فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های علوم دامی - سال بیست و هفتم شماره 4 (زمستان 1396)
  • سال بیست و هفتم شماره 4 (زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • خلیل میرزاده، عارف مداحی*، مرتضی ممویی، حسین نجف زاده ورزی صفحات 1-10
    زمینه مطالعاتی: هورمون ملاتونین به عنوان هورمون فتوپریودیک نقش بسزایی در فعالیت تولیدمثلی حیوانات مزرعه ای، از جمله نریان دارد.
    هدف
    این آزمایش به منظور بررسی تغییرات غلظت هورمون ملاتونین در سه رده سنی 2 تا 6، 6 تا 10 و 10 تا 14 سال، تحت فتوپریود طبیعی در منطقه دزفول بود.
    روش کار
    خونگیری از ورید وداج 33 راس نریان اصیل عرب، در فصول تابستان (تیرماه) و زمستان (دی ماه) سال 1391 انجام شد. غلظت هورمون ملاتونین با دستگاه HPLC اندازه گیری شد. مقایسه فراسنجه مذکور بین فصول تابستان و زمستان توسط آزمون T و تفاوت آن ها در دو فصل، در سه رده سنی با تجزیه واریانس (ANOVA) یک طرفه و آزمون چند دامنه ای دانکن با استفاده از برنامه نرم افزار SPSS مورد آنالیز قرار گرفت.
    نتایج
    میانگین غلظت ملاتونین سرم خون بین فصول تابستان و زمستان دارای تفاوت آماری معنی داری نمی باشد (05/0P>). در هر دو فصل میانگین غلظت ملاتونین در نریان های 2 تا 6 ساله به صورت معنی داری بیشتر از 6 تا 10 و 10 تا 14 ساله ها بود (05/0P<).
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: نتایج نشان داد که در نریان عرب، فصل تاثیری بر غلظت ملاتونین سرم خون ندارد ولی با افزایش سن غلظت ملاتونین کاهش می یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: سن، فصل، ملاتونین، نریان عرب
  • محمد کاظمی فرد *، حسن کرمانشاهی، منصور رضایی، ابوالقاسم گلیان صفحات 11-21
    زمینه مطالعاتی و
    هدف
    این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف کلسیم، فسفر به همراه عصاره رازیانه و ویتامین D3 بر قابلیت جوجه درآوری و خصوصیات کیفی جوجه های گله مادر گوشتی سویه تجاری راس 308 از سن 96 تا 102 هفتگی انجام شد.
    روش کار
    آزمایش به صورت طرح کاملا تصادفی شامل7 تیمار با 4 تکرار و 11 قطعه پرنده در هر واحد آزمایشی (10 مرغ و یک خروس) انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت است از: 1-جیره غذایی متعادل (شاهد)، 2 و 3- جیره غذایی فاقد ویتامین D3 با 10 و 20 درصد کاهش در کلسیم و فسفر، 4 و 5- به ترتیب تیمار 2 و 3 به همراه 20 در صد افزایش در ویتامینD3 ، 6 و7- به ترتیب تیمار 2 و 3 به همراه 50 میلی گرم عصاره رازیانه. در طول آزمایش فراسنجه های از جمله جوجه درآوری، تلفات جنینی، درصد جوجه خروس، وزن جوجه ها و اجزاء تخمدان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت که اثر تیمارهای آزمایشی بر تلفات جنینی و وزن زرده متصل به تخمدان معنی دار بود.
    نتایج
    نتایج نشان داد کاهش کلسیم، فسفر و ویتامین D3 (تیمار 2 و 3) باعث افزایش معنی دار تلفات جنینی شد، همچنین کاهش کلسیم و فسفر در تیمار سوم باعث کاهش معنی دار وزن زرده متصل به تخمدان شد (05/0 P<). افزودن ویتامین D3 به جیره های غذایی با 10 درصد کمبود در میزان کلسیم و فسفر سبب جبران اثرات منفی کمبود کلسیم و فسفر بر تلفات ثانویه شد. افزودن عصاره رازیانه نیز توانست در تیمارهایی که کلسیم و فسفر آنها 10 درصد کمتر بود اثر بخش باشد اما اثر بخشی آنها به اندازه ویتامین D3 بر تلفات ثانویه نبود.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که زمانی که جیره دچار کمبود کلسیم و فسفر شود استفاده از عصاره رازیانه می تواند به مانند ویتامین D3 باعث کاهش تلفات ثانویه جنین شود.
    کلیدواژگان: عصاره رازیانه، فسفر، کلسیم، مرغ مادر گوشتی، ویتامین 3D
  • لیدا اسمعیلی نیا *، مجتبی زاغری، سید ناصر موسوی صفحات 23-34
    زمینه مطالعاتی: تعیین نیاز مجدد مواد مغذی و ارزش جایگزینی افزودنی های تجاری در جیره های کاربردی در جهت بهبود عملکرد مرغ مادر گوشتی
    هدف
    این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی مجدد نیاز آرژنین در جیره های کاربردی مرغ مادرگوشتی و امکان یدک شدن آرژنین توسط گوانیدینواستیک اسید (GAA) انجام شد.
    روش کار
    آزمایش با 320 قطعه مرغ مادر سویه راس 308 به صورت فاکتوریل، شامل دو سطح GAA (صفر و 12/0درصد جیره غذایی) و چهار سطح آرژنین افزوده (0، 3/0، 6/0 و 9/0درصد جیره غذایی) در دوره سنی 54 تا 63 هفتگی انجام شد. نیاز آرژنین با استفاده از تابعیت خطی و غیرخطی برای صفات عملکردی از آرژنین خوراک تعیین شد.
    نتایج
    اثر متقابل آرژنین و GAA بر قابلیت باروری معنی دار بود (05/0>P). تابعیت ایمونوگلوبولینG و نفوذ اسپرم در لایه پری ویتلین از سطوح افزایشی آرژنین معنی دار بود (05/0>P). اثر آرژنین افزوده و GAA بر سرانه تخم مرغ تولیدی و قابل جوجه کشی کل دوره (مرغ لانه) و وضعیت پوشش پر معنی دار نبود (05/0>P)، هرچند افزودن آرژنین باعث افزایش فراوانی پرندگان با پوشش کامل پر (امتیاز 5) شد و بیشترین سرانه تخم مرغ تولیدی با افزودن 3/0درصد آرژنین همراه با گوانیدینواستیک اسید حاصل شد. با افزایش میزان آرژنین افزوده تا 6/0 و 9/0درصد، مدت زمان مصرف جیره روزانه به طور معنی دار تا دو برابر افزایش یافت. نیاز آرژنین قابل هضم برای سرانه کل تخم مرغ تولیدی، سرانه کل تخم مرغ قابل جوجه کشی، نفوذ اسپرم در لایه پری ویتلین و ایمونوگلوبولینG با احتساب آرژنین جیره پایه به ترتیب 85/0، 87/0، 03/1 و 34/1 درصد برآورد شد، که بیش از میزان توصیه شده توسط راهنمای پرورش است. با اعمال 12/0درصد GAA، نیاز آرژنین افزوده برای موارد مزبور به ترتیب 02/1، 91/0، 00/1 و 27/1درصد برآورد شد.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: براساس نتایج این آزمایش، مقدار آرژنین توصیه شده توسط راهنمای پرورش مرغ مادرگوشتی سویه راس 308، تکافوی نیاز این پرنده را نمی نماید و افزودن GAA، جایگزین بخشی از آرژنین برای صفت باروری شد.
    کلیدواژگان: مرغ مادر گوشتی، آرژنین، گوانیدینواستیک اسید
  • سیده اسماء موسوی، سید امیرحسین مهدوی*، احمد ریاسی، حسین حسینی صفحات 35-55
    زمینه مطالعاتی: استفاده از پسماند گیاهان دارویی می تواند در جیره های مستعد پراکسیداسیون لیپیدی مفید واقع شود.
    هدف
    این آزمایش به منظوربررسی اثر سطوح مختلف مخلوط پسماند گیاهان دارویی (تایموسولگاریس،منتا پیپریتا، رزمارینوس افیسینالیس و آنتوم گراوئولنس) در جیره های غذایی با نسبت های متفاوت اسیدهای چرب امگا-6 به امگا-3 بر فراسنجه های خونی، پایداری اکسیداتیو،صفات کیفی تخم مرغ و پاسخ های ایمنی مرغ های تخم گذار انجام پذیرفت.
    روش کار
    در این پژوهش از 120 قطعه مرغ تخم گذار لگهورن سویه های-لاینW-36 (در سن 40 هفتگی) استفاده شد. مرغ ها به صورت تصادفی بین 6 تیمار آزمایشی، متشکل از 4 تکرار و 5 قطعه مرغ در هر تکرار و در قالب یک آزمایش فاکتوریل 3×2 بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی اختصاص یافتند.
    نتایج
    استفاده از جیره های با نسبت پایین اسیدهای چرب امگا-6 به امگا-3، موجب افزایش غلظت مالون دی آلدهید سرم و شاخص رنگ زرده تخم مرغ (05/0P<) و نیز کاهش فعالیت آنزیم آلکالین فسفاتاز (01/0P<)، غلظت تری گلیسرید پلاسما (05/0P<) و کلسترول زرده تخم مرغ (01/0P<) گردید. تغذیه پرندگان با جیره های حاوی پسماندهای گیاهی، شمار لنفوسیت ها، تیتر آنتی بادی علیه ویروس بیماری نیوکاسل و نیز شاخص رنگ زرده، استحکام پوسته تخم مرغ و واحد هاو را به طور معنی داری (05/0P<) بهبود بخشید. شمار هتروفیل ها، میزان کلسترول و تری گلیسرید پلاسما (05/0P<) و فعالیت آنزیم های گلوتامیک پیروات ترانس آمیناز و آلکالین فسفاتاز در سرم پرندگانی که باجیره حاوی پنج درصد مخلوط پسماند تغذیه شده بودند کاهش یافت (05/0P<).
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: هرچند تغذیه نسبت پایین اسیدهای چرب امگا-6 به امگا-3 موجب کاهش سطح کلسترول و تری گلیسرید پلاسما، کلسترول تخم مرغ و فعالیت آنزیم های کبدی گردید، اما امکان بروز فساد اکسیداتیو را افزایش داد. با این وجود بهره گیری از سطح پنج درصد پسماند گیاهان دارویی توانست موجب بهبود شاخص های آنزیمی سلامت کبد، پاسخ های ایمنی سلولی و استحکام پوسته تخم مرغ شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اسیدهای چرب، پاسخ های ایمنی، پسماند گیاهان دارویی، فراسنجه ها خونی، کیفیت تخم مرغ، مرغ تخمگذار
  • صبا عظیمی یوالاری، پرویز فرهومند، سینا پیوستگان، پیام باغبان کنعانی * صفحات 57-76
    زمینه مطالعاتی: مس و آرژنین دارای وظایف فراوانی می باشند که می توانند برای جوجه های گوشتی مفید باشند.
    هدف
    این آزمایش به منظور مطالعه اثر عمل آوری کنجاله کانولا با سطوح مختلف یون مس و مکمل آرژنین بر عملکرد، وزن اندام های بدن و برخی متابولیت های خونی جوجه های گوشتی انجام شد.
    روش کار
    آزمایش به شکل آزمون فاکتوریل 3×3 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با استفاده از سه سطح مس (صفر، 125 و 250 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم) و سه سطح آرژنین (صفر، 1/0 و 2/0 درصد) با تعداد 405 قطعه جوجه ی گوشتی نر (سویه راس 308) در 9 تیمار، 5 تکرار و در هر تکرار 9 جوجه در یک دوره ی 3 هفته ای (42-22 روزگی) صورت گرفت.
