- Volume:6 Issue:3, 2018
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/09
- تعداد عناوین: 7
Two Centuries of Land Use Changes Influenced by Intensive Mining and Smelting Activities (Middle Spis, Slovakia)Pages 147-153AimsMining activities and mining-related industries in the Middle Spis area (Slovakia) contributed significantly to the irreversible changes of landscape structure. The aim of this study is to analyze and detect the landscape changes in four former mining villages during four-time horizons. Total landscape structure changed - for over 200 years was detected using landscape matrix.Materials and MethodsFour land indices/coefficients (Shannon diversity index, the coefficient of ecological stability, the coefficient of anthropogenic pressure, and the coefficient of landscape originality) were used to evaluate the landscape state for each research period landscape matrix expressed the course of transition changes. Evaluation of land structure in different time horizons and land use/land cover changes between different time horizons were performed using QGIS.
Findings: The most significant land use changes were identified between 1785 and 1986 when mining activity was the most extensive. The forest area decreased about 363 km2. On the contrary, the area of technical units increased about 82.9 km2, and residential areas tripled their area. After 1986 processing plants were closed and mining activities reduced, but landscape stayed disrupted by mining bodies. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the forest area (almost 50 km2) was determined. The values of indices and coefficient did not show the positive trends even after the end of activities.ConclusionMining activities and mining-related industries significantly disrupt the landscape that negatively affects the quality of the environment and the quality of life. After the end of mining activities, the situation became better, but the actual state of the landscape could be changed only by demanding reclamation.Keywords: ormer Mining Area, Geographical Information System, Historical Maps, Land Use Indices, Landscape Matrix
Pages 155-161AimsCement industry is considered as one of the major consuming energies, producing large amounts of environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of metals Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), and Manganese (Mn) in the soil and leaves of planted around the cement factory in Pinus eldarica, Ulmus umbraculifera, and Quercus brantii naturally grown there.Materials and MethodsIn the present experimental study, to perform this, the level of elements was examined in the leaves as well as depths of 0-10 and 10-20cm of soil across the three studied species using atomic absorption device. The extent of elements sequestrated in the factory’s electro filter was also measured. One-way ANOVA test, Duncan’s test, and SPSS 20 software were used for Statistical analysis.
Findings: Cadmium was sequestrated in the electro filter was almost close to the level of cadmium in the leaf and soil samples. The level of lead, zinc, and manganese in the electro filter of the factory were higher than the extent of sequestration of these three elements in the leaf of three tree species and the soil below them. Across the three species, with increased depth of soil, the extent of lead sequestration declined. Pinus eldarica had the minimum extent of sequestration for the four studied elements both in the soil and leaf across the three studied species.ConclusionQuercus brantii and Ulmus umbraculifera have a greater potential in sequestration of heavy metals in comparison with Pinus eldaricaKeywords: Ulmus, Mn, Heavy Metals, Soil
Pages 163-169AimsThe phytoestrogen, genistein and β-sitosterol, naturally occurring compounds found in soy products and pulp and paper mill effluent, respectively, could act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-sitosterol and genistein on the early life stages of Kutum (Rutilus kutum), specifically developing post-fertilized embryos.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, Kutum’s fertilized egg exposed to 3 different levels of genistein and β-sitosterol (10, 50, 500ng.l-1, respectively) up to 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). At the end of the research period, newly hatched larvae were sampled and testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2), Aromatase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) were measured according to standard protocols. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan multiple range test and SPSS 17 software were used for data analyses.
Findings: A high level of genistein lead to increased 17β-estradiol, testosterone concentration and aromatase activity. Also, β-sitosterol treated embryos (500ng.l-1) showed a high level of testosterone and EROD as compared to the control group. While other treatment had no significant effect.ConclusionIt seems that β-sitosterol and genistein could effect on the endocrine system of Kutum embryos by altering steroid biosynthesis and disturb enzyme activity. So it could lead to change the population structure and reduce reproduction performance of Kutum in the long periodKeywords: Phytoestrogens, 17?-Estradiol, Testosterone, EROD, Aromatase Activity
Pages 171-178AimsSalinity, due to its remarkable effects on physiology and performance of plant is considered as a world major problem in arid zone ecosystems. Pinus nigra subspecies pallasiana is known as a nurse and pioneer species. The aims of this study were to determine growth responses and gas exchanges of the seedlings of Pinus nigra subspecies under different salinity stress in the greenhouse environment.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental Study, Seedlings of Pinus nigra was investigated under salinity stress in 6 NaCl levels including 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mM as completely randomized design in greenhouse conditions. Height and diameter growth and gas exchanges parameters were determined in day 90 (August) and biomass allocations in day 150 (November). For data analysis One-Way ANOVA, Duncan’s test and SPSS 19 software were used.
