusion
    TEN is minimally invasive, safe, relatively easy to use and an effective treatment for fracture shaft of femur in properly selected children.
    Keywords: Bone nailing, Femur, Intramedullary fracture fixation, Malunited fracture
  • Fardin Mirzatolooei *, Ali Tabrizi, Maryamsadat Mokaram Gargari Pages 47-51
    Background
    The role of wound drainage after total knee arthroplasty is still considered controversial as although closed drainage systems have been believed to be effective in decreasing the post operative complications, they could also facilitate the bleeding and increase the rate of transfusion and infection. We have conducted the current study to compare the outcomes superficial subcutaneous, one deep, and two deep drain techniques after total knee arthroplasty.
    Methods
    Between 2014 and 2015 sixty consecutive patients were prospectively selected and underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients randomized to receive one superficial, one deep and two deep drains at the end of operation. Tourniquet was used and opened at the end of the surgery after dressing. Patients were studied for volume of blood loss, hemoglobin drop, number of transfusion, and any complications. Knee range of motion and diameter were measured and compared with contralateral side in all cases at the end of the third day.
    Results
    There was no statistical difference regarding red blood cell volume loss, Hb drop, and transfusion rate between groups. Patients in one superficial group had the most sever post-operative ecchymosis. Knee flexion and swelling were the same in all groups. Patients in one superficial drain group had the worst VAS for the pain. Need for early blood transfusion was significantly higher in two deep drain group. In one deep drain group returned back to operating room for sever hemarthrosis and wound dehiscence was occurred in a patient. One patient in one deep group had also developed mild thrombo-emboli.
    Conclusion
    Regarding the blood volume loss after total knee arthroplasty there is no difference between superficial drainage and even more effective intra-articular techniques. Outcome and complication rates are the same.
    Keywords: Hemorrhage, Knee arthroplasty, Transfusion
  • Hamid Mousavi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Hossein Akbari Aghdam * Pages 52-56
    Background
    Injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN) is common after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft, as reported in up to 88% of the cases. Due to close relationship between the IPBSN with pes anserine tendons insertion skin incision may sever IPBSN while harvesting gracillis and semitendinous tendons. As the IPBSN course at the anterior of knee is oblique, we hypothesized a parallel skin incision with nerve passage may decrease nerve injury.
    Methods
    Vertical and oblique incisions were compared in 79 patients in this clinical trial. The sensory loss area and patients’ complain of numbness were measured at 2 and 8 weeks as well as 6 months after surgery.
    Results
    Both the sensory loss area and patients’ complain of numbness decreased significantly in the oblique incision group (P
    Conclusion
    According to our findings, oblique incision is suggested instead of traditional vertical incision when hamstring tendons are being harvested in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft. Level of evidence: IV
    Keywords: ACL reconstruction, Hamstring graft harvest, Infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve, Nerve injury, Saphenous nerve
  • Zhaleh Shariati-Sarabi, Hamid Etemad Rezaie, Nasrin Milani, Farnaz Etemadrezaee, Ali Etemad Rezaie Pages 57-62
    Background
    The menopausal transition called perimenopause, happens after the reproductive years, and is specified with irregular menstrual cycles, perimenopause symptoms and hormonal changes. Women going through peri menopausal period are vulnerable to bone loss. Osteoporosis is one of the most common debilitating metabolic bone diseases ,especially in the women almost around 50 years .This study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis amongst asymptomatic individuals during the menopause transition period.
    Methods
    A total of 714 asymptomatic peri-menopausal female volunteers were recruited through a billboard invitation for participation in the study. The subjects were selected based on already defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The project, which was conducted between 2010 and 2014 was affiliated to the Educational and Therapeutic Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) measured by DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was carried out on two distinct sites, the proximal femur and the lumbar vertebrae from L1 to L4. Pertained data were analyzed.
    Results
    The mean age of the subjects was 49.7±2.years. The overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in these peri-menopausal individuals were 37.6 % and 10% respectively. Thirty five point two percent of 714 women presented with osteopenia and eight percent of them have osteoporosis in the femoral neck, respectively. Nonetheless, BMD values at the lumbar spine indicated 41.6% and 12% of individual participants being affected by osteopenia and osteoporosis.
    Conclusion
    In general osteopenia or osteoporosis, occurred in 48% of this study population, implying that special attention is required for the bone health status of Iranian women who undergo menopause.