    نتایج
    افزایش وزن بدن و ضریب تبدیل خوراک با عمل آوری کنجاله کانولا با سطح 250 میلی گرم مس به طور معنی داری بهبود یافت (05/0>P). عمل آوری کنجاله کانولا با مس (01/0>P) و افزودن سطح 2/0 درصد آرژنین (05/0>P) به جیره به طور معنی داری وزن سینه را افزایش داد. مکمل سازی 2/0 درصد آرژنین باعث کاهش چربی حفره شکمی و وزن شش ها و بالعکس افزایش وزن دوازدهه (05/0>P) و ژژنوم (01/0>P) گردید. پایین ترین وزن سکوم در جوجه های تغذیه شده با جیره های بر پایه کنجاله کانولا عمل آوری شده با سطح 250 میلی گرم در کیلو گرم مس مشاهده شد (05/0>P). غلظت پلاسمایی اسید اوریک در پرندگان تغذیه شده با جیره های مکمل شده با 2/0درصدآرژنین نسبت به دو سطح دیگر پایین تر بود (01/0>P).
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: به طور کلی نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که عمل آوری کنجاله کانولا با مس می تواند باعث کاهش اثرات مضر گلوکوزینولات ها بر عملکرد جوجه های گوشتی گردد و همچنین افزودن 2/0 درصد آرژنین می تواند موجب تغییر متابولیسم انرژی به سمت ذخیره پروتئین شود.
    کلیدواژگان: جوجه های گوشتی، عمل آوری با مس، عملکرد، مکمل سازی آرژنین
  • منصوره مظفرپورتوبکانلو، میرداریوش شکوری*، حسین جانمحمدی صفحات 77-90
    زمینه مطالعاتی: گیاهان دارویی به دلیل اثرات مفید بر عملکرد طیور، به عنوان افزودنی های طبیعی بیشتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند.
    هدف
    تحقیق حاضر به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف بذر خار مریم (Silybum marianum L.) خام و حرارت دیده بر صفات تولیدی، برخی از فراسنجه های خونی و سیستم ایمنی جوجه های گوشتی انجام شد.
    روش کار
    تعداد 256 قطعه جوجه گوشتی یک روزه سویه تجاری راس 308 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی به 4 تیمار با 4 تکرار و 16 قطعه پرنده در هر تکرار اختصاص یافتند. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل مقادیر صفر درصد (شاهد)، 4/0 درصد بذر خام، 4/0 درصد بذر حرارت دیده و 8/0 درصد بذر حرارت دیده خار مریم طی یک دوره 42 روزه به پرندگان تغذیه شدند.
    نتایج
    طی دوره آغازین (10-0 روزگی)، افزودن 4/0 درصد بذر خارمریم حرارت دیده موجب کاهش وزن و افزایش ضریب تبدیل خوراک جوجه ها شد (01/0P<). اما در کل دوره آزمایش (42-0 روزگی) هیچ یک از صفات عملکرد رشد جوجه ها تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفتند. افزودن 4/0 درصد خارمریم حرارت دیده موجب افزایش معنی دار غلظت آلبومین (05/0P<) و پروتئین کل (01/0>P) سرم شد. فعالیت آلانین آمینوترانسفراز در اثر سطوح بذر خار مریم حرارت دیده و آسپارتات آمینوترانسفراز در اثر سطوح 4/0 درصد بذر خام و 8/0 درصد بذر حرارت دیده کاهش یافت (01/0P<). استفاده از تمام سطوح بذر خار مریم، تیتر آنتی بادی علیه SRBC (01/0P<) و تیتر IgG (05/0P<) را افزایش داد ولی بر تیتر IgM تاثیری نداشت.
    نتیجه گیری کلی: نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از بذر خار مریم در جیره جوجه های گوشتی تاثیر مثبتی بر عملکرد ندارد ولی موجب بهبود عملکرد کبد و تقویت سیستم ایمنی هومورال شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آنزیم های کبدی، SRBC، ماریتیغال، آلبومین سرم، جوجه گوشتی
  • مریم خالقی دهخوارقانی، سید عباس رافت* صفحات 91-103
    زمینه مطالعاتی: در برخی مطالعات گزارش شده که تولید شیر بالا، اثر منفی بر روی سلامت و طول عمر حیوانات داشته و سوددهی گله را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد.
    هدف
    اهداف این تحقیق، تهیه گزارشی از دلایل حذف در گله های گاو شیری، تخمین فراسنج های ژنتیکی صفات تولیدی، بیماری ها و محاسبه همبستگی میان ارزش اصلاحی دام های نر برای صفات تولیدی و ارزش اصلاحی آن ها برای مقاومت در برابر خطر حذف بود.
    روش کار
    در این تحقیق از 31550 رکورد زایش مربوط به 17476 گاو هلشتاین استفاده شد. اطلاعات تولیدی و بیماری های منجر به حذف در 47 گله صنعتی استان آذربایجان شرقی در طول سال های 1374 الی1391 و همچنین اطلاعات شجره ای حیوانات توسط نرم افزار ASReml مورد آنالیز قرار گرفت. بیماری های منجر به حذف شامل ورم پستان، جابجایی شیردان، لنگش، کیست تخمدان و متریت مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. تخمین وراثت پذیری صفات بیماری با استفاده از مدل حیوانی تک متغیره انجام گرفت.
    نتایج
    حذف به دلیل بیماری های لنگش و متریت به ترتیب با مقادیر010/0±28/0 و 045/0±21/0 بالاترین وراثت پذیری را دارند. بالاترین و پایین ترین مقدار تکرارپذیری به ترتیب مربوط به مقدار شیر305 روزه (009/0±47/0) و درصد چربی (009/0±25/0) می باشد. بررسی نتایج همبستگی اسپیرمن میان ارزش اصلاحی دام های نر برای صفت تولید شیر و ارزش اصلاحی آن ها برای بیماری های جابجایی شیردان، لنگش و متریت همبستگی مثبت نشان داد که به ترتیب (197/0)، (121/0) و (116/0) می باشد.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: اکثر صفات بیماری مورد مطالعه همبستگی ژنتیکی مثبت با تولید شیر 305 روزه دارند که نشان می دهد گاوهای با ظرفیت بالا برای تولید شیر احتمال دارد به طور ژنتیکی دارای مقاومت کمتری در برابر خطر حذف شدن به دلیل بیماری باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزش اصلاحی، حذف، صفات منجر به حذف، وراثت پذیری، صفات تولیدی
  • سامان لشکری، عثمان عزیزی *، حسین جهانی عزیزآبادی صفحات 105-119
    زمینه مطالعاتی: بهبود الگوی اسیدهای چرب شیر در سال های اخیر مورد توجه بسیاری از محقیقین قرار گرفته است.
    هدف
    جهت بررسی تاثیر روش های مختلف فرآوری دانه کتان بر تولید و ترکیب شیر و الگوی اسیدهای چرب شیر، دوازده راس گاو شیرده هلشتاین با چهار جیره ی آزمایشی شامل 1) جیره بدون دانه کتان ( شاهد)، 2) دانه کتان فرآوری نشده، 3) دانه کتان تفت شده و غلطک شده و 4) دانه کتان اکسترود شده تغذیه شدند.
    روش کار
    دانه کتان در دمای 140 الی 145 درجه سانتیگراد اکسترود و تفت داده شد. سپس دانه های تفت شده غلطک زده شدند.
    نتایج
    جیره های آزمایشی تاثیر معنی داری بر میزان تولید شیر و ماده خشک مصرفی نداشتند. درصد چربی شیر در گاوهای تغذیه شده با جیره های حاوی دانه کتان اکسترود شده کاهش یافت (05/0>P). غلظت اسید لینولئیک مزدوج (cis-9، trans-11) و اسید لینولئیک شیر در گاوهای تغذیه شده با دانه کتان بالاتر از گاوهای تغذیه شده با جیره شاهد بود (05/0>P). بیشترین غلظت اسید لینولنیک شیر در گاوهای تغذیه شده با جیره های حاوی دانه کتان فرآوری نشده و دانه تفت شده و غلطک شده مشاهده شد (05/0>P). قابلیت هضم الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی در گاوهای تغذیه شده با جیره شاهد بیشترین بود (05/0>P).
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: نتایج حاصل از تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که دانه کتان تفت و غلطک شده می تواند به عنوان روشی کاربردی جهت بهبود الگوی اسیدهای چرب شیر، افزایش اسید لینولئیک مزدوج (cis-9، trans-11) و اسید لینولنیک، بدون هیچگونه تاثیر منفی بر عملکرد گاوهای شیری مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: دانه کتان، روش های فرآوری، عملکرد و الگوی اسیدهای چرب شیر
  • احد گل قاسم قره باغ، رسول پیرمحمدی*، یونس علی علیجو، حامد خلیل وندی بهروز یار صفحات 121-136
    زمینه مطالعاتی: میزان بقایای سموم و آفت کش ها در برخی خوراک های دام و طیور در ایران به نظر بیشتر از حد مجاز است.
    هدف
    این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر فرآوری های مختلف تفاله سیب بر میزان سم ایمیداکلوپراید باقی مانده در تفاله سیب، تولید و ترکیب شیر و قابلیت هضم درون تنی مواد مغذی بزهای شیرده مهابادی مصرف کننده جیره های حاوی مقادیر بالای تفاله سیب(68/28 درصد در ماده خشک) انجام گرفت.
    روش کار
    در این مطالعه از 30 راس بز شیرده نژاد مهابادی بالغ تازه زا با میانگین وزن زنده 5 ± 55 کیلوگرم با 5 تیمار آزمایشی و 6 تکرار در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل جیره غذایی حاوی تفاله سیب بدون فرآوری (گروه شاهد)، تفاله سیب پرتو تابی شده با ماکروویو، تفاله سیب فرآوری شده با دو ترکیب تجاری جاذب و غیرفعال کننده سموم ( به ترتیب به میزان 50 g/d به ازای هر راس و یک kg/t تفاله سیب) و تفاله سیب فرآوری شده با یک ترکیب تجاری اسیدی کننده بودند.
    نتایج
    نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان سم ایمیداکلوپراید موجود در تیمارهای مختلف مربوط به گروه شاهد (86/4 ppm) بود. فرآوری به منظور کاهش اثر سموم قارچی سبب افزایش معنی دار تولید شیر نسبت به گروه شاهد شد(Kg/d47/1). .نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که افزودن ترکیبات جاذب سموم تاثیری روی ترکیبات مختلف شیر نداشت اما میزان ضرایب گوارش پذیری ماده خشک، ماده آلی و پروتئین خام در تیمارهای 2 و3 به طور معنی داری (05/0P<) افزایش بافت.
    نتیجه گیری
    به طورکلی ترکیبات جاذب و غیرفعال کننده سموم در جیره های دارای سطوح بالای تفاله سیب مقادیر سم ایمیداکلوپراید را کاهش داده و علاوه بر تضمین سلامتی و افزایش کارایی تولید شیر، سبب تولید محصول سالم تری می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسیدی کننده، پرتو تابی ریزموج، تفاله سیب، جاذب سموم، سم زدایی
  • موسی زرین *، روپرت بروکمایر صفحات 137-148
    زمینه مطالعاتی: زایلازین به عنوان داروی بی هوشی و مسکن در جراحی به طور وسیعی در انسان و دام مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد.
    هدف
    مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر تزریق زایلازین بر متابولیسم گاو شیری هنگام تغییر برخی از متابولیت های خونی بود.
    روش کار
    در این مطالعه از تعداد 24 راس گاو هلشتاین با شکم زایش 1/0 ± 5/3 و 3/0 ± 28 (Mean ± SD) هفته شیردهی استفاده شد. تیمارها شامل تزریق انسولین (6 n= ؛ HypoG)، انسولین و گلوکز (5 n= ؛ EuG)، بتاهیدروکسی بوتیرات (5n= ؛ HyperB) و محلول نمکی 9/0% (8 n= ؛ Control) بوده که به مدت 56 ساعت انجام پذیرفت. در ساعت چهل و هفتم آزمایش، زایلازین (16 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن) تزریق گردید. نمونه خونی قبل از تزریق (ساعت صفر) و یک ساعت بعد از تزریق زایلازین گرفتهشد. تفاوت تغییر متابولیت ها با استفاده از رویه GLM و تفاوت بین غلظت متابولیت ها و هورمون ها قبل و بعد از تزریق زایلازین در داخل هر یک از گروه ها و بین تیمارهای مختلف با استفاده از رویه Mixed نرم افزار آماری SAS ارزیابی آماری گردید. داده ها به صورت Mean ± SEM بیان گردید.
