فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 59 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • محمد مهدی سلطانی سروستانی* صفحات 5-14
    نگارنده این مقاله، به روش قیاسی/تحلیلی سعی دارد با پاسخ دادن به سوالات پایین، جایگاه تخیل و تقلید را در بازیگری واقعگرا مطالعه کند و سپس با مقایسه «تخیل فعال» و «تخیل منفعل» در بازیگری رئالیستی، مرتبه هر کدام را در رسیدن بازیگر به خلق شخصیت و بازنمایی نقش، مشخص نماید. تخیل و واقعیت در هنر چه نسبتی با هم دارند؟ آیا رئالیسم، اثر هنری را بیشتر از زاویه علم می بیند و یا تخیل؟ آیا بازیگر واقعگرا بیشتر در فرایند شناسایی، یک «کاشف» است و یا در فرایند تولید، یک «مخترع» ؟ آیا اساسا همنشینی تخیل و واقعیت در بازیگری واقعگرا میسر است؟ بی شک نظریات استانیسلاوسکی و مقایسه او با متاثرینش، سهم عمده ای از این پژوهش را شامل خواهد شد. آنچه مسلم است، تقلید -بر خلاف تصور رایج- هیچ مرتبه ای در بازیگری رئالیستی ندارد و این تخیل رئالیستی است که اساس بازیگری را شکل می دهد. هیچکدام از نظریه پردازان سرشناس بازیگری رئالیستی، نقش اساسی تخیل در واقع گرایی بازیگر را نفی نمی کنند، اما اختلاف بر سرکیفیت آن تخیلی است که آیا بیشتر شاخصه های فردی خود بازیگر در روزمرگی اش را بر ملا می سازد یا ویژگی های شاخص آن نقشی که ایفا می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: رئالیسم، بازیگری، تقلید، تخیل، آفرینش
  • شیرین بزرگمهر، مرتضی بیگ لو * صفحات 15-24
    رویکرد پدیدارشناسی به دلیل پذیرفتن انسجام، یکپارچگی و تقسیم ناپذیری تجربه انسان و همچنین پذیرفتن این حقیقت که معانی تعریف شده توسط خواسته های انسان در مرکز تجارب ما قرار دارند. و آن چه اهمیت پیدا می کند، پدیده مکان است. مکان، هویت مند، رابطه مند و دارای تاریخ است. بر این اساس،نامکان محدوده ای است تهی از هویت و تاریخ و تحقق آن درون فضاهایی همسان شکل می گیرد.
    این پژوهش،کیفی، توصیفی، تحلیلی؛ با استفاده از تکنیک کتابخانه ای گرداوری شده است. اهمیت این پژوهش بر این است که رادی در نمایشنامه های خود به مفهوم مکان، اشاره دارد. او به یک باره داشتن احساس تعلق به آن را می آزماید، و شخصیت های آثارش را در رویارویی با آن ها قرار می دهد. هدف این پژوهش تفکیک و یافتن فضا ها و مکان ها و نامکان های موجود در نمایشنامه های "شب روی سنگفرش خیس" ، "پلکان" ؛ و تفکیک آن ها و نتیجه گیری در تاثیر مکان و نامکان بر فرد و نحوه واکنش فرد به آن ها و یافتن روح مکان و پی بردن داشتن حس تعلق به مکان در شخصیت های «آن ها» می باشد،. پژوهشی که در این زمینه پیشگام است.