Findings: The highest survival appeared in zero and 50mM with 100 and 93.33%, respectively. Salinity stress decreased survival, height and diameter growth and also biomass of root, shoot, root:shoot and total of seedling. With increasing salinity, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration reduced. Higher survival, better growth and gas exchanges were detected below 50mM NaCl salinity.ConclusionSalinity has adverse effects on growth and gas exchanges of P. nigra seedlings during the studied period. Survival in 50mM NaCl has a high percentage, but in higher salt concentrations (200 and 250mM NaCl) it drastically reduce. Similarly, decrease in seedling performance was found in severe salinity levels. This species has a relatively good resistance to 50mM NaClKeywords: Biomass, Growth, Photosynthesis, Turkish Black Pine, Stomatal Conductance
Effect of Hydromulch Binders on Reduction of Embankment-Induced Soil Erosion and Sediment ConcentrationPages 179-186AimsHydromulching treatments are increasingly being used as a feasible alternative of landscape management for runoff and soil erosion control after road construction. Towards this, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of hydromulch binders on reduction of embankment-induced soil erosion and sediment concentration.Materials & MethodsThis experimental study was conducted in Golestan Province, Iran in March 2017. Two types of soil stabilizers were used. Hydromulch A included water absorbent, Festuca arundinacea L. seed, tackifier, fertilizer, and bio humus. Hydromulch B was combined from hydromulch A, cellulose fiber, and natural yarn. Then, the hydromulches as well as the non-hydromulch traditional mix (seed and animal fertilizer) were separately sprayed on artificial bare slopes. Treated soil were translocated and established in the specific boxes for measuring grass biomass, sediment concentration, runoff, and soil erosion under the rainfall simulation. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan multiple comparison tests.
Findings: Hydromulch A and traditional mix produced lower value of the total biomass of grass compared with hydromulch B. Hydromulch B yielded significantly less runoff volumes than the other treatments. Only the hydromulch B significantly reduced soil erosion compared with that of the hydromulch A and traditional mix (p<0.05).ConclusionHydromulch B is clearly much more efficient than hydromulch A and traditional seeding in terms of minimizing soil erosion. Traditional mix seeding is not able to promote an effective grass cover to reduce soil erosion from artificial slopes. Hydromulch B provide favorable moisture and soil temperatures for grass seeds and this accelerates plant establishmentKeywords: Disturbed Slope, Land Management, Sediment Yield, Soil Amendment, Soil Conservation
Estimation of Artificial Groundwater Recharge by Flood Water Spreading System in an Arid Region Using Inverse Modeling and SCS Method; A case Study of Mosian PlainPages 187-194AimsIn arid and semi-arid regions, to reduce the impact of infrequent flood, groundwater recharge and decrease flood damages, runoff should be stored through Flood Water Spreading (FWS) systems. The aim of the present study was to estimate of artificial groundwater recharge by flood water spreading system in an arid region using inverse modeling and the Soil-Conservation Service-Curve-Number (SCS-CN) method in Mosian plain.Materials and MethodsThe present study is the original research which was done in a computational manner, groundwater recharge by FWS system under arid conditions of west of Iran was estimated using mathematical and empirical methods. The annual component values of the water balance equation were estimated using the mathematical model (MODFLOW). Groundwater recharge by FWS system was estimated using the inverse modeling approach for the study area. Daily rainfall data (1994-2014) was used to estimate the daily runoff from the upland using SCS-CN method. The estimated runoff was used to estimate the groundwater recharge from FWS system. The R-squared statistic test and PMWIM? Software were used.
Findings: Estimated annual average groundwater recharge by the MODFLOW model and SCS method were 6.55 and 8.47MCM respectively (1994-2014). Comparison between mathematical and empirical models showed minor differences. A minimum of 13mm daily rainfall was required to generate 1mm of recharge from the floodwater spreading system.ConclusionCombination of the mathematical and empirical models can increase the accuracy of the groundwater recharge predictions. Groundwater recharge in FWS system area increase with increasing of rainfall, but after the certain value of precipitation, it is nearly constant due to ponds capacity and infiltration speed limitationKeywords: Ground-Water, Inverse Modeling, SCS-CN Method, Floodwater Spreading, Mosian Aquifer
Assessing Important Components for the