    نتایج
    زایلازین سبب افزایش غلظت گلوکز خون در گروه کنترل وHyperB گردید. در همه گروه ها به استثنای HypoG غلظت اسیدهای چرب کاهش یافت. غلظت بتاهیدروکسی بوتیرات و هورمون های انسولین و گلوکاگون تغییری نکرد ولی در گروه HypoG افزایش غلظت انسولین مشاهده شد. کاهش غلظت هورمون کورتیزول در همه گروه ها به استثنای HypoG مشاهده شد.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: تاثیر زایلازین در زمان تغییر متابولیت ها متفاوت می باشد. عدم تغییر غلظت گلوکز در گروه هایی که انسولین دریافت کرده بودند ناشی از اثر ممانعت کنندگی انسولین بر افزایش غلظت گلوکز بود. با توجه به افزایش غلظت گلوکز در دو گروه از دام ها بدون تغییر در هورمون های انسولین و گلوکاگون، استنباط می شود که علاوه بر تنظیمات هورمونی مکانیسم های دیگری نیز در تنظیم گلوکز دخالت دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: انسولین، زایلازین، گلوکز، متابولیسم
  • وحید شایقی، علی قلی رامین*، سیامک عصری رضایی، علی حسن زاده صفحات 149-163
    زمینه مقدماتی: سلنیم و آلفاتوکوفرول از آنتی اکسیدان های ضروری در سلامتی، رشد و تولید هستند.
    هدف
    تاثیر مکمل های سلنیم و آلفاتوکوفرول در فعالیت گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز (GPX)، غلظت سلنیم خون و ارتباط آن ها با افزایش وزن.
    روش کار
    تعداد 32 بره نر ماکوئی شیرخوار در 8 گروه 4 راسی شامل شاهد، نانوذره سلنیم خوراکی (ONanoSe)، آلفاتوکوفرولONanoSe/، سلنیت سدیم خوراکی(ONaSe)، ONaSe/آلفاتوکوفرول،NaSe تزریقی/ آلفاتوکوفرول تزریقی، سلنیت سدیم تزریقی (INaSe) و آلفاتوکوفرول تزریقی انتخاب شدند. بره ها در روزهای 1، 4، 7، 30، 60 و 90 توزین و خون گیری شدند.
    نتایج
    میانگین GPX از 8/53 به gr/Hb6/174و سلنیم خون از 190 به nmol/l1/281رسید. بالاترین میزان GPX و سلنیم به ترتیب در ONanoSe و ONanoSe/ آلفاتوکوفرول در آزمایش 90 و پائین ترین برای هر دو شاخص در آلفاتوکوفرول در روز 4 بود. میانگین GPX و سلنیم در بره های با مکمل های سلنیم بیشتر از شاهد و آلفاتوکوفرول بوده و سیر صعودی داشتند. تفاوت شاخص ها در دفعات نمونه گیری و بین گروه ها بجز گروه کنترل معنی دار بود (01/0P<). درصد افزایش وزن در ONanoSe بیشترین و آلفاتوکوفرول کمترین بود. تغییرات افزایش وزن روزانه از 176 تا 218 گرم برای ONanoSe و NaSe/ آلفاتوکوفرول بود. تفاوت وزن در بین گروه ها معنی دار نبود ولی زمان نمونه گیری معنی دار بود. افزایش وزن با GPX و سلنیم بجز درآلفاتوکوفرول ONaSe/رابطه معنی داری نداشت. بین GPX/Se در INaSe، ONaSe، ONanoSe و INaSe/ آلفاتوکوفرولدر ماه های 2 و 3 رابطه ی معنی داریبود.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: مکمل های سلنیم خصوصا ONanoSe فعالیت GPX و سلنیم را بیشتر از آلفاتوکوفرول افزایش دادند. اگرچه افزایش وزن در ONaSe بیشتر بود اما ارتباطی با مکمل های سلنیم نداشت. رابطه GPX/سلنیممثبت و معنی دار بود. نهایتا عمل کرد ONanoSe نسبت به ONaSe در شاخص های GPX، سلنیم و افزایش وزن بطور غیر معنی داری بیشتر بود، خصوصا در افزایش GPX بهتر از نوع معدنی و آلفاتوکوفرول بود لذا پیشنهاد می شود به عنوان جایگزین مناسب در درمان کمبود سلنیم به کار رود.
    کلیدواژگان: نانوذره سلنیم، آلفا توکوفرول، بره، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز، افزایش وزن
  • افسون قدرتی سوجه*، پرویز فرهومند، محسن دانشیار صفحات 165-181
    زمینه مطالعاتی: سطح مطلوب انرژی و پروتئین مورد نیاز بلدرچین ژاپنی در دوره های مختلف پرورش (آغازین، رشد و پایانی) باعث بهبود رشد و عملکرد پرنده می شود.
    هدف
    بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف انرژی قابل متابولیسم و پروتئین جیره بر راندمان انرژی و پروتئین، خصوصیات لاشه و عملکرد بلدرچین های ژاپنی در دوره آغازین.
    روش کار
    آزمایشی با استفاده از 450 قطعه جوجه یک روزه بلدرچین ژاپنی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی به روش آزمون فاکتوریل 3×3 با 5 تکرار و 10 قطعه جوجه در هر تکرار برای مدت 10 روز بر روی بستر انجام شد. جیره های آزمایشی شامل 3 سطح انرژی قابل متابولیسم (2700، 2800 و 2900 کیلوکالری در هر کیلوگرم جیره غذایی) و 3 سطح پروتئین خام (24، 25 و 26 درصد) بودند. در پایان دوره آزمایشی یک قطعه پرنده از هر تکرار به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و جهت بررسی خصوصیات لاشه کشتار گردید.
    نتایج
    پرندگان تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی انرژی 2800 کیلوکالری در کیلوگرم و 24 درصد پروتئین خام، بازدهی لاشه، وزن ران و افزایش وزن کمتر و ضریب تبدیل خوراک بیشتری در مقایسه با پرندگان سایر تیمارها داشتند (05/0>P). افزایش سطح پروتئین جیره تاثیری بر افزایش وزن و ضریب تبدیل خوراک نداشت (05/0P). همچنین اثر متقابل بین سطوح انرژی و پروتئین، برای افزایش وزن و ضریب تبدیل خوراک مشاهده گردید (05/0>P). همچنین مشخص گردید که سطح انرژی قابل متابولیسم جیره بر راندمان پروتئین، تاثیر معنی داری داشت (05/0>P)، به نحوی که پرندگان تغذیه شده با سطح انرژی 2900 کیلوکالری در کیلوگرم، راندمان پروتئین بهتری را نشان دادند. با افزایش انرژی جیره، پروتئین مصرفی به لحاظ عددی کاهش یافت (095/0=P). علاوه براین سطح پروتئین جیره بر مقدار پروتئین مصرفی تاثیر معنی دار داشت، به طوری که با افزایش سطح پروتئین جیره از 24 به 26 درصد، پروتئین مصرفی توسط پرندگان نیز افزایش پیدا کرد (05/0>P). پرندگان تغذیه شده با سطوح انرژی 2700 و 2900 کیلوکالری در کیلوگرم به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین درصد پروتئین لاشه را داشتند (05/0>P) و پرندگان تغذیه شده با 25 و 26 درصد پروتئین خام بیشترین و پرندگان تغذیه شده با 24 درصد پروتئین خام کمترین درصد رطوبت لاشه را نشان دادند (05/0>P).
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه پیشنهاد می کند که استفاده از سطح انرژی 2700 کیلوکالری در کیلوگرم و سطح پروتئین خام 24 درصد در جیره آغازین، موجب بهبود عملکرد تولیدی بلدرچین های ژاپنی می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: انرژی، بلدرچین ژاپنی، پروتئین، خصوصیات لاشه، عملکرد
  • مرتضی چاجی*، یاسر منجزی صفحات 183-199
    زمینه مطالعاتی: ذرات کوچک تر نانو، فعال تر از ذرات بزرگ تر هستند. اهمیت سلنیوم برای میکروارگانیسم های شکمبه به طور کامل مشخص نشده است.
    هدف
    آزمایش حاضر به منظور بررسی اثر نانوسلنیوم بر فعالیت جمعیت کامل میکروارگانیسم ها، باکتری ها و قارچ های جدا شده از مایع شکمبه گوسفند و بز انجام گرفت.
    روش کار
    در این آزمایش، مقادیر صفر، 2/0، 4/0 و 6/0 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم نانوسلنیوم به یک جیره پایه استاندارد گوسفند و بز افزوده شد و قابلیت هضم و تخمیر جیره ها در آزمایشگاه با استفاده از مایع شکمبه گوسفند و بز اندازه گیری شد.
    نتایج
    بالاترین قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی (NDF) جیره آزمایشی در گوسفند و بز، مربوط به مقدار 6/0 میلی گرم نانوسلنیوم بود که بیشتر از شاهد بود (05/0>P). صرف‏نظر از سطح نانوسلنیوم، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و NDF توسط میکروارگانیسم های گوسفند بیشتر از بز بود. صرف نظر از نوع دام، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و NDF، با افزایش مقدار نانوسلنیوم، افزایش یافت (05/0P<). پتانسیل تولید گاز توسط میکروارگانیسم های گوسفند در جیره حاوی 6/0 میلی گرم نانوسلنیوم بیشترین مقدار بود و برای تمام سطوح بیشتر از بز بود (05/0>P). قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و NDF توسط باکتری های شکمبه گوسفند بیشتر از بز بود، بلعکس قابلیت هضم این مواد مغذی توسط قارچ های جدا شده از شکمبه بز بیشتر از گوسفند بود.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: بنابراین، استفاده از نانوسلنیوم باعث بهبود هضم و تخمیر مواد مغذی توسط کل میکروارگانیسم ها و باکتری های شکمبه گوسفند و بز شد.
    کلیدواژگان: باکتری های شکمبه، قابلیت هضم، قارچ های شکمبه، نانوسلنیوم
  • هادی عربی، یوسف مهمان نواز *، علی نوبخت صفحات 201-216
    زمینه مطالعاتی: پرورش جوجه های گوشتی به تفکیک جنسیت یا به نسبت های مختلف جنسیتی موضوعی است که در تحقیقات مختلف، نتایج متفاوتی دربرداشته است.
    هدف
    این تحقیق به منظور مقایسه شاخص های زیستی اقتصادی پرورش نسبت های مختلف جنسیتی جوجه های گوشتی از روز یازدهم پرورش انجام گردید.
    روش کار
    آزمایش با استفاده از 180 قطعه جوجه گوشتی سویه راس 308 در 5 گروه مختلف نسبت جنسی (گروه 1: 25 درصد نر و 75 درصد ماده؛ گروه 2: 50 درصد نر و 50 درصد ماده؛ گروه 3: 75 درصد نر و 25 درصد ماده؛ گروه 4: 100 درصد ماده و گروه 5: 100 درصد نر) با 3 تکرار و 12 جوجه در هر تکرار در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی انجام گردید.
    نتایج
    بر اساس نتایج، خوراک مصرفی فقط در دوره رشد (11 تا 24 روزگی) بین گروه های مختلف جنسیتی تفاوت معنی داری داشت (05/0P<) و گروه های 1 و 3 بیشترین مقدار مصرف را نشان دادند. در دوره رشد و کل دوره (11 تا 42 روزگی)، گروه حاوی نر خالص، بیشترین افزایش وزن روزانه و بهترین ضریب تبدیل غذایی را داشت (05/0P<). از میان پارامترهای لاشه، فقط بازده لاشه تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار گرفت و گروه 3 بیشترین بازده لاشه (06/73%) را دارا بود (05/0P<). شاخص اروپایی جوجه های گوشتی در گروه های 5 و 3 بیشترین مقدار را نسبت به گروه های دیگر نشان داد (05/0P<). سود محاسبه شده در 9 حالت ارزیابی اقتصادی (سه روش تعیین قیمت شامل میانگین قیمت سال 1394، میانگین قیمت بدترین و بهترین دوره پرورش دو سال 1393 و 1394) و 3 روش فروش (فروش مرغ زنده، مرغ کشتار شده و به تفکیک قطعات لاشه) با کاهش درصد جوجه های نر در گروه های مورد مطالعه روند نزولی داشت (05/0P<) و کاهش تا 50 درصد نر، تفاوت معنی داری را نشان نداد.