    Keywords: Bone mineral densitometry, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Peri-menopause
  • Mohammad Haghighi, Mohsen Mardani-Kivi *, Ahmadreza Mirbolook, Samaneh Ghazanfar Tehran, Nasim Ashouri Saheli, Keyvan Hashemi-Motlagh, Khashayar Saheb-Ekhtiari Pages 63-70
    Background
    Several studies have put an effort to minimize the tourniquet pain and complications after conventional double tourniquet intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). We expressed in our hypothesis that an upper arm single wide tourniquet (ST) may serve a better clinical efficacy rather than the conventional upper arm double tourniquet (DT) in distal upper extremity surgeries.
    Methods
    In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients undergoing upper limb orthopedic surgeries were randomized into two groups. IVRA was administered using lidocaine in both groups. Tourniquet pain was recorded based on visual analogue scale (VAS). In case of pain (VAS>3) in the DT group, the proximal tourniquet was replaced with a distal tourniquet while fentanyl 50μg was injected in the ST group. The onset time of tourniquet pain, time to reach to maximum tourniquet pain and the amount of fentanyl consumption were compared between the two groups.
    Results
    No significant difference was seen in demographic characteristics. The onset time of tourniquet pain (VAS=1) in the ST group (26.9±13.2 min) was longer than that of the DT group (13.8±4.8 min) (P3) in DT and ST groups were 25 and 40 minutes, respectively; indicating that the patients in ST group reached to pain level at a significantly later time (P
    Conclusion
    It seems that in upper limb orthopedic surgeries with less than 40-minute duration, a single tourniquet may serve as a proper alternative opposed to the conventional double tourniquet technique.
    Keywords: Bier block, Opioid consumption, Orthopedic surgery, Regional anesthesia, Tourniquet pain
  • Golnaz Ghayyem Hassankhani, Ali Moradi *, Ali Birjandinejad, Ehsan Vahedi, Amir Reza Kachooei, Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh Pages 71-77
    Background
    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is recognized as the most common type of neuropathies. Questionnaires are the method of choice for evaluating patients with CTS. Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (BCTS) is one of the most famous questionnaires that evaluate the functional and symptomatic aspects of CTS. This study was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of BCTS questionnaire.
    Methods
    First, both parts of the original questionnaire (Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale) were translated into Persian by two expert translators. The translated questionnaire was revised after merging and confirmed by an orthopedic hand surgeon. The confirmed questionnaire was interpreted back into the original language (English) to check any possible content difference between the original questionnaire and its final translated version. The final Persian questionnaire was answered by 10 patients suffering from CTS to elucidate its comprehensibility; afterwards, it was filled by all 142 participants along with the Persian version of Quick-DASH questionnaire. After 2 to 6 days the translated questionnaire was refilled by few of the previous patients who had not received any medical treatment during that period.
    Results
    Among all 142 patients, 13.4 % were male and 86.6 % were female. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and ICC. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.859 for symptom severity scale (SSS) and 0.878 for functional status scale (FSS). Also, ICCs were calculated as 0.538 for SSS and 0.773 for FSS. In addition, construct validities of SSS and FSS against QuickDASH were 0.641 and 0.701, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Based on our results, the Persian version of the BCTQ is valid and reliable.
    Keywords: CTS, Persian, Translation, Validation
  • Jigar S. Gandhi, Michael Rivlin* Pages 78-81
    Carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition in which median nerve compression results in paresthesias and pain in the wrist and hand. We are going to report a rare case of topiramate-induced neuropathy which clinically resembles CTS. Discontinuation of topiramate resulted in spontaneous resolution of numbness, paresthesia and pain in a few days. High clinical suspicion is advised in patients who are on topiramate and present with signs of compressive neuropathy.
    Keywords: Adverse events, Carpel tunnel syndrome, Neuropathy, Topiramate
  • Hamidreza Aslani *, Fateme Mirzaee, Zohreh Zafarani, Shahin Salehi Pages 81-84
    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common and often seen in contact athletes, resulting from a fall on the shoulder tip with adducted arm. This joint is stabilized by both static and dynamic structures including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. Most reconstruction techniques focus on CC ligament augmentation as the primary stabilizer of the AC joint. The best surgical technique for some AC joint dislocations is still controversial. In this study, we explained a modification of the CC ligament reconstruction technique described by Wellmann. The method is based on minimally invasive CC ligament augmentation with a flip button/polydioxanone (PDS) repair, typically used for extracortical ACL graft fixation. Patients commonly complain that heavy sutures under the skin in subcutaneous tissue irritate the skin and sometimes require reoperation for suture removal. We present an augmentation technique that resolves this issue by changing the suture knot location to the sub-clavicular position.
    Keywords: Acromioclavicular joint dislocation, Coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction, Internal fixation, Shoulder injury, Shoulder surgery