فهرست مطالب

Archives of Neuroscience - Volume:5 Issue:2, 2018
  • Volume:5 Issue:2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Milad Azami, Farid Azizi Jalilian, Mohammad Reza Adhami Mojarad, Younes Mohammadi, Zeinab Tardeh * Page 1
    Context: Recent studies on patients with psychiatric disorders suggest a possible association between borna disease virus (BDV) and mood disorders. However, a clear association remains controversial. The current systematic review and meta-analysis study aimed at investigating the association between BDV infection and mood disorders.
    Methods
    The current study was conducted based on preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To obtain the evidence, several databases were searched including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar search engine without time limit until 2017. Heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Q test and I2 index. A random effect model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
    Results
    Meta-analysis of 23 studies comprising 3628 cases and 5,810 controls showed that BDV infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of mood disorders (OR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.21 - 2.15, P = 0.001, I2 = 44%). Subgroup analysis was used according to diagnostic method indicating OR was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.37 - 2.8) for immunofluorescence antibody (IFA), 1.26 (95%CI: 0.5 - 3.18) for western blot (WB) assay, 1.58 (95%CI: 1.06 - 2.38) for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 1.16 (95%CI: 0.24 - 5.70) for radioligand assay (RLA), 2.55 (95%CI: 1.67 - 3.88) for enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 2.15 (95%CI: 0.68-6.80) for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 3.29 (95%CI: 1.35 - 7.98) for electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), 4.00 (95%CI: 0.89 - 17.87) for peptide array, and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.23 - 4.27) for proliferation assay method. In subgroup analysis of bipolar and unipolar disorder, OR was 1.99 (95%CI: 1.29 - 3.08, P = 0.002) and 1.16 (95%CI: 0.76 - 1.76, P = 0.481), respectively.
    Conclusions
    These results can confirm the significant role of BDV infection in mood disorders. Therefore, it might be necessary to consider BDV infection to manage psychiatric disorders.
    Keywords: Borna Disease Virus, Mood Disorder, Meta, Analysis
  • Vali Shiri, Seyed Ali Hoseyni, Ebrahim Pishyareh *, Vahid Nejati, Mahbubeh Emami, Esmail Shiri Page 2
    Context: The relationship between executive dysfunction and behavioral symptoms in high-functioning autism is of great interest to researchers.
    Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was conducted among articles, which were published before September 15, 2017 and were available in scientific databases, including Medline and Embase.
    Results
    According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 16 articles were selected. All articles showed 4 and 5 basis points on the PEDro scale and had moderate quality. Also, according to the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) scale, the level of evidence was poor to moderate among articles.
    Conclusions
    Based on the available information, executive dysfunction may be associated with behavioral symptoms. However, further research is required to determine the exact relationship between executive function and behavioral symptoms.
    Keywords: Executive Dysfunctions, Autism, Behavioral Symptoms, Systematic Review
  • Mahnaz Taherianfard *, Diaco Shahmoradi Page 3
    Background And Objectives
    Spexin is a neuropeptide involved in learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intrahippocampal CA3 injection of spexin on passive avoidance learning and memory in normal and castrated rats.
    Methods
    A total of 42 adult male rats were divided into 6 groups. Sham 1 (received 0.5 µL ACSF); sham 2 (sham castrated rats that received 0.5 µL ACSF); experimental 1 and 2 (healthy rats that received 0.5 µL spexin 10 or 30 nmol/rat); experimental 3 and 4 (castrated rats that received 0.5 µL spexin 10 or 30 nmol/rat). In all groups, injection was done in the CA3 region of hippocampus. CA3 region of hippocampus was cannulated unilaterally by the stereotaxic procedure.
    Results
    Present data showed that castrated significantly (P
    Conclusions
    According to the present results, castration and spexin at 2 doses in normal rats improve learning and memory; while in castrated rats spexin, in 30 nM/rat, produced more improvement in memory. Memory improvement in castrated rats was higher than that in normal rats.
    Keywords: Spexin, Hippocampal CA3, Passive Avoidance Learning, Shuttle Box, Male Rats
  • Mohammad Arbabi, Jayran Zebardast, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Mostafa Mohamadi, Mohsen Rahimnia *, Roja Larijani Page 4
    Background
    Delirium is a disorder with disturbance of consciousness, cognitive process. The present study’s aim is to evaluate the efficacy of liaison educational and environmental changes on the delirium rate in ICU patients.
    Methods
    This is a quasi-experimental study on 148 admitted patients (over 18 years of age) in the general ICU. A total of 69 patients in the group before implementing multidisciplinary interventions and 79 patients in the group after multidisciplinary interventions were evaluated. In the case and control group RASS level of consciousness were measured. Scale ICU- CAM (at morning and evening) is used to check the incidence of delirium in the ICU patient. In addition, the demographic questionnaire has been used and delirium duration and the length of hospitalization are also evaluated in both groups. Multifactorial interventions are included as staff physicians and nurses training through a workshop. It should be noted that a 3-hour workshop is used for training of all staff personnel in the ICU ward. The 2nd part is creating environmental intervention in the ICU to decrease delirium in admitted patients.
    Results
    In this study, 148 patients were studied, 69 patients in the group before implementing multidisciplinary interventions and 79 patients in the group after multidisciplinary interventions were evaluated. Incidence of delirium was 30 (37.97) in intervention and in 50 (72.46) control group (P = 0.01). The mean percent day in ICU patients with delirium was 26.18 ± 35.38 at intervention group and 35.84 ± 39.31 in the control group (P = 0.001).
    Conclusions
    We found that delirium can be reduced by some intervention, and also medical team orientation about delirium can be help to reduced the incidence; therefore, it is recommended that this factor be evaluated in future study.
    Keywords: Early Detection, Delirium Screening, ICU
  • Parisa Sedaghati, Maryam Goudarzian *, Hassan Daneshmandi, Abolfazl Ardjmand Page 5
    Background
    Patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) have a flexed posture and are at an increased risk of falls. In addition, fear of falling (FOF) is among the main complaints of PD patients. To reduce the risk of falling, complex non-drug interventions are required, involving balance-challenging exercises with proper strength, along with posture alignment through corrective exercise interventions (Alexander techniques), which are often utilized to manage patients with PD and thoracic hyperkyphosis.
    Objectives
    To investigate the effects of Alexander-based corrective techniques (ABCT) on forward flexed posture (thoracic hyperkyphosis and forward head posture), risk of falling, and FOF among idiopathic PD patients.
    Methods
    In this interventional study, 26 male and female patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (n, 13) and control groups (n, 13). The subjects participated in a postural realignment program, consisting of 60-minute sessions over 8 weeks (3 sessions per week). Pre- and posttest evaluations were also carried out.
    Results
    The results of paired t test regarding the effects of ABCT on the thoracic kyphosis angle (TKA), craniovertebral angle (CVA), falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I) score, freezing of gait (FOG), and functional reach test (FRT) score revealed a significant difference between the pre- and posttest stages in the control group (P = 0.05). In addition, the t test results showed a significant difference in the mean changes of TKA, FES-I score, FOG, and FRT score between the groups in the pre- and postintervention stages. The Pearson’s correlation test showed that TKA had a significant positive correlation with FES-I and FOG in the groups. On the other hand, the results of Pearson’s correlation test showed a significant negative correlation between TKA and FRT. Finally, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant positive correlation between CVA and FES-I, but not FRT in the groups.
    Conclusions
    The findings of this study indicated that 8 weeks (24 sessions) of ABCT in the experimental group caused considerable improvements in TKA, CVA, FOF, FOG, and risk of fall in patients with PD.
    Keywords: Parkinson's Disease, Posture, Fear of Falling, Falling, Fall Risk
  • Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Sharif Teimourian, Arash Seifi, Zoha Alinejadi, Nahid Sarahian, Mohammadreza Salehi * Page 6
    Background
    Encephalitis may arise from infectious or non-infectious etiologies. Infections, predominantly viruses, are the most common causes of encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most prevalent cause of viral encephalitis in the developed countries. HSV encephalitis occurs equally in both genders and most cases are caused by HSV type 1 (HSV-1).
    Methods
    The current descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted on patients admitted with HSV-1 encephalitis from 2011 to 2016 to Imam-Khomeini hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. The patients with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive were included. All clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of patients along with their outcomes were evaluated and analyzed.
    Results
    In the current study, of 12 cases with encephalitis manifestations and positive CSF HSV-1 PCR results, 5 were male and 7 were female with mean age of 42 years. Fever and headache were the most common complaints. Headache was more common in the cases admitted earlier (P value = 0.001). The patients were studied by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the findings confirmed encephalitis in all the cases. Five cases had unilateral temporal lobe lesions and 6 cases had bilateral lesions. There was a clear relationship between bilateral temporal lobe lesions and higher protein level in CSF (P value = 0.001); 25% of patients (3 cases) needed stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Three patients died and 5 patients developed disabilities.
    Conclusions
    HSV encephalitis is a devastating disease. Clinical findings along CSF analysis and neuroimaging may result in the appropriate diagnosis. Despite appropriate treatment, undesired outcomes are common.
    Keywords: Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex Virus, Human Viral Diseases, Iran
  • Idris Aliyu Guragi, Hadiza Kyari, Sani Malami * Page 7
    Background
    Laggera aurita belongs to the Asteraceae family; it is an annual herb found growing as weeds in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. In Nigeria, Laggera aurita is used as a remedy for paediatric malaria and in the management of epilepsy. Previous studies on extracts of this plant suggested its anticonvulsant activity via GABA-mediated neurotransmission. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating anxiolytic-like effect of the plant extract.
    Methods
    Anxiolytic potential of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita was evaluated using staircase, elevated plus maze, hole board, open field, beam walking assay, and diazepam-induced sleep tests.
    Results
    The extract significantly (P
    Conclusions
    The results of this study revealed that the leaf extract of Laggera aurita possesses anxiolytic-like properties.
    Keywords: Anxiolytic, Rearing, Diazepam, Laggera aurita
  • Amir Moghadam Ahmadi, Azam Mobini, Fariba Kabiri, Reza Bidaki *, Bonnie Bozorg Page 8
    Background
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the central nervous system and a category of neurological disorders in which myelin covers of nerves in the brain and spinal cord are locally destroyed and inflamed. Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder, and anxiety is also highly prevalent over MS patients. This research is aimed to study the anxiety and depression frequencies over MS patients.
    Methods
    This is a descriptive-sectional research performed on 132 patients diagnosed with MS by a neurologist in Rafsanjan, Iran. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) by Spielbergeret al. were applied to measure the depression and anxiety, respectively. The disability level was also determined using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), according to clinical visits and patient histories. The data were then analyzed using SPSS17 in both inferential and descriptive statistics.
    Results
    This research was performed on 132 MS patients including 36 males (27.2%) and 96 females (72.8%). The 21 - 40 year-old patient group included the largest portion of the research population. The depression and the state-trait anxiety were evaluated in relation to variables such as their age, gender, occupation, marital status, academic level, taken medications, course of treatment, and disability level. Final results indicated that the state-trait anxiety and depression are not significantly related to the above-mentioned factors.
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that although these factors seem to be somehow influential, no significant effects were found, except between state anxiety and gender, and between depression and marital status.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis (MS), State Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Depression, Disability
  • Farideh Sadeghian, Mojgan Karbakhsh, Mahnaz Saremi, Iraj Alimohammadi, Hassan Ashayeri, Mahsa Fayaz, Soheil Saadat * Page 9
    Background
    Hands-free cell phone conversation (HFCC) while driving is a common practice among drivers. Several studies have revealed that HFCC, while driving, is no safer than hand-held cell phone conversations (HHCC). This study was conducted to explore the influence of HFCC on the psychomotor performance of drivers.
    Methods
    In this quasi-experimental study, the participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Participants in group1 passed the traffic psychological battery of the Vienna test system (VTS) once without being engaged in any phone conversation and again while making a HFCC. The order of testing in the 2nd group was reversed. All participants shifted their group and passed the tests in a reverse order after 7 to 10 days. The tests included peripheral perception, perceptual speed, general intelligence, visuomotor coordination, and time anticipation. The mixed model analysis was used to assess the association of HFCC with every test.
    Results
    A total of 24 students, with a mean age of 27.1 ± 5.3 years, were included in the study. HFCC had a significant negative influence on the overall mean duration (P value = 0.015), overall percent error duration (P value
    Conclusions
    These findings provided further evidence of the adverse effects of HFCC during driving. Even though drivers can perceive an obstacle while talking on a hands-free cell phone, they are highly likely to react incorrectly due to impairment of visuomotor coordination, time anticipation, divided attention, and fluid intelligence.
    Keywords: Driving, Hands, Free Cell Phone, Visuomotor Coordination, Time Anticipation, Intelligence, Selective Attention
  • Rezvan Akbari Manie, Azar Mehri, Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi *, Laura Murray Page 10
    Background
    The relation between language deficits and inhibitory control as the hallmark component of executive function in persons with aphasia is controversial. Studies that have been done in aphasia syndrome and language impairment have documented difficulties in executive function abilities as well. Inhibitory control issues are common in aphasic persons who demonstrate word retrieval deficits. The current project is a study protocol with the aim to develop a treatment paradigm, which simultaneously considers word retrieval and inhibitory control mechanism.
    Methods
    A total of 20 literate, right-handed, 30 to 65 years-old native Farsi speakers with post stroke aphasia without severe motor speech disorder will be recruited to participate in this randomized, double-blind clinical trial protocol. Subjects in 2 experimental and active control groups will undergo 12 sessions of treatment. The experimental group will include 10 patients who receive the combined treatment and the rest of patients in the active control group will be presented the errorless naming treatment. A 2nd speech and language pathologist will evaluate the participants before and after the treatment and at 1 month follow up.
    Discussion
    Based on previous studies that suggest the co-morbidity of word retrieval deficits and inhibitory control problems in aphasia syndrome, it is predicted that the combined treatment will affect word retrieval deficits more than errorless naming treatment alone.
    Keywords: Aphasia, Word Retrieval, Inhibitory Control, Treatment