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: با توجه به نتایج حاصل از مقایسه سود روش های مختلف ارزیابی اقتصادی می توان پرورش مخلوط را تا زمانی که درصد نرها از 50 درصد پایین تر نباشد، توصیه نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی زیستی اقتصادی، راس 308، جنسیت، جوجه گوشتی
  • پروین شورنگ*، سادیه جلیلیان، فرشید فتاح نیا، علی اصغر صادقی، علی اشرف مهرابی صفحات 217-230
    زمینه مطالعاتی: پرتوتابی منابع پروتئین گیاهی می تواند کیفیت آن را بهبود بخشد.
    هدف
    این مطالعه به منظور مقایسه اثرات پرتوتابی گاما، الکترون، مایکروویو و مادون قرمز برتجزیه پذیری شکمبه ای، قابلیت هضم برون تنی و بخش های مختلف پروتئین کنجاله سویا انجام شد.
    روش کار
    تجزیه پذیری، قابلیت هضم برون تنی و بخش های مختلف پروتئین به ترتیب با تکنیک کیسه های نایلونی با استفاده از چهار راس گوسفند نر بالغ دارای فیستولای شکمبه، روش سه مرحله ای و روش پروتئین و کربوهیدرات خالص کرنل اندازه گیری شد. گروه های آزمایشی شامل 1) کنجاله خام به عنوان شاهد، 2) کنجاله پرتوتابی شده با دز 50 کیلوگری گاما، 3) کنجاله پرتوتابی شده با دز 45 کیلوگری الکترون ، 4) کنجاله پرتوتابی شده با مایکروویو در قدرت 800 وات به مدت 4 دقیقه و 5) کنجاله پرتوتابی شده با مادون قرمز به مدت 30 ثانیه بود.
    نتایج
    بیشترین بخش سریع تجزیه (a) پروتئین کنجاله سویا در کنجاله خام و کمترین آن در کنجاله پرتوتابی شده با مادون قرمز وجود داشت (05/0>P). بیشترین و کمترین بخش کند تجزیه (b) به ترتیب در کنجاله پرتوتابی شده با مایکروویو و کنجاله خام مشاهده شد. کمترین ثابت نرخ تجزیه (c) متعلق به کنجاله سویای عمل آوری شده با روش های پرتوتابی و بیشترین آن به کنجاله سویای خام تعلق داشت (05/0>P). تجزیه پذیری موثر پروتئین خام کنجاله سویا تحت تاثیر روش های مختلف عمل آوری قرار نگرفت (05/0P)، ولیکن بر بخش های A و C اثری نداشت (05/0P).
    نتیجه گیری نهایی: در بین عمل آوری های مورد مطالعه، تفاوت زیادی در تجزیه پذیری پروتئین خام دیده نشد ولیکن با توجه به نتایج قابلیت هضم به نظر می رسد پرتوتابی مادون قرمز و الکترون برای عمل آوری کنجاله سویا بهتر عمل می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: کنجاله سویا، پرتوتابی، تجزیه پذیری، قابلیت هضم برون تنی، بخش های مختلف پروتئین
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  • Kh Mirzadeh, A. Maddahi *, M. Mamouei, H. Najafzadeh Pages 1-10
    Introduction
    Various factors, including photoperiod, temperature, nutrition, Body condition and age, are responsible for reproductive behaviors of animals. Environmental, physiological and social factors regulate the onset and sustain of reproductive season. Photoperiod and temperature are key environmental factors, but the first one is more important (Hafez and Hafez 2009). The regulation of reproductive activity by phototherapeutic messages due to secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland in most mammals has been reported, but this relationship is not well known in the horse (Diekman et al., 2002(. Regarding the role of the melatonin hormone in the reproductive process, in this study the aim was to investigate the changes in the concentration of the serum melatonin hormone in the Arab stallion, in three age groups including 2 to 6, 6 to 10 and 10 to 14 years old. The study was conducted under natural photoperiod in the seasons of the summer and winter in the Dezful region.
    Material and
    Methods
    This research was carried out using 33 Arab stallions in three age groups including 2 to 6, 6 to 10 and 10-14 years old under the same nutrition and management condition in the July and January (2012) were as the representative of the heating and cold season, respectively. The experiment done in the Arab horse breeding fields of Dezful. The concentration of melatonin from serum samples was measured by HPLC (Bechgaard et al 1998; Itoh et al 1999; Peniston-Bird et al 1993 and Gupta et al 2006). The results of this research were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18). Comparison of serum melatonin concentration between the summer and winter seasons done by T-test. The difference of these parameters in two seasons, and in three age groups 2 to 6, 6 to 10 and 10 to 14 years old was analyzed with one-way ANOVA and multi-domain tests Duncan.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that mean serum concentration of melatonin hormone in winter (97.39 ± 16.4 pg/ml) non significantly was higher than summer (20.11±12.3 pg/ml). Research (Casao et al 2010; Altinsaat et al 2009; Elkon et al 2011; Wrench 2007; Cigdem et al 2009; Gerlach and Aurich 2000; Nagy et al 2000 and Guerin et al 1995) on changes in melatonin hormone and seasonal reproduction of Horse, were considered 8 hours of difference during the day between summer and winter seasons, as a factor for significant changes in the concentration of melatonin hormone and horse reproductive activity. Since, in the city of Dezful, the difference in the length of the day in summer (July) and winter (January) is approximately four hours, it can probably be argued that the difference in the length of the day (the duration of lighting) in The hot and cold season is not such as to make a statistically significant difference in the level of serum melatonin of Arab stallion between two seasons. The results indicate that the season has affected on the level of blood hormones, sexual behavior, physical and biochemical properties of semen and its fertility (Hafez and Hafez 2009). In addition, reproductive activity of the horse throughout the year continued with the fact that the size of the testicles, the number of Leydig cells, testosterone concentrations, and therefore the volume and concentration of sperm in the winter, decreased (Wrench 2007). In this study, in both seasons, the mean concentration of melatonin in the 2 to 6 year old stallion was significantly more than 6-10 years old and 10-14 years old (P
    Conclusion
    Due to the shorter photoperiod in winter than summer, a rise in the level of melatonin in this season was seen, but photoperiodic changes between the two seasons are not so significant that the melatonin hormone exhibits significant changes. Therefore, it can be said that in the Arab stallion, the season has no effect on the concentration of serum melatonin, but it decreases with increasing age of melatonin concentration.
    Keywords: Age, Season, Melatonin, Arab Stallion
  • M. Kazemi Fard *, H. Kermanshahi, M. Rezaei, A. Goliyan Pages 11-21
    Introduction
    Plants (specially herbs) have been used as food for medicinal purposes for centuries and some of them have played a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life for thousands of years (Osman et al. 2005). Aromatic plants have been used traditionally in therapy against some diseases for a long time in the world. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpeniods, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols and phthalides have been identified (Craig 1999). Feed additives were used for broiler breeders to increase utilization of the limited feed allowance and, in turn, improve egg production performance, fertility, and hatchability. The addition of aromatic plants to feeds and water has been shown to improve feed intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield (Hertrampf 2001). Some studies stated that fennel (Foeniculumvulgaris) is one of the aromatic plants containing a high percentage of linolenic and stearic acids. In addition, fennel is characterized by the presence of 16.81% trans anethole and 47.20% Estragole with 64.01% of total sweeting components in essential oil. It is generally assumed that estrogen decrement over the production cycle, drops slowly during molt (Hoshino et al. 1988), and estrogen level increases again with the beginning of egg production cycle (Johnson, 1986). These changes underlie the egg production patterns of commercial layers, where a gradual decline in egg number from the peak reached shortly after sexual maturity, is witnessed. Hansen et al (2003) confirmed the dramatic decrease in blood estrogen concentration in hens at 70 week compared to those at peak production (~29 weeks).
    Materail and
    Methods
    In this study, the decoction (the process of boiling a substance in a liquid to extract its active ingredients) was used to preserve the active ingredients of the herb without any increase in temperature. Twenty gram of fennel seeds was mixed in 200 ml of 70% ethanol. The mixtures were then left in refrigerator overnight to release all active components from the herb and then fil-tered through gauze and evaporated under vacuum conditions at 40ºC using a rotary evaporator (Rotavapor R-114, Buchi Labortechnik AG, Flawil and Switzerland) (Saeedi et al. 2010). The completely randomize design with seven treatments (1-Contorol, 2-Ten percent decrement in calcium and phosphorus, 3-Twenty percent decrement in calcium and phosphorus, 4-As the second treatment with twenty percent increase in vitamin D3, 5-As the third treatment with twenty percent increase in vitamin D3, 6- As the second treatment supplemented with 50mg/kg FE, 7-As the third treatment supplemented with 50mg/kg FE) were used in this experiment that each treatments assigned to 4 replicates. In each pen 10 hens and 1 rooster (2×1 m2) were assigned, with 16 L:8 D lighting program and a temperature maintained close to 21̊C. Eggs were manually collected 6 times a day. Thirty-six settable eggs per pen were set for incubation biweekly. Eggs were incubated in Jamesway model Micro Pt- 100 commercial incubator. Incubator was set at 37.15 ̊C dry bulb and 29.62 ̊C wet bulb temperatures (0-19 days). Eggs were candled on day 10 of incubation for monitoring infertile eggs. All infertile eggs were opened and examined macroscopically for evidence of embryonic mortality. All unhatched eggs were analyzed for developmental stage of dead embryos. The time of embryonic death was assigned to one of four categories: early dead (≤7 days), mid-dead (8-16 days), late dead (17-21 days), and pips. Fertility was expressed as the rate of fertile eggs to total eggs set. On day 19, eggs were transferred to baskets and the baskets were placed randomly into the hatcher cabinets. Hatcher was set at 36.44 ̊C dry bulb and 32.18 ̊C wet bulb temperatures. The number of eggs that hatched was recorded at 21.5 days of incubation. Hatchability of fertile eggs was ex-pressed as the rate of hatching chicks to fertile eggs, and cumulative hatchability was expressed as percentage of hatching chicks to the total eggs set. At the end of 21.5 days of incubation, pipped eggs were recorded and real hatch was expressed as: Real Hatch= total hatched chicks / total egg - (fertile eggsꘪ楹 eggs). Real hatch parameter include some of the eggs recorded as "pipped", which survived through incubation but did not hatch; therefore, they were not included in the analysis. Such eggs were counted as if they hatched, thus causing the estimate of failure to hatch to be biased downward. Chick quality was defined as normal and abnormal chick, already described by Dziaczkowska (1980). After hatching, broiler chickens were feather-sexed for gender rate.
    Results And Discussion
    During the experiment hatchability, embryonic mortality, percentage of male chick, chick weight and ovarian components were evaluated. Results of this experiment showed that dietary treatments had no significant effect on the embryonic mortality and follicular hierarchy. Loss of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 (treatments: 2, 3) significantly increased embryonic mortality; also, follicular hierarchy significantly decreased in the third treatment (P
    Conclusion
    The results of this experiment indicated that using of fennel extract could decrease mid stage embryonic mortality same as vitamin D3.