    کلیدواژگان: پدیدارشناسی، مکان، نامکان، اکبر رادی، شب روی سنگفرش خیس، پلکان
  • صادق صفایی صفحات 25-36
    پژوهش در پی پاسخی است، بر این مسئله که، چرا" آنتونن آرتو" نظریه پردازتاثیرگذارتئاتر، در اجرای نمایشنامه خاندان چن چی خودموفق نیست؟ این مقاله در صدد اثبات این نظریه است که آرتو در عین رد کردن سبک رمانتیسیسم، درارائه نمایش خاندان چن چی به این شیوه هنری وابسته است. این مقاله نه تنها از طریق نشانه های درون وبیرون اثر اقدام به اثبات نظر خود می کند، بلکه با آوردن نشانه های مستقیم تاثیرات روحی و روانی وارد شده به ادبیات او، از طریق روانشناسی (دیدگاه فروید) رمانتیسم بودن خاندان چن چی آرتورا تایید می کند. ضمن رجوع به منابع مطالعاتی آرتو (نمایشنامه: خاندان چن چی، اثرپرسی شلی وداستان راهبه دیر کاسترواثر استندال ، به شناسائی وضعیت اجتماعی دو دوره گذار، (رنسانس وجنگ جهانی دوم) پرداخته وبه تاثیرات هریک از مقاطع تاریخی، فرهنگی بر شکل گیری آثار مطروحه می پردازیم. ودرآخر ، در می یابیم که عمده پیشنهادات وی برای ساخت ،"تئاتر زندگی" امروزه در پرفور منس ها واجراهای آوانگارد تجربه شده است. از همین طریق مقاله پاسخ خود مبنی بر چرائی عدم موفقیت اجرای آرتو از خاندان چن چی رادر می یابد، که اشاره ایست به فاصله تئوری در عمل.
    کلیدواژگان: آنتونن آرتو، پرسی شلی، خاندان چن چی، استاندال، شرایط اجتماعی، پرفورمنس
  • نبی الله گیاه چی، طلایه رویایی * صفحات 37-48
    این مقاله با بررسی صورت بندی روایی فیلم آتش سبز که با تکیه بر ساختارتو درتوی افسانه های ایرانی و بر اساس شناختی عمیق از هنر (نگارگری و خوش نویسی، معماری...) و ادبیات ایران در چندین سطح به نقل تاریخ و فرهنگ کرمان و چهره های مهم آن سرزمین می پردازد،به دنبال آن است که در ورای روایات پیچیده فیلم معانی عمیق و شگرف مستتر در بطن آن را دریابد.
    هدف فیلم بازنمایی دقیق و واقع نمایی تاریخی نیست از این رو برای ارائه حکایات تاریخی از ظرف قصه بهره می برد افسانه، اسطوره و تاریخ را در هم می آمیزد و با پرهیز از تکرار تصاویر و ساختار رایج، از حکایات تاریخی و افسانه ها شکل و ساختاری بدیع به آن ها می بخشد.
    نتیجه مهم این بررسی آن است که فیلم آتش سبز با بسیاری از مفاهیم رایجی که معمولا در روایات تاریخی به کار می رود برخوردی شالوده شکنانه دارد؛ مفاهیمی چون افسانه و اسطوره، تاریخ، زمان، مکان، شخصیت، مردن و زنده بودن. البته همگی این برخوردها، تاویل ها و بازخوانی ها در فرم و ساختار فیلم منجر به زبانی نوین می شود که شکلی پیچیده به فیلم می دهد ،پیچیدگی که در عین حال ناشی از پیچیدگی فرم ها و اشکال در هنر ایرانی و زبان و مفاهیم در شعر و ادبیات و مبانی حکمی آن هاست.
    کلیدواژگان: کلید واژه ها: آتش سبز، محمدرضا اصلانی، ساختارشکنی، افسانه، تاریخ، کرمان
  • مرضیه پیراوی ونک، حامد مظاهریان، علیرضا صیاد، محمدباقر قهرمانی * صفحات 49-58
    مطالعه در روند شکل گیری و تکامل سینما، نمایانگر علاقه به تشریح حالت بدن انسانی و تسخیر حرکت جسمانی است. مرکزیت بدن در گسترش سینمای اولیه، نکته ای است که با توجه به «چرخش جسمانی» در تئوری های معاصر فیلم، مورد توجه نظریه پردازان قرار گرفته است. تحلیل و بررسی تلاش های پیشگامان اولیه سینما همچون ماری، مایبریج و ملیس، نمایانگر این مهم است که تبارشناسی تصویر متحرک را به جای الگوهای اپتیکی مرسوم در تئوری های روان کاوانه، می توان در آزمایش های فیزیولوژیکی انتهای قرن نوزدهم ریشه یابی نمود. مقاله حاضر می کوشد با مورد تاکید قرار دادن این ماهیت ذاتا «بدن مند» مدیوم سینما، با بهره گیری و بازخوانی مفهوم امپاتی، رابطه فضایی و کالبدی تماشاگر با فیلم را مورد بررسی قرار دهد. امپاتی، عمل «احساس کردن در درون دیگری» است که نخستین بار توسط ویشر مطرح شد و بعدها توسط نظریه پردازانی چون لیپز، اشمارسو و ولفلین بسط داده شد. مبتنی بر خوانش پدیدارشناسانه از امپاتی، تماشاگر از طریق بیرون افکنی بدن خود به کالبدهای فیلمیک، می تواند تجربه فضایی آنها را تجربه کند و از این طریق خود را در موقعیت های فضایی متفاوتی قرار دهد. از این رو می توان فیلم ها را به مثابه منابع غنی و ارزشمندی در نظر گرفت که برای مخاطبان، امکان تجربه های غریب و ناممکن فضایی را فراهم می آورند.
    کلیدواژگان: فیزیولوژی، امپاتی، تماشاگر فیلم، ادراک فضایی، بدن های فیلمی
  • هوتن شرف بیانی* صفحات 59-66
    در این نوشته تلاش شده با بررسی روش های ایجاد تنوع در الگوهای ریتمیک سازنده ی ضربی های ردیف یوسف فروتن به شناسایی و مقایسه ی این روش ها با روش های ایجاد تنوع ریتمیک به کار رفته در بخش های آوازی ردیف ایشان پرداخته شود تا به عنوان یکی از راویان و سازندگان مهم قطعات ضربی قدیمی در موسیقی کلاسیک ایرانی، بخشی از شیوه ی آفرینش ایشان در ساختن ضربی بررسی شود. به این منظور بخش های دارای ساختار ریتمیک مشابه در ضربی های مذکور زیر هم نوشته شده اند و هر بخش با بخش بلافاصله بعد از خود مقایسه شده و در صورت وجود تغییر میان آن ها، روش های ایجاد تنوع و تغییر آن ها بررسی شده است. نتیجه ی کلی این مقایسه نشان می دهد نحوه ی ترکیب متفاوت الگوهای ریتمیک در بخش های ملودیک پیاپی ضربی های ردیف فروتن، منجر به تغییراتی در آن ها شده که در این نوشته با عنوان روش های: 1. افزایش تعداد 2. کاهش تعداد 3. افزایش/کاهش تعداد نامگذاری شده اند. علاوه بر این، هریک از الگوهای ریتمیک مذکور ممکن است با یکی از روش های: 1. تقسیم دیرش 2. پیوند دیرش 3. نغمه/سکوت تغییر و تنوع یافته باشند. روش های ایجاد تنوع ریتمیک در ایده های ملودیک ضربی های ردیف فروتن با روش های ایجاد تنوع در بخش های آوازی ردیف ایشان یکسان است. این روش ها می توانند برای آفرینش قطعات ضربی یا آوازی جدید قابل استفاده باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: یوسف فروتن، ضربی، الگوی ریتمیک، بسط و گسترش
  • ساسان فاطمی، بهرنگ نیک آیین * صفحات 67-76
    امروزه عاشیق ها به عنوان نوازنده، خواننده، شاعر و، برخی اوقات، راوی داستان های عاشقانه و حماسی در عروسی های سنتی ترک زبانان ایران نقش های مهمی برعهده دارند. این کنشگران آیینی نیازمند فراگیری مهارت هایی برای اجرای شعر، موسیقی، داستان ها و همچنین مدیریت مراسم و مخاطبان خود هستند. ما در این مقاله نحوه انتقال سنت در هنر عاشیقی را مطالعه خواهیم کرد. روش تحقیق کیفی است: یعنی داده ها در طول کارمیدانی و حضور در میدان با مشاهده و مصاحبه به دست آمده اند. در اینجا با معرفی روش های متاخر انتقال سنت، تغییرات ایجاد شده در روش های فراگیری مهارت های لازم برای عاشیق شدن را بررسی می کنیم. یافته های این تحقیق نشان می دهند که به طور سنتی یک عاشیق مهارت های لازم برای اجرای هنر خود را به صورت غیررسمی و در عروسی ها فرامی گیرد و فرهنگ پذیر می شود. اما تغییرات اخیر در نظام انتقال سنت، یعنی جدا شدن فرایند یادگیری عاشیق از عروسی ها، منجر به کنارگذاشته شدن برخی گونه های شعری و موسیقایی، عدم آشنایی عاشیق با بستر اجرایی و ناتوانی او در برقراری ارتباط فعال با مخاطبانش شده است. در ضمن، این تغییرات منجر به ورود ارزش های هنری جدید به توی ها می شود؛ ارزش هایی که با بیشتر بر بخش های موسیقایی نظام تاکید دارند، سلیقه هنری مخاطبان را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد و با ارزش های سنتی حاضر در توی و مخاطبان سنتی توی ها در تضاد و تنازع است.
    کلیدواژگان: موسیقی و عروسی، موسیقی عاشیقی، آموزش و یادگیری موسیقی، تغییرات
  • نگار بوبان، مریم دولتی فرد * صفحات 77-85
    پژوهش حاضر با روشی تطبیقی و رویکرد روندپژوهانه، روند تغییر شکل و تناسبات درونی ساز عود و تناسب آن با ابعاد نوازنده را در نمونه هایی از دوره ساسانی، ایلخانی- تیموری و صفوی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار داده است. هدف از این پژوهش آن است که اولا ببینیم ساختار این ساز بر اساس مستندات مکتوب و تصویری موجود در دوره ای هزار ساله روند تغییرات پیوسته ای داشته است یا خیر و همچنین در مقایسه با تناسبات بدن نوازنده، در عین اینکه تناسبات در ترسیم تصویر ها بررسی شده و محک می خورد، می توان دید که ثبات تناسبات بدن نوازنده در درون هر دوره و همچنین در مقایسه با دوره های تاریخی دیگر چگونه است. جامعه آماری مورد مطالعه شامل 32 نمونه از تصاویر سازدار منقش به عود و نوازنده آن است که در چهار گروه معرفی و بررسی شده اند. ترسیم سازها در نمونه های مختلف از تناسبات متفاوتی تبعیت کرده است بطوریکه عمدتا درگذار زمان، با افزایش نسبت عرض کاسه به طول آن مواجهیم. ترسیم سازها در گروه ساسانی به نمونه های امروزی و نسبت مذکور در رساله کنزالتحف نزدیکتر است اما تا دوره صفوی به مرور زمان با کاهش نمونه های مشابه با سازهای امروزی روبرو هستیم.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار، تناسب، عود(بربط)، ساسانی، ایلخانی- تیموری، صفوی
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  • Mohammad Mahdi Soltani* Pages 5-14
    The realistic acting of an actor (actress) relates closely or immediately to his (her) worldview.
    Realistic acting always depends on the quality of the actor's (actress's) perceptual. The world or his (her) life is perceived by an actor (actress) as a human being. The world which is always the possibility that turned around. So, what gives identity or name to the realistic acting not only doesn't necessarily provide a fact which is not palpable, but also it is the actor's (actress's) imagination and it produces a palpable reality.
    If we compare the reality of the everyday with reality of our art the results conclude that daily life is quite extensive, aimless, and not rhythmic; it is the unbalanced because everyday life lacks unity of time, place and topics.
    But realistic acting, placed in a frame in which all true components are sequenced, limited, targeted and balanced.
    Also, this sequence and balance is formed by imagination or illusion that has associated with perception and understanding of social behaviors from specific courses, specific location and specific culture of human being. Therefore, realistic acting is not merely the representation of life in detail but it is an imagination or illusion formed by actor (actress).
    This is the actor (actress) who sequences a real matter by his (her) narrative of it, makes cause and effect relationship between its components and emphasizes on some its components.
    Indeed, the realistic actor (actress) - by emphasizing on a real thing – converts it from subjective matter to objective matter.
    Comparing the different views and approaches toward methods of treating the reality in realistic works, the author of this article tries to study the part of fiction and imitation in realistic acting. A comparison between «active fiction» and «passive fiction» in realist acting leads to define the function of each one in achievement of the actor in creating a character and interpreting his role.
    What is the relationship between reality and fiction in art? In realism, is an artistic creation considered from scientific or fictional point of view? In his identification process, is a realistic actor made as a «discoverer» or an «inventor»? Is imitation the base of the realist acting and could it be achieved only by observation and comparison? Is it possible to have a combination of fiction and reality in realist acting? Undoubtedly, the study of the theories of Stanislavsky, as the greatest theorist in realist acting, and divergences between his and his follower’s, will include a major contribution of this article. It is certain that imitation, contrary to popular opinion, has no value in realist acting; it is the realistic fiction that forms the base of acting. None of the well-known theorists of realism in acting deny the fundamental role of the fiction in a realist-acting. But the dispute over the quality of such fiction: it exposes the individual characteristics of an actor in his real life or the prominent features of the role he play
    Keywords: realism, acting, imitation, fiction, creation
  • Shirin Bozorgmehr, Morteza Beiglou* Pages 15-24
    The techniques used in this article, qualitative, descriptive, analytical and data collection methods were used libraries. In this study, in addition to explaining the phenomenological perspectives concerning place and non-place, Akbar Radi’s viewpoint towards them are also taken into consideration. Among the contemporary playwrights of Iran, Akbar Radi’s views are much close to the phenomenology of place. The importance of this study is due to the fact that Radi repeatedly refers to the concept of place in his plays. A deep, exquisite, and new view towards place can be found across the works of Radi. He not only examines the sense of belonging to place, but also make his characters to encounter with it. Radi knows the spirit of the place, he is aware of sense of place due to walking in fog and a wet pavement. He is aware of the wind whisper and the sense of being in the forest and fog. Furthermore, he has been much successful in conveying the sense of place in his works, up to the point that his work are full of the meaning of place, and such places become easily believable to us. The purpose of this study is to find spaces, places as well as non-places in two plays of Radi, i.e. "Night on the Wet Pavement" and "Stairs"; to classify them; to understand the impact of place and non-place on the individual and the individual's reactions to them; to find the spirit of the place as well as to reveal the existence of a sense of belonging to place in Radi's characters. This is a pioneer research in this field of study
    Keywords: Phenomenology, Place, Non-place, Akbar Radi, Night on the Wet Pavement, Stairs
  • Pages 25-36
    The current research is trying to make a comparative analysis of an old story in two different culturs and temporal eras. Although many people are familiar with Shelle's adaptation of the Cenci, many researchers in the field of dramatic literature man not have not considered the fact that the story The Cenci has more than one adaptation. The real story named The Cenci (1599) has been adapted twice for stage: Once by the 19th century British playwright and poet P. B. Shelley (1812), then by A. Artaud (1935). The present research seeks to find answers for two questions: Why Artuad as an influential theoretician of theatre has not been successful in performing The Cenci. Artaud was a prominent member of the Avant Guard French theatre between the two World Wars. In response to realism and naturalism, he shared his ideas with people such as Craig and Appia, and influenced people such as Jean Luis Barrolt and Peter Brook in terms of his ideas in theatre of cruelty. Artuad tries to extract the concept of ruthlessness in nature from the story of The Cenci, and be faithful to this concept as much as possible. That is why he believes the poetics of Shelley as a barrier in reaching his goals. This article wants to prove that in performing The Cenci, Artaud is dependent on Romanticism, although he apparently rejects it. This article does so not only by checking the internal and external signs of this play, but also by providing some real sign in eference to the mental effects in his literature, through a Freudian approach. Also, by referring to some references used by Artaud such as Shelley's The Cenci and Standall's The Abbess of Castro, it tries to recognize carefully the social atmosphere of the transition period (reneaissance and the Second world war), as well as considering the European history in terms of the literary and theatrical movements of that important period. Given the fact that Shelley's field of work was related to Romanticism and Artaud's field was dealing with Theatre of violence, our criterion of judgement for the characters and their actions in these two plays are based on the concept of expressionism and romanticism. Also in this article, the effects of each of these historical and cultural periods in the development of the aforementioned works has been studied. In the time between the two World Wars, named as the harassment and fear years of Hitler, Artaud started his work, and Shelley started his work during the time of Napoleon's wars. It can generally be claimed that some theatrical patterns of the French artists (especially in thesecond half of the establishment of "Live Theatre", which is highly experienced in some Avant Guard shows and performances. As a matter of fact, this article shows how the difference between theory and practice may lead to the failure of Artuad's The Cenci. Freud's ideas have also been effective in reaching this objective.
    Keywords: Artaud - Antonnin, Bysshe-Shelley, The Cenci, Stendhal, Cucial Situation, performance
  • Nabiallah Giyahchi, Talayeh Royayi* Pages 37-48

    The "Atashe Sabz "(green fire) movie by Mohamadreza Aslani narrates the history and culture of the Kerman city in different periods but for this purposes it uses the very complicated and strange form and structure which is based on the Iranian legends, fictions and miniatures, which in some cases are very complicated with different layers somehow similar to Hezaro yek Shab (One thousand and one night) stories :the old fictions that narrated by Shahrzad who wants to save herself from death by telling story and every story leads to new story before ending and this new one leads to another newer and these make Labyrinth –like form stories.
    Aslani tries to tell us his historical narrations through such structure, and with a visual form which inspired by Iranian traditional painting in color, form and composition, so give the legendary and mystic form to these historical narrations. However this special form of movie it is not similar to the common legendary type movies both in form and content.
    It is obvious that the film aim is not to represents the reality of history and the exact happenings in that specific period of times , but it wants or prefers to make the images and frames sequences and shots , dreamy and imaginative that all of them are based on the deep knowledge and recognition of Persian art, literature and aesthetics. So not only the film mix the history, mythology and story but also avoids current structure, form and images from the historical stories and adventures instead give them an unique and new form and structure .
    The deconstructive approach to the acceptable and current concepts which is very common in the historical narrations is the most important point of the film, the concepts such as: history, fiction, legend, mythology, time, place, character, death and life.
    This essay in different parts shows these deconstructive approaches first in the concept of place by concentrating on the fort as a center of film in the different historical events ,which most of them are tragic and at the same time as a dreamy place for the legends so gives the special character to the fort who is a witness beyond the time .second deconstructive approach is about the concept of history by interweaving the different historical events in each other and also with the fiction that cannot be recognized. This interweaving also occurs in the characters through the different periods of time, When we see the the specific characters in history, legend and present time .
    Therefore we face to these deconstructive approaches continuously in the whole movie about time, reality, truth, death and life….
    Of course all of these approaches and reinterpretations leads to a very new language in film that shapes a complicated form of it .Meanwhile This complicacy is due to(come from) the complicacy of the form and structure of Iranian art and complicacy of language in Iranian literature ,and the philosophy behind them
    Keywords: Key words: Atashe sabz, Mohamadreza Aslani, deconstraction, ?history?, ?legend? , Kerman
  • Marzieh Piravi Vanak, Hamed Mazaherian, Alireza Sayyad, Mohammad Bagher Ghahramani* Pages 49-58
    Studying about formation and evolution of cinema reflects an intense desire for analyzing and dissecting the human body, and also an aspiration for capturing the corporeal movements. Concentration on the Centrality of human body in the development of the early cinema, is a point that has been noticed by film theoreticians, especially those affected by "the corporeal turn" in contemporary film studies. It is noteworthy that some of the early film theoreticians also emphasized on the significance of the corporeal aesthetic in relation to the moving images of film, and believed that the cinematic experience is defined in relation with its corporeal immediacy characteristic. In the first decade of the emergence of the medium, films had been generally based on form, Figure and dynamic of human's moving body. It has been argued that the only asset of cinema in its early days of formation was the form of human body. The Most part of the works of Pioneers such as Muybridge, Marey and Méliès, were explorations about the physiology of human body, And the human's animated body was the constitutive component of their works. Analyzing the efforts of these pioneers' efforts and achievements, provide a path to genealogically trace back the root of cinema in the physiological laboratories of the end of the nineteenth century, instead of the conventional optical paradigms underlines by psychoanalytic film theories. The present article attempts to highlight this inherently corporeal nature of the medium, and by employing and rereading of the concept of empathy, to examine and investigate about the audience's spatial and corporeal relationship with filmic bodies and spaces. Empathy is the act of "felling in" and shaped the central concept of the German psychological approach to aesthetic in the 19th century. The notion was initially raised by Vischer and thereafter had been developed by Lipps, Schmarsow and Wölfflin. These authors believed that the sense of physical involvement in a piece of artworks (including painting, sculpture and architecture) leads to the formation of emotional reactions in the observer, and as much extent that the artist be more skillful at transferring the bodily knowledge, the viewer more effectively could establish relationship with the art work. As Edith Stein, in her phenomenological approach to empathy points out when one person empathically throw himself into another thing, he gains a new consciousness about the space and his own navigation center, and this literally implies to dwelling in another space and place. In the case of cinema, Empathy causes the viewer to form a kind of corporeal relationship with the filmic bodies. In the process of watching the film, the spectator projects himself into the character's situation, and due to temporal and spatial nature of empathy, he involves in the time and space that characters have occupied, therefore he can also experience their physical and spatial circumstances. Therefore, films can be considered as valuable resources that provide the possibility of strange and impossible spatial experiences for their audiences, and in this way expand their corporal and spatial consciousness.
    Keywords: Physiology, empathy, the Film Spectator, Spatial Perception, Filmic Bodies
  • Sharaf Bayani* Pages 59-66
    Having reviewed methods of creating varieties in rhythmic patterns making zarbies in Radif of Yousef Foroutan, I identify and compare these methods with the process of creation of rhythmic variety in nonmetric pieces of Foroutan in his Radif. For comparison purpose pieces with similar rhythmic structure in said zarbi pieces are listed and each part is compared with the immediate part after it. Where parts are different their variety and changes are evaluated. As Foroutan was one of the most important performers of old metric pieces and melodies composed by him are counted as significant pieces, the comparison allows us to identify his understanding of rhythm and application of Radif in his own style and accounts in composing zarbi pieces.
    In this paper I am not analyzing melodic development and expansion but trying to study and identify how to use rhythmic factors in making an Iranian Classical Music genre with a phenomenological approach. zarbi pieces in this paper mean pieces of certain mode composed with relatively average tempo. As seen in Foroutan Radif some zarbi pieces may be referred to as Pish Daramad for being played in the beginning of a Dastgah or Avaz, however they are studied as zarbi pieces as well. Other metric pieces known as Char Mezrtab, Reng and Tasnif in Foroutan Radif are not studied as zarbi pieces in this paper. In this way 11 zarbi pieces from Foroutan Radif with the aforesaid attributes are studied in terms of rhythmic variety.
    Changes like repetition with different performance techniques, dynamic changes and/or performance using different ornaments may be considered as types of variation in these pieces which are excluded from this paper for the fact that we only study rhythmic variations and changes here.
    The comparison indicates in general that different combination of rhythmic patterns in consecutive melodic parts of metric pieces in Foroutan Radif created changes in the pieces referred to in this paper as 1- Increase in number 2- Decrease in number 3- Increase/Decrease in number.
    Meanwhile, each rhythmic pattern may have been changed and diversified using below
    methods
    1- Division of duration 2- Integration of Duration 3- tone/Rest.
    There are some other variation methods in Western Classical Music such as diminution or augmentation performed using changes in the melodies duration which are not common in Iranian Classical Music. These methods are not seen in metric pieces of Foroutan Radif studied in this paper. The method is not seen in other metric pieces having ordinary attributes of Iranian Classical Music.
    Rhythmic variations in melodic ideas of zarbi pieces in Foroutan Radif follow the same process used by him in creation of variety in nonmetric pieces. This may indicates his conception and knowledgeable or unconscious use of rhythmic pieces’ attributes of nonmetric parts in composing zarbi pieces.
    Rhythmic attributes of Yousef Forouan zarbi pieces may have been effective on performance of nonmetric part in his Radif. The method studied and considered in this study may be used in composing new metric and nonmetric pieces
    Keywords: Yousef Foroutan, Metric pieces, Rhythmic pattern, expansion, development
  • Sasan Fatemi, Behrang Nikaeen* Pages 67-76
    Ashiqs who have had different characteristics, usage and functions in the history, are one of the players, singers, poets and storytellers throughout Turkic-speaking cultures, located in Turkey, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, as well as from the northwest to central provinces of Iran, such as Qom and Zanjan. The ashiq art tradition in Zanjan is performed in many contexts, including wedding ceremonies, coffee houses, concerts, urban festivals, and professional festivals. Although each of these contexts has its own characteristics but the most important and common context, however, is wedding ceremony. This context is not only the main source of ashiq’s income, but also this is during these wedding ceremonies that nearly all parts of the society can face with ashiq, hear and see his performance and request their desired music from him and finally evaluate ashiq and his performance. These poet-musicians are required to learn some skills in order to begin to perform in the wedding ceremonies as a professional musician. In this paper, based on qualitative research method and fieldwork in Zanjan, we are going to study the ways in which this tradition is going on in the culture. This is important question, because we can understand the values of the system during the process of learning and teaching. Using theoretical concepts of Edward Hall, who propose informal, formal and technical learning, and Alan Merriam, who propose enculturation, socialization, education and schooling, we will show that in the traditional (pre-modern) methods of transmission of tradition ashiqs have learnt their profession informally through the process of enculturation in the wedding ceremonies. It was necessary for each apprentice to accompany a master ashiq by playing qaval (a kind of drum) in the ceremonies for many years in order to learn the ways of playing, singing and managing ceremony and audience. But, today, during the process of learning and teaching through modern methods, some changes occurred which caused separation of apprentice from context of learning of this profession (wedding ceremonies) which, in turn, caused disappearance of some musical and poetic genres, such as dastan. Later, all genres were introduced to apprentice in the wedding ceremonies, but today ashiqs will no longer be familiar with the context of performance and will be unable to make an active contact with their audience, perform audience’s musical and poetic requests and manage the ceremony. Moreover, modern methods of transmission of tradition divided the process of learning into separated parts: some musical courses are held for playing saz, the books are used for learning and memorizing poems and then CDs and cassettes for learning dastans and havas. More than anything, modern ways of learning and teaching emphasize on musical abilities instead of poems and dastans and try to introduce new musical-poetic values to ashiqs and then audience. Thus, the changes which have occurred in the methods of transmission of this musical-poetic system is going to change the musical values of the musicians as well as musical taste of audiences, however, there are some opposing forces which may conflict to these changes.
    Keywords: ?Music, Wedding Ceremony?, ?Ashiq Music?, ?Music Learning, Teaching?, ?Change?
  • Negar Booban, Maryam Dolatifard* Pages 77-85
    Of all Persian musical instruments, Oud is probably most famous. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic study of evolution of oud’s structure over centuries, starting from pre-Islamic Art, Sassanid era (6th century AD), till the Safavid era (18th century AD). Since the recognition and reconstruction of Ancient musical instruments is an important area of musicology, this research introduces paintings and metal works along with historical descriptions of old musical treatises, for the purpose of understanding the continuous morphology of oud throughout its developing period. The main theme of this paper is to approach the proportion of oud and oud player from the old scales patterns of the instrument. Comparing that with contemporary oud help us discern the changing process of the instrument’s form and shape, if any.
    By examining the samples of painted illustrations and metal works during this period, along with old treatises of Persian music, we would be able to understand the developing structure of Oud by the end of this era. Kanz Al-tuhaf by Hasan Kashani (11th century AD), is considered as the only reference which presents information on making various musical instruments in Persian.
    To explore the gradual evolution of Oud, this paper adopts the Qualitative Comparative Analysis where the proportions of Oud are studied based on: (1) the‫ scale range of the instrument; (2) the illustrations of musicians in earlier samples; and (3) the comparison of those with the contemporary Oud structure. Since this paper follows oud throughout pictures during its Golden age, Trend Analysis is also noted as an approach to represent the gradual evolution of the form of the instrument. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
    We examined 32 pictures of oud and oud player in four groups from Sassanid to Safavid era; group 1: Sassanid, group 2: Timurid, group 3: Safavid (Tabriz), group 4: Safavid (Isfahan).To study the structure of oud, we measured specified lengths of the instrument and the oud player’s body. So making comparison would be possible by measuring and describing the ratio of the lengths in the instrument and musician’s body. According to the two dimensional images, the AutoCAD 2D-format software has applied to measure the different parts of oud player and instruments in the pictures.
    In group1, all the instruments approximately have the same proportion and follow the ratios mentioned in Kanz-Al-Tuhaf. The size of bowl in group 2 increases gradually. Group 3 includes more cases and the most biggest size of oud; width of bowl to height of face is twice bigger than the group 2. We see different ratios in group 4. They don’t follow a stable ratio and include smaller instrument, in comparison to the previous groups. Although the variety of shape or proportion of the structure is not mentioned in any of the treatises, the results of the measurements show gradual increase of the width of the bowl, from Sassanid to Safavid era; the proportion in the Sassanid oud is more similar to the contemporary one
    Keywords: oud - Barbat, organology, Structure, Sassanid, Ilkhani-Teymoorid, safavid