    Keywords: Broiler breeder, Fennel extract, Calcium, Phosphorus, Vitamin D3
  • L. Esmaeilnia *, M. Zagari, Sn Mosavi Pages 23-34
    Introduction
    Researches on the effects of dietary Arginine (Arg) and Guanidioacetic acid (GAA) indicated that requirements for Arg in poultry diets vary significantly depending on feed composition, disease challenges and environmental conditions (Khajali and Wideman. 2010). Reproductive performance and fertility of broiler breeder flock are decreased sharply with ageing (Zaghari et al. 2013). It is suggested that the age-related decrease in fertility is more pronounced in females, in which the efficiency of sperm storage tubules decreases (Gomulka and Kapkowska. 2005). Silva et al. (2012) reported that dietary inclusion of Arg improved egg weight and egg production in broiler breeder hens. It has been reported that GAA supplementation improved hatchability and total fertility of eggs (Murakami et al. 2014). GAA may be beneficial in poultry diets because it may be able to spare Arg; this is an important point considering Arg is the fifth limiting AA in corn-soybean diets for poultry (Dilger et al 2013). This study was conducted to evaluate arginine requirement of broiler breeder hens in practical diet and investigating of the spare effect of GAA for Arg, as well.
    Material and
    Methods
    A total of 320 Ross 308 broiler breeder hens in a factorial arrangements were assigned to eight treatments (two concentrations of GAA (0 and 0.12%) × four concentrations of L-Arginine (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%)) with four replicates during 54 to 63 wk. of age. The hens received a practical diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 13%CP. Basal diets were formulated to be singly deficient in Arg (73%). From 54 to 63 weeks of age. The number of produced eggs was recorded daily. At the end of experiment, the following parameters were studied: feed clean up time, feather score, IgG and antibodies against SRBC as immune responses. When the hens were 62 weeks old, the time taken by the hens to consume all the feed was measured. At 63 weeks old, feather coverage of the back of each hen was scored on a scale of 1 to 5, following modification to the system reported by Sikur et al. (2004). At 61 week of age, 2 birds, from each treatment group, were injected, intramuscularly, with 0.2 mL of 5% SRBC suspension prepared in 0.9% physiological saline. One week following the injection, the antibody production against SRBC was measured using microhemagglutination technique. Blood samples were collected from each treatment group. Antibody values were expressed as log2 of the reciprocal dilution where the last agglutination was observed (Gharib et al, 2008). To evaluate the fertility, the hens were inseminated with 250µl [100 × 106 sperm/hen; diluted in a modified Beltsville extender without lecithin and glycerol] of the pooled semen at 61 and 62 weeks of age. The eggs were collected during 2 through 8 day following each insemination. The eggs were incubated for further analysis of fertility. Sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination (Sharide et al. 2015) as fertility. Arg requirement was determined by using broken line model, linear and non-linear regressions according to performance and dietary Arg concentration.
    Results And Discussion
    Effects of added Arg and GAA on the total hen housed egg production, hen housed hatching egg production and feather coverage was not significant (P 0.05) on IgG production, although the regression of IgG was quadratic (P
    Conclusion
    The results of this study revealed that, recommendation of Ross 308 management guide for Arg requirement is underestimated. This work suggested that GAA could increase performance of birds fed Arg-adequate corn-soybean meal diets. GAA spared part of Arg function for fertility.
    Keywords: arginine, broiler breeder, guanidinoacetic acid, requirement
  • Sa Mousavi, Sah Mahdavi *, A. Riasi, H. Hoseini Pages 35-55
    Introduction
    It has been demonstrated that an enhancement in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of the eggs can suppress the saturated fatty acids, and therefore it causes to production of eggs with better lipid profile as well as nutritional contents (Hayat et al., 2010); however, the eggs containing higher levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids make them more susceptible to lipid peroxidation (Baucells et al., 2000). Nowadays, the scientists utilize the medicinal plants or theirs byproductsas beneficial natural antioxidants (Jirovetz et al., 2006). Therefore, the current study was carried out to assess the effect of different levels of herbal by-product mixture on some blood parameters, immunological responses and egg quality of laying hens received different omega-6 to omega-3 ratios.
    Material and
    Methods
    A total of 120 laying hens, 40 weeks of age, were assigned to 6 experimental diets with 4 replicates and 5 birds in each replication. Dietary treatments consisted of three levels of medicinal plants’ by-product (0, 2.5 and 5%) and two omega-6 to omega-3 ratios (15.12 and 1.65) in a 2×3 factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for a total of 80-d including 10 d for adaptation and 70 d as main recording period.Birds were housed in a windowless hall containing battery cages (45 × 50 cm2) with the light program of 16L: 8D. Hens had free access to water and to the experimental diets. Body weights were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the experimental period. Three eggs were collected from each replicate on days 35 and 70, and egg quality indices including shape index, yolk index, Haugh unit, yolk color, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength were measured. Yolk cholesterol of three eggs per replicate was extracted by the Folch method, with consideration of the modifications done by Washburn and Nix (1974) at the end of study and estimated by the colorimetric Libermann-Burchard method. Blood samples of two hens per replicate were collected at the final trial day and centrifuged (3000×g for 15 min). Sera samples were harvested and stored (−20°C) until further analysis for concentrations of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL, and also the enzymatic activity of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase by using turbidometric method as described by Hosseini-Vashan et al. (2012). The concentration of malondialdehyde(MDA) was assessed by the method of Badraoui et al. (2009) with minor modifications. On d 70 of trial, 500 µl of serum was mixed by 3.75 ml of 0.44 mol/l phosphoric acid, 1.25 ml 0.67% thiobarbiotic acid, and 2.5 ml distilled water. The mixture was incubated at 100 °C for 1 h. After cooling, it was centrifuged at 4,000×g for 10 min and the absorbance was measured at 532 nm using an automated spectrophotometer. On d 41 of the trial, Newcastle vaccine was sprayed and three hens of each cage were randomly selected after one week and bled from wing vein. Sera were separated by centrifugation (5000 × g for 10 min) and antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus were measured by Hemagglutination halter test using commercially available V-form ELISA plates according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Two randomly selected birds 70 days of age from each pen were bled and differential counts of leukocytes were performed by screening a Gimsa-stained slide. The different subpopulations of leukocytes were enumerated and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was calculated as described by Stedman et al. (2001).
    Results And Discussion
    Feeding low dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 led to a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde concentration (P
    Conclusion
    Our results indicated that though feeding low dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 decreased serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, yolk cholesterol content and liver enzymes activities, it increased the probability of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, supplementation of the highest level of herbal by-product blend could improve the liver health indexes, cellular immunity responses and eggshell hardness.
    Keywords: Blood parameters, Egg quality, Fatty acids, Immunological responses, Laying hens, Medicinal plant's by-product
  • S. Azimi, P. Farhumand, S. Peivastghan, P. Baghban * Pages 57-76
    Introduction
    The name canola was adopted for the double low varieties of rapeseed in 1979. By definition Canola seeds contain less than 2% and 30 μmoles for erucic acid and glucosinolates in defatted meal, respectively. Although the United States Department of Food and Drug Administration recognised Canola as a separate species, in the scientific writings the names canola and double low or double zero-rapeseed are used interchangeably (Zeb 1998). Glucosinolates are secondary plant metabolites that occur in all Brassica-originated feeds and fodders. Content and composition of Gls vary due to plant species, agronomic practices and climatic conditions (Tripathi and Mishra 2007). Glucosinolates are present in all plant parts and are physically separated from the enzyme myrosinase. Injury of plant tissues during processing or ingestion facilitates the contact between Glucosinolates and myrosinase enzyme. The Glucosinolates are then hydrolysed by both myrosinase enzyme present in plant and myrosinase produced by intestinal microflora, to release a range of breakdown products (Tripathi and Mishra 2007).
    Material and
    Methods
    A total of 405, 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) obtained from a local hatchery and randomly allotted to 1 of 45 floors pens (with 5 replicates and 9 chicks in each replicate) measuring 1.5 m2. The 1-d-old Chicks were weighed individually and allocated to pens so that their initial weights were similar across all pens. Three levels of treated Canola meal with copper sulphate (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg) and Arginine (0, 0.1 and 0.2%) in a 3×3 factorial design and nine dietary combinations in equinitrogenous and equicaloric diets (Table 1). The basal diets were formulated according the Ross requirements (Aviagen Company) guideline. The nine treatment diets were 1) 0 mg/kg of copper and 0 % of Arg , 2) 0 mg/kg of copper and 0.1 % of Arg, 3) 0 mg/kg of copper and 0.2 % of Arg, 4) 125 mg/kg of copper and 0 % of Arg, 5) 125 mg/kg of copper and 0.1 % of Arg, 6) 125 mg/kg of copper and 0.2 % of Arg, 7) 250 mg/kg of copper and 0 % of Arg, 8) 250 mg/kg of copper and 0.1 % of Arg, 9) 250 mg/kg of copper and 0.2 % of Arg. All chicks were provided ad libitum access to water and their assigned diets (in mash form). Source of copper was sulfate pentahydrate (Merck Company, Germany) and after calculating, the purity was added to basal diets. The experiment lasted for 21 d (21-42 d), and 24 h of light was provided throughout the experiment. Throughout the trials, feed was weighted when delivered and when mortality occurred. Based on the recorded data, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) were calculated. On day 42 of Trial, one bird per pen were randomly selected and commercially slaughtered for whole carcass analysis after 12 hours of fasting. After slaughter, the organs such as breast, thigh, drumstick, abdominal fat, lungs and intestine were weighted. For treating canola meal with copper sulfate ion, spray method was used. At first, canola meal were milled by grinder, then 1.47 and 2.93 grams of copper sulfate Pentahydrate is completely dissolved in 900 cc of water (per kg of canola meal) and were sprayed uniformly on canola meal. Treating canola meal was heated for 24h at 60°C until to ensuring constant weight. After complete drying, canola meal treated with copper, ready to mix with other part of experimental diet (table 4). The experiment was conducted using completely randomized design with factorial structure. Data were subjected to ANOVA using the GLM procedure (SAS, version 9.1) as a 3×3 factorial, with the main effects of copper and Arginine, and the Arginine × copper interaction. Significant means among variables were separated by Duncan's multiple range tests at 5% level of significance.
    Results And Discussion
    Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected (P
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, the results of this study showed that treatments of canola meal with Cu could alleviate adverse effects of glucosinolate on broilers performance. Moreover, these findings suggested that addition of 0.2% Arg able to change energy metabolism toward protein deposition.
    Keywords: Arginine supplementation, Copper treatment, Performance, Broilers
  • M. Mozafarpour (Md) Shakouri *, H. Janmohammadi Pages 77-90
    Introduction
    Milk thistle (MT) (Silybum marianum L.), as one of the famous medicinal plant, belongs to Compositae family and is native for west and central Europe, and north of India (Zargari 1996). The plant is endemic for Iran too, and is grown in different parts of the country (Hassanloo et al. 2001). A mix of flavonolignans called silymarin forms the main bioactive component of this plant (Luper 1998). The content of silymarin in MT seeds collected from different zones of Iran varies from 6.9 to 27.1 mg/g of dry matter (Hassanloo et al. 2001). Supplementation of MT seed (Suchý et al. 2008, Rashidi et al. 2015) or silymarin (Schiavone et al. 2007) to the diet had no adverse effect on broilers performance. However, adding the seed and silymarin to aflatoxin contaminated diets prevented the deleterious effect of the toxin on broilers (Jamshidi et al. 2007, Chand et al. 2011). Silymarin has anti inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects which its mechanisms of action has been reviewed by Abenavoli et al. (2010). Addition of 200 mg/kg silymarin improved humoral immune response of broiler (Mojahedtalab et al. 2013). Reduction of cholesterol, increase of HDLcholesterol (Rashidi et al. 2015), and decrease of alanin aminotransferas and aspartate amino transferase (Suchý et al. 2008) in broilers serum have been also revealed. In a previous study, MT seed, probably due to the presence of anti nutritional factors, decreased nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers (Khatami 2015). Hence, in this study the heated and crude MT seed was tested on broilers performance, some blood and humoral parameters.
    Material and
    Methods
    A total of 256 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to four treatments with four replicates and 16 birds each. The experimental treatments including zero (control), 0.4 percent crude, 0.4 percent heated and 0.8 percent heated MT seed were fed to broilers for a period of 42 days. MT seed was collected from Moghan zone, Ardabil province of Iran. Heat treatment of MT seed was performed using an oven (80 ˚C, 24 h). The experimental diets were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements for starter (0-10), grower (11-24) and finisher (25-42) phases (Table 1). The birds reared under standard conditions with free access to water and feed for 23 hours per day. At the end of each feeding phases, feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) of birds were recorded. Then using the data feed conversion ratio was calculated. To determine some blood serum biochemical parameters using the commercial kits (Pars Azmoon, Tehran, Iran), two birds (one male and one female) were bled from their wing vein on day 35. Two birds per cage were also injected intramuscularly with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) (2.5% suspension in PBS, 0.2 ml/ chick) at 35 days of age. Determination of total antibody titer (against SRBC) and resistant antibody to 2-mercaptoethanol (IgG) were done by hemagglutination assay following the blood sampling in 7th days after injection (Cheema et al 2003). IgM antibody level calculated from the difference between the total antibody and the IgG. The data were subjected to statistical analyses using the General Linear Model procedure of SAS software (SAS Institute, 2002). Duncan’s multiple range test was used to compare the significant difference between the means.
    Results And Discussion
    Through the starter period (0-10 days), adding 0.4 percent heated MT seed reduced WG and increased FCR of chickens (P
    Conclusion
    The results showed that bioactive components of MT are resistant to heat treatment (80 °C, 24 h). Appling MT seed in broilers diet had no positive effect on growth performance, but improved the performance of liver and humoral immunity.
    Keywords: Liver enzymes, SRBC, Milk thistle, Serum albumin, Broiler chickens
  • M. Khaleghi, Sa Rafat * Pages 91-103
    Introduction
    In some studies, it has been reported that high milk production has a negative effect on animal health and longevity and affects the herd's profitability. Decreased cow health can affect herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. Common diseases in dairy cows include mastitis, abomasum displacement, lameness and reproductive disorders such as ovarian cysts and metritis. The objectives of this study were to provide a report on the reasons for culling in dairy herds, estimate the genetic parameters of production traits, diseases and to calculate the spearmen correlation between the breeding value of bulls for the traits and their breeding value for resistance for risk of culling.
    Material and
    Methods
    In this study, 31550 calving records from 17476 Holstein cows were used. In this study production data and culling reasons for diseases of 47 herds in East Azerbaijan from 1995 to 2012 has been analyzed. For genetic analysis ASReml software has been used. The investigated culling reasons for diseases were including of: mastitis, displaced abomasum, lameness, ovarian cysts and metritis. Estimation of disorders heritability has been obtained using univariate animal model. It has been presented a description statistics of culling reasons for diseases, estimation of genetic parameters of diseases and production traits in the studied dairy herds. Furthermore, correlation between bulls breeding value for culling reason for diseases traits and their breeding value for production traits has been calculated.
    Results And Discussion
    The average culling rates of dairy herds in this study was 7.05% (with a range from 2.04% to 26.98%). Results of this study showed that 55.24 % of animals in the herd were culling because of diseases and 44.76% for other reasons such as other diseases, physical injuries, non-economic and financial needs. In the other studies the average culling rate of Holstein dairy cows in northeastern Iran was reported as13.1% (4.4 to 25.3% per herd). Lameness and metritis's culling reasons had the highest heritability among studied traits with values of 0.28 ± 0.010 and 0.21 ± 0.045, respectively. A positive correlation (0.37) between mastitis and milk production was reported (Urib et al. 1995) suggesting that high milk production cows have a high genetic capacity for mastitis occurrence. The highest and lowest estimated repeatability in our study were for the traits of 305-day milk yield (0.47 ± 0.009) and fat percentage (0.25 ± 0.009), respectively. The spearman correlation showed positive correlation between breeding value for milk production and ones for displaced abomasum, lameness and metritis that were 0.197, 0.121 and 0.116, respectively. In the present study, there was a positive and significant correlation between the breeding value of bulls for culling due to displaced abomasum and ones due to lameness and ovarian cysts. So it seems the selection of bulls to resist against the risk of culling due to displaced abomasum helps them to resist against lameness and ovarian cysts diseases. Logistic regression results showed that all studied factors affecting culling due to mastitis. Logistic regression of culling risk factors due to displaced abomasum showed that age and season of parturition are important. Fleischer et al. (2001) reported a significant correlation between 305-day milk production and displaced abomasum disease. Logistic regression results showed that culling due to lameness is related to parity and 305- milk production. The selection of cows based on high milk production, milk fat percentage or body type characteristics could have adverse effects on the occurrence of diseases and resistance to health difficulties. So ignoring these negative correlations among traits in the selection process in the long term affects the dairy herd's profitability. The results of this study showed that about half of the culling percentages in the studied herds was unpredictable and due to diseases. Therefore, with considering of the resistance to diseases in selection strategies, it can be achieving to more survivability of the profitable herds.
    Conclusion
    The results indicate that most of the studied traits have positive genetic correlation with 305-day milk yield, so probably the cows with high potential for milk production are less resistant to culling for diseases. It is suggested that mastitis and metritis be taken into account in the breeding programs of Holstein dairy cows in the country.
    Keywords: Breeding value, Culling, Culling for diseases, Heritability, Production traits
  • S. Lashgari, O. Azizi *, H. Jahani Pages 105-119
    Introduction
    Flaxseed is an oilseed that can be used as a rich source of high quality protein and fat for dairy cows (Neveu et al., 2014). Flaxseed contains high levels of linolenic acid, averaging 18% of the total seed weight and 53% of the total fatty acids. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in using flaxseed in animal rations as it can be used to alter the fatty acid composition of milk and meat products and; therefore, provides functional health benefits for the consumer (Petit, 2010). However, achieving an increase in the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy products is challenging because most unsaturated fatty acids are extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen.
    Material and
    Methods
    In the present study, the investigated flaxseed was unheated (raw) or in two different ways heat processed (rolled roasted and extruded). Flaxseeds were roasted in an industrial roaster with a flame and blower at 140 to 145 °C (turning speed of 2.5 circles per minute; tunnel diameter of 50 cm). The roasted flaxseed was then processed in a roller mill equipped with rollers. Extrusion of flaxseed was performed at 140 to 145 °C with a resident time of 43 s using a multipurpose twin-screw extrusion system. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows at early lactation stage from the same group in the herd with an average body weight of approximately 640 ± 10 kg were housed individually in a tie-stall barn. The cows were assigned to one of the four experimental diets including 1) diet with no flaxseed (control), 2) unheated (5.5% DM), 3) rolled roasted (5.5% DM), and 4) extruded flaxseed (5.5% DM). All rations were formulated based on the NRC (2001) to contain approximately 18% CP and 1.6 Mcal net energy lactation (NEL) kg–1 on a DM basis. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-nitrogeneous. Cows were milked 3 times daily in a milking parlor at 05:00, 13:00 and 20:00. During the last 5 d of sampling periods, milk yield was recorded for all cows. Milk from individual cows was sampled at each milking in prelabeled 50 ml plastic vials. Milk samples were analyzed for fat and protein by Milk-O-Scan (Funke Gerber, LactoStar). Milk samples from individual cows were analyzed for FA composition. Milk fat was extracted and derivatized to methyl esters using Savage et al. (1997, 1999) method. For GC – MS analysis, an Agilent gas chromatography (2001, Palo Alto, CS, USA) with a 30 m to 0.25 mm HP-5MS capillary column coupled with an Agilent 5973 mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was used. Analysis of variance was conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS (2001) for all the statistical analyses in this study. Least square means were estimated using Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, and the model consisted of the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of cow.
    Results And Discussion
    The similar dry matter intake (DMI) between cows fed different experimental diets suggested that fatty acid content and profile of flaxseed had no impact on shortterm feed intake regulation. Similarly, Gonthier et al. (2004) reported that ground or extruded flaxseed can be fed up to 120 g/kg DM of diet without any adverse effects on DMI. In agreement with our results, it has been shown that low to moderate levels of ground or extruded flaxseed in the diets of dairy cows (up to 10% of the diet DM) did not affect the DMI (Gonthier et al., 2005; Petit, 2010). However, Neveu et al. (2014) reported that inclusion of flaxseed in dairy cows increased DMI. In the present study, inclusion of flaxseed in the diets did not affect the milk production. This is in agreement with Neveu et al. (2014) who reported that inclusion of flaxseed in the lactating cow diets did not affect the milk production. Maintained milk production was consistent with unaltered DMI. Reduced milk fat in cows fed diets containing extruded flaxseed might be due to an increase in rate of oil release from flaxseed into rumen fluid (Lashkari et al., 2015). Extrusion may increase the availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen (Lashkari et al., 2015) and, therefore, increase biohydrogenation of poly unsaturated fatty acids (Lashkari et al., 2017). Reduced milk fat in cows fed diet containing the extruded flaxseed could be due to an increase in dietary supply of poly unsaturated fatty acids which results in formation of trans-10 isomers (C18:1) in rumen and depresses fatty acids biosynthesis in the mammary gland (Piperova et al., 2000). Altered milk fat in our study suggests that ruminal biohydrogenation pathways and the mammary de novo fat biosynthesis or related genomics significantly affected in cows fed diets containing extruded flaxseed. In agreement with our findings, feeding extruded flaxseed at 14.8% of the diet decreased fat concentration from 4.1 to 3.5% in milk of dairy cows compared to a control diet (Martin et al., 2008). Concentrations of linolenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid increased as a result of flaxseed supplementation compared to control diet. However, linolenic acid concentration in cows fed extruded flaxseed was lower than cows fed raw and rolled roasted flaxseed. These results suggest extensive ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary linolenic acid in diets containing extruded flaxseed. In agreement with our findings, Gonthier et al. (2005) reported low transfer efficiency (i.e., 2%) of dietary linolenic acid to milk as a result of extruded flaxseed supplementation.
    Conclusion
    Results of the present study showed that rolled roasted flaxseed can be used as practical method to improve milk fatty acid profile without any adverse effect on performance of lactating cows.
    Keywords: Flaxseed, Processing methods, Performance, milk fatty acids profile
  • A. Golghasem, R. Pirmohammadi *, Ya Alijoo, H. Khalilvandi Pages 121-136
    Introduction
    Pecticide residue concentration of some animal feeds in Iran may be more than maximum residue level (MRL). This study aimed at investigating the effects of various processes of apple pomace on Imidacloprid residue in the apple pomace, milk production and composition, and in vivo nutrient digestibility of Mahabadi dairy goats, which used rations that include high amounts of apple pomace (28.68% /DM).
    Material and
    Methods
    In this study, 30 adult Mahabadi dairy goats with a live weight of 55 ± 5 kg have been studied in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 6 replicates. All animals used in this experiment were kept under the guidance of the Animal Farm Research and Surveillance guide. Experimental treatments included feed ration which contained non processed apple pomace (Control Group), microwave irradiated apple pomace, processed apple pomace with commercial adsorbent and deactivated toxins, (50 g/d for each goat and 1 kg/t apple pomace, respectively) and processed apple pomace with commercial acidifier. The diet was given to the livestock as a total mixed ration (TMR) in two meals (hours 8 and 16). In this research determine the amount of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat, calcium and phosphorus in feed and animal waste samples, standard methods of AOAC were used. Also, Identification and measurement of Imidacloprid with GC Cp 3800 gas chromatograph machine, Varian France GC / MS-00-0240, and Varian France 2200 Mass Spectrometry used that equipped with a three-repeat ion trap. In order to determine the effect of different treatments of apple pomace on the amount of dry matter, daily intake of feed for animals was measured daily. But, for measuring digestibility of nutrients, during the 25 to 28 days of the experiment (for 4 days), the amount of feed intake, total feces and dietary residue per day were measured and samples were taken to determine digestibility.
    Results And Discussion
    The results indicated that the highest and lowest amount of Imidacloprid existing in different treatments were related to the control group and processed apple pomace with commercial adsorbent respectively. (4.86 and 2.81 mg/kg). Processing with the purpose of decreasing the effect of fungal toxins led to a significant increase in milk production compared to the control group (1.47 g/d) (P˂0.05). It seems that the compounds used in this experiment to modify the amount of imidacloprid because differences in their chemical structure have different function and mechanism, For example, Mycofix- Plus in Treatment 3 is an inorganic trace agent that is the most important characteristic of the physical structure of the absorbent, Its distribution, surface pores size can be used. On the other hand, the properties of mycotoxin adsorption, such as polarity, solubility, shape, and distribution, also play a significant role. But in combination treatment 4, it has been used as a BioTox absorbent as an organic absorbent, which is typically a component of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that uses only cell walls of yeast (consisting of β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharides) instead of the entire cell, the connection to the toxin can increase. In addition, the results of this study revealed that adding toxin's adsorbent compounds did not have any effects on the different ingredients of milk. Other results showed that microwave freezing and various additives did not have a significant effect on the amount of dry matter and nutrients except crude fat and calcium concentrations. It seems that decreasing the amount of calcium in the receiving groups of pesticide absorbent compounds is due to the bonding of calcium ions to the control group (P
    Conclusion
    In general, the toxin's adsorbent and deactivating compounds in rations contain high levels of apple pomace, decrease the amount of Imidacloprid and, in addition to ascertaining the safety and increasing the efficiency of milk production, lead to the production of healthier products.
    Keywords: Acidifier, Microwave radiation, Apple pomace, Toxins adsorbent, Detoxification
  • M. Zarrin *, R. Bruckmaier Pages 137-148
    Introduction
    Xylazine is widely used in human and animal for different purposes such as anesthetics and analgesics in surgery. This component induces sedative, muscle relaxation and analgesic in veterinary. Xylazine is a α-2 agonist which causes cardiovascular and respiratory problem in animals. There is evidence that xylazine injection changed metabolites and endocrine in different species. In early lactation, the onset of copious milk production would bring about hepatic metabolic overloud to meet the energy and nutrient requirements for milk production. Elevation of energy and nutrient requirements for maintenance and milk synthesis cannot fulfill the feed intake, which consequently causes a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation in dairy cows. During a NEB, low plasma glucose concentrations are observed, while concomitantly concentrations of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and subsequently ketone bodies are increased. Our earlier studies confirmed that manipulated insulin, glucose, and BHB concentrations, through infusion, changed plasma metabolites and endocrine in mid-lactating dairy cows, affected systemic/ local mammary metabolism, and immune response of the mammary gland. Based on our previous results and proved effects of xylazine injection on metabolism, this study aimed to assess the effects of xylazine injection on dairy cow metabolism alongside the change in some of blood metabolites and endocrine.
    Material and
    Methods
    The study was carried out on 24 clinically healthy multiparous (3.5 ± 0.10) Holstein dairy cows at 28 ± 0.3 (MEAN ± SD) wks in milk. Cows were free of mastitis throughout the experimental period. Animals were housed in tie stalls two weeks before the start of experiment as adaptation period. Animals were fed ad libitum with good quality hay, an addition protein- and energy-rich concentrate fed to them according to their energy and protein requirements twice daily. They received minerals (50 g/ cow) per day. Fresh water was available entire the experimental period. The cows were milked twice a day at 0530 h and 1600 h. Treatment infusion includs: an insulin infusion to induce hypoglycemia (2.5 ± 0.1 mmol/L; HypoG, n=5), an insulin combined glucose infusion to study effects of sole insulin at concurrently normal glucose concentration (EuG, n=6), a Na-DL-β-OH-butyrate to obtain plasma BHBA concentration between 1.5 to 2.0 mmol/L (HyperB, n=5) comparable to those in spontaneous hyper ketonemia (above 1.2 mmol/L), and a 0.9 % NaCl infusion (NaCl, 20 mL/h) as control group (n=8). On day before the start of infusion two indwelling intravenous catheters (Cavafix® Certo® Splittocan®, B. Braun Melsung AG, Germany) with a length of 32 cm and a diameter of 16 G were fixed in both jugular veins. The clamped infusions (56 h) started at 0900 am day one and continued to 0500 pm two days later. AS reported earlier (Kreipe et al. 2011; Vernay et al. 2012; Zarrin et al. 2013, 2014a,b) this study divided to two parts include: 48 h metabolites infusion to investigate the effects of manipulated metabolites concentration on metabolism and immune responses to metabolites infusion, and an addition 8 h to challenge mammary gland with lipopolysaccharide of E.coli (LPS) to investigate immune response simultaneously whit metabolite changing in dairy cows. At 47 h of infusion (1 h) before the intra-mammary LPS challenge to obtain mammary biopsies, a single dose of xylazine (16 μg/kg of BW) was injected. Blood samples were taken before (0 time) and 1 h after the xylazine injection. Plasma metabolites concentrations were measured enzymatically by commercial kits. Plasma insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and plasma glucagon concentrations were measured by using a commercial RIA kit. Changes of metabolites were evaluated by GLM procedure of SAS. Differences in plasma metabolites and endocrine parameters between before and after xylazine injection and between treatments were evaluated using the MIXED procedure of SAS with time points (0 and 1 h) and treatments (EuG, HyperB, HypoG, and Control) as fixed effects. Value presented as Mean ± SEM.
    Results And Discussion
    As expected, plasma glucose concentrations decreased before xylazine injection (2.25 ± 0.1 mmol/L; P
    Conclusion
    The xylazine effects are different during the change of metabolites. Unchanged glucose concentration in HypoG and EuG is due to inhibitory effect of insulin on glucose elevation. Considering increasing glucose concentration in two animal groups without change in insulin and glucagon concentration, it can be speculated that other mechanisms than endocrine regulation contributes to glucose homeostasis.
    Keywords: insulin, glucose, metabolism, xylazine
  • V. Shaeghi, A. Ramin *, S. Asri, A. Hasanzadeh Pages 149-163
    Introduction
    Selenium and α-tocopherol are considered as the main antioxidants necessary for growth of lambs (Shi et al 2010). They are responsible for reducing and eliminating body cells and their membranes from peroxides and oxidative stress (El-Shahat et al 2011). Selenium activate the body immunity and nervous system results in the prevention of diseases and low weight gain (Eekeren et al 2011). α-tocopherol eliminates peroxides from cell membrane and protects from oxidative stress (Joshi et al 2013). The administration of selenium components and α-tocopherol as orally or injection, individually or together has shown the acceptable response to growth, diseases control and treatment in lambs (Vignola et al 2007). Despite progress in resolving Se/α-tocopherol deficiency, efforts have been made to introduce new selenium compounds with high efficiency and low side effects to enhance animals’ production (Shi et al 2011). The priorities of nanoselenium are low dose administration, low toxicity and suitable effect on health and growth rate. Nanoselenium is efficient for production, reproduction performances and immunity system (Yang et al 2009). Despite a greater knowledge of NanoSe in animals, there is a lack of unity and intensive study with regard to the main relevant parameters such as age, gender, various selenium compounds with αtocopherol, route of administration and their interrelationships with weight gain in one unit study. The objectives were to find the effect of selenium components and α-tocopherol on blood GPX, selenium and their relationships with weight gain in lambs.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty-two suckling male lambs were classified in 8 groups of 4 lambs including control, oral nanoselenium (ONanoSe), ONanoSe/α-tocopherol, oral sodium selenite (ONaSe), ONaSe/α-tocopherol, sodium selenite injection/α-tocopherol (INaSe/VitE), INaSe and VitE injection. Lambs were weighed and bled days 1, 4, 7, 30, 60 and 90. Recommended dose for NanoSe with no side effects is 0.10 mg kg-1 of live weight (Shi et al 2011). The amount of NanoSe and NaSe was calculated based on the weight of each lamb and was divided into seven parts, administered daily up to seven days. The dose for α-tocopherol is 8 mg kg-1 injected separately or with selenium components. Growth rate was calculated as total (Kg), percentage (%) and daily weight gain (gr/day). Blood GPX activity, blood and milk selenium concentration were measured by spectrophotometer and atomic absorption methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, repeated measure correlation methods.
    Results And Discussion
    Blood GPX activity increased 3.25-fold in lambs receiving selenium components and was consistent with the findings of Xu et al (2005) and Najafnejad et al (2016) in animals. Increase in GPX activity is an indication of organic, inorganic and nano-particles of selenium components in lambs. GPX activity in lambs receiving oral NanoSe was greater than in NaSe groups. This result is supported by Shi et al's findings (2011) which mentioned that the antioxidant and GPX activity of oral NanoSe is more effective than NaSe. Although the antioxidant effects of α-tocopherol are confirmed by scientists, in this study it had the lowest effects on GPX activity in lambs, which means that its effect on GPX was very low and weaker than selenium but together with selenium, it had suitable increase in GPX activity (Bribiesca et al 2005). This finding was not supported by Joshi et al's results (Joshi et al 2013) which mentioned that injection or oral α-tocopherol is necessary to eliminate and prevent the oxidative stress effects in animals. GPX or selenoenzyme plays an important role against oxidative stress (Huang et al 2009, Yang et al 2009). Blood selenium concentration reached to 1.48-fold at the end of study, nearly one and half times less than GPX changes in lambs receiving selenium components. Similar findings were reported by Bribiesca et al (2005) who concluded that blood selenium increased following consumption of oral or selenium injection components. An increase in blood selenium in lambs with NanoSe/αtocopherol was higher than in NaSe/α-tocopherol which is consistent with Shi et al's findings (Shi et al 2010) which referred to high selenium level in blood and tissues following NanoSe consumption. Blood selenium increased rapidly and continuously and reached to the highest level at 90 days but in Bribiescal et al's finding (2005) it was 60 days. An increase in blood selenium in lambs with NanoSe/α-tocopherol was more than other selenium components and/or with α-tocopherol, indicates that permanence and performance of new selenium compounds had priority over the old selenium (organic and inorganic) supplementation. This finding is supported by the reports of Shi et al. (2010) and Chorfi et al (2011) who concluded that NanoSe compounds increase selenium and GPX level more effectively than NaSe and the efficiency of selenium/α-tocopherol together instead of being used separately in animals. The highest daily mean weight gain was in NaSe/α-tocopherol which was greater than that reported by Vignola et al (2007) and indicates the efficiency of NaSe/αtocopherol on weight gain of lambs. The lowest weight gain observed in α-tocopherol group that was even higher than reported by Vignola et al (2007), means that α-tocopherol had an effect on growth rate. This was not in agreement with Horn et al (32) who mentioned that α-tocopherol did not have an effect on calf growth rate. Studies on the effects of selenium on growth and weight gain were controversial and mostly did not have a significant effect on weight gain. Hu et al (2007) reported significant increase in weight gain following selenium/α-tocopherol, but Mohri et al (2011) showed no effect on weight gain. No correlation was observed between lambs receiving selenium compounds and α-tocopherol with blood GPX, selenium and weight gain indices in groups except for total weight gain/GPX which was positive in oral NanoSe group. This was consistent with Yaghmaei et al’s finding (2017) reported for female lambs. However, the rate of correlation in control and α-tocopherol groups was less than selenium groups. This was in agreement with others (Juniper et al 2006, White et al 2007) that mentioned the strong positive correlation between selenium and GPX. The presence of correlation up to 98% in NanoSe lambs and less in NaSe group indicates that GPX activity in NanoSe groups was higher than NaSe groups and this can be considered one of the points to replace it with NaSe in lambs.
    Conclusions
    Se mainly ONanoSe increased GPX and Se more than α-tocopherol. Weight gain was high in ONaSe but not correlated to Se components. Correlations between Se/GPX were positive. Finally, the effect of ONanose on GPX, Se and weight gain were not higher than ONaSe mainly on increasing of GPX was better than mineral selenium and α-tocopherol, and therefore, could be the appropriate option to NaSe administration in lambs.
    Keywords: Nano-selenium, ?lfa-tocopherol, Lamb, GPX, Weight gain
  • A. Ghidrati *, P. Farhoomand, M. Daneshyar Pages 165-181
    Introduction
    Determination of optimum level of energy and protein requirements for Japanese quail in different periods (starter, grower and finisher) improves the growth performance and economic efficiency. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary energy and protein on energy and protein efficiency, carcass characteristics and performance of Japanese quail during starter period.
    Materials And Method
    Experiment was performed by 450 one-day-old quail chicks based on a completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with 5 replicates and 10 chicks per replicate. Experimental diets containing 3 levels of energy (2700, 2800 and 2900 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of protein (24, 25 and 26 %). Before the formulation of diets, the chemical composition of feed ingredients were determined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Experimental diets were formulate based on corn-soybean meal using the WUFFDA software for the starter period (1 to 10 days). At the end of experiment (10 d), a bird was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics.
    Results And Discussion
    Feed intake was not affected by dietary energy or protein levels (P>0.05), although energy levels of 2800 and 2900 kcal/kg reduced the feed intake numerically (P = 0.098). In addition, there was no interaction between dietary energy and protein levels for feed intake (P>0.05). Increasing the dietary protein level had no effect on weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P>0.05), but the dietary energy level affected the both weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P0.05). The energy level had a significant effect on weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P0.05), although the energy level of 2700 kcal/kg increased the breast weight (P= 0.056). The dietary protein level had a significant effect on carcass and thigh weights (P0.05), but the energy level of 2700 kcal/kg and protein level of 24% increased the breast weight numerically (P=0.056). The dietary protein level had a significant effect on protein consumption (P0.05), but at the lowest energy level (2700 kcal/kg), reduction of protein level to 24% resulted in an increase of energy efficiency ratio numerically (P=0.0680). Moreover, at the highest energy level (2900 kcal/kg) reduction of protein level to 24% resulted in an increase of protein efficiency ratio numerically (P=0.073). The carcass fat content was not affected by dietary energy or protein level (P>0.05). The dietary energy level had a significant effect on carcass protein content (P0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of current study showed that the energy level of 2700 kcal/kg along with 24% crude protein in starter diets, can improve the growth performance of Japanese quail.
    Keywords: Energy, Protein, Japanese quail, Performance, Carcass characteristics
  • M. Chaji *, Y. Monjezi Pages 183-199
    Introduction
    Generally, most feeds used in livestock nutrition are deficient in some nutrients, and require nutritional supplements. Among the supplements, micro and macro minerals are particular importance. Selenium (Se) plays an important role in the reproductive function and immune system and is known as an antioxidant and catalyst for the production of thyroid hormone. It is believed that low selenium absorption in ruminants is due to the deficiency of selenium in ration and its conversion into insoluble form (Peterson and Spedding 1963; Surai 2006). Nano-particles are smaller and more active than larger particles. The importance of Selenium for rumen microorganisms are not entirely clear. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nano-selenium on activity of whole population of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, which isolated from the rumen liquid of sheep and goats.
    Material and
    Methods
    The experimental sample in the present experiment was a basal diet including: 29% barley grain, 25% wheat bran, 20% wheat straw, 25% corn silage, 1% selenium-free mineral-vitamin supplement. In the present experiment 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ppm nano-Se was added to the basal standard diet of sheep and goats, then digestibility and fermentation parameters of diets were measured by the rumen fluid of sheep and goats in vitro. The rumen fluid was taken through the stomach tube from four Najdi goat and Arabi sheep before the morning meal, mixed separately, filtered using four layers of cheesecloth, and potted in a flask content warm water. These animals were fed with a diet, approximately similar to basal ration, but without selenium, about three weeks. Gas production of the basal diet containing different levels of nano-Se was determined using the Menke and Steingass (1988) in six replications. The rumen fluid was mixed with artificial saliva (1:2 ratio, respectively) in lab, and then nano-Se levels added to it. The gas production was recorded at zero, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the start of incubation in water bath. The gas production data were analyzed using the exponential model and the gas production parameters were calculated (Ørskov and McDonald, 1979). Two steps digestion (Tilley and Terry 1963) method in six replications was used to measure digestibility of experimental diets. The rumen fluid and buffer was prepared as mentioned for gas production experiment. Isolation and purification of bacteria and fungi, and studying the effect of nano selenium on their digestibile activity conducted by preparing the specific medium cultures of ruminal anaerobic bacteria or fungi according to recommended method (Zhang et al., 2007; Mohammadabadi et al. 2012).
    Results And Discussion
    The highest digestibility of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of experimental diets in sheep and goats were for the level of 0.6 ppm nano-Se that was higher than control diet (P
    Conclusion
    Therefore, the use of nano-Se resulted to increase digestibility and fermentation of nutrients by whole rumen microorganisms and bacteria of both species.
    Keywords: Digestibility, Nano selenium, Rumen bacteria, Rumen fungi
  • H. Arabi, Y. Mehmannavaz *, A. Nobakt Pages 201-216
    Introduction
    Sex of birds creates a fundamental difference in the physiological and nutritional requirements. For example, the feed conversion ratio of female broiler chicks is higher than that of males (over 30 days of age), which results in more fat storage in the body of females (Verapeen and Driver 2000). Although there are several reports on the superiority of male chicks to females in various economic traits such as average daily gain (Verapin and Driver 2000; Ojedapo et al. 2008; Zamani et al. 2012); feed intake (Fischer 1985; Laseinde and Oluyemi 1994; Zamani et al. 2012) and carcass traits (Verapeen and Driver 2000; Ojedapo et al. 2008; Zuowei et al. 2011; Taghan Agh et al. 2011), on the contrary, it has been shown that the mixed rearing of males and females leads to stimulation of protein anabolism, nitrogen uptake and mineral retention and so a higher weight gain at the end of the breeding period (Iyeghe –Erakpotobor 2001). This study was conducted to compare the bio-economic indexes of broiler production with different sex ratios from 11 to 42 days of age.
    Material and
    Methods
    The experiment was done using 180 Ross 308 broilers in 5 sex ratio groups (Group 1: 25% male and 75% female, Group 2: 50% female and 50% male, Group 3: 75% male and 25% female, Group 4: 100% female and Group 5: 100% male) with 3 replicates and 12 birds per replicate by employing a completely randomized design. Grower (11-24 days) and finisher (25-42 days) periods’ ration of broilers were balanced based on Ross-308 catalog. Feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured for each experimental group at the grower (11-24 days), finisher (25-42 days) and total (11-42 days) periods based on the hen- day method. At the end of the experiment (forty-second day), European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF) and European Broiler Index (EBI) and also carcass traits after 9 hours starving were calculated by selecting 4 chicks per pen considering the sex ratio of each group. For economic evaluation, an index was formulated to determine the worst and best rearing periods (2014-2015) and then costs of grower and finisher rations based on 3 ways of pricing (Rials/kg) contains mean price of 2015, mean price of worst period and mean price of best period were estimated. To estimate income and profit, 3 methods of sale methods were included sale of live chicken, sale of carcass and Half-split sale. So, means of income and profit (Rials/chick) in studied groups were estimated based on 9 economic evaluation methods (3 sale methods×3 pricing methods).
    Results And Discussion
    Feed intake was significant only in grower period (11-24 d) and groups with 25% and 75% males had the highest amount of feed intake (P
    Conclusion
    According to the results of comparing profit using different economic evaluation methods, it can be recommended that mixed sex production of broiler chickens will be alright when the proportion of males not to be less than 50%.
    Keywords: Bio-economic, Evaluation, Broiler, Sex, Ross 308
  • P. Showravg *, S. Jalilian, F. Fatahnia, Aa Sadeghi, Aa Mehrabi Pages 217-230
    Introduction
    In the past four decades, a vast knowledge has been accumulated on the chemical and biological effects of ionizing irradiation, which has contributed to promote its utilization. The chemical changes resulting from the irradiation of proteins food have been the subject of considerable study. These studies demonstrated both fragmentation and aggregation of food proteins. Application of ionizing radiation treatment of foods on an industrial scale started at the beginning of the 1980s after the joint FAO/IAEA/WHO expert committee accepted the application of a 10 kGy overall average dose for foods. Also in 1981, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that food irradiated at 50 kGy or less can be considered safe for human consumption. However, gamma irradiation of most human foods is prohibited in many countries. Most other countries that permit food irradiation also require labeling (Shawrang et al 2007). There has always been an interest in food and feed industrial applications of microwaves to improve conventional processes, with the intent of taking advantage of its rapid heating characteristics to reduce energy costs. Since it is cost competitive compared to other methods of heating, it has been used for cereal drying on a large scale. Microwave irradiation seems applicable to cereals, especially for starch, but it has not been used on a commercial scale (Sadeghi and Shawrang 2006). Soybean meal is a commonly used protein supplement for ruminants. Proteins of this supplement are extensively degraded in the rumen. Several feed processing methods (physical and chemical methods) are known to protect soybean meal proteins from ruminal fermentation. However, most of these treatments adversely affect the nutritional characteristics of the final product. No information is available concerning the comparison of gamma, electron beam, infrared and microwave irradiations on ruminal crude protein degradation Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS). This study was conducted to compare the effects of gamma, electron beam, infrared and microwave irradiations on the ruminal protein degradability, intestinal digestibility and nitrogen fractionation of soybean meal based on CNCPS method.
    Material and
    Methods
    The Soy meal samples were obtained from the Jahan oilseed manufactory located 40 kmwest of Tehran (Iran). The CP, Ether extract (EE), and ash content were 456, 62.1 and 75 g/kg DM, respectively.Treatments were included: 1: raw meal, 2: gamma irradiated meal, 3: electron irradiated meal, 4: microwave irradiated meal, 5: infrared irradiated meal. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator equipped with 3.7 PBq (100 kCi) activity at 20°C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 3.7 kGy/h. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell (Co-60) at doses of 50 kGy in the presence of air (Shawrang et al 2007). For electron beam irradiation, samples were packed in 30 cm × 40 cm × 5 cm nylon bags (0.5 mm thickness) and exposed to electron beam irradiation at the Yazd radiation processing center to dose 45 kGy at room temperature by a Rhodotron accelerator model TT200. All samples were irradiated at fixed beam energy of 10 MeV and the required irradiation doses were obtained by adjusting the electron beam parameters (electron beam current, Conveyor speed and etc.). Double side irradiation (exposure to both sides) was performed for uniform dose delivery. The dose was determined with cellulose triacetate films. Similarly, packed seed samples without irradiation served as control. Microwave irradiation was done at dose of 800 W for 4 min (sadeghi et al 2005) and infrared dose was set at 1000 W for 30 seconds. For chemical analysis, 10 g were ground to pass a 1mm screen and stored at −18 ◦C. Four adult male Moghani wethers with ruminal fistula were used for determination of ruminal degradability of dry matter and protein by nylon bag technique (Ørskov and McDonald 1979). Intestinal digestibility was measured with a three step enzymatic procedure. Proximate chemical analysis and nitrogen fractions were determined according to AOAC (AOAC 2000). Data were analyzed using the general linear models procedure of SAS (SAS 1996). Experimental data were submitted to a Duncan analysis to determine whether the different treatments yielded significantly different results.
    Results And Discussion
    There were no significant differences in dry matter, ether extract, protein and ash between the irradiated and non-irradiated or raw grains. The highest and the lowest rapidly degradable fraction (a) of dry matter was found in raw meal and electron beam irradiation, respectively. There were no significant differences among gamma, electron and microwave irradiation for rapidly degradable fraction (a) of dry matter. The lowest and the highest constant rate of dry matter degradability (c) was found in processed meal and raw meal, respectively (P0.05). Effect of different treatments on B1, B2 and B3 fractions was significant compared to raw meal (P0.05). The highest and the lowest intestinal digestibility of crude protein were found in processed meals and raw meal, respectively.
    Conclusion
    This study indicates that the degradation characteristics of soybean meal proteins could be altered by processing method especially infrared and electron beam irradiation. Irradiation processing of soybean meal resulted in decrease of effective protein degradation in the rumen and increase of intestinal crude protein digestibility by creating the cross-linking and aggregation of the polypeptide chains. Based upon these results, the best irradiation methods for soybean meal were suggested to be infrared and electron beam, respectively.
    Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, Irradiation, Protein fractions Ruminal degradability, Soy bean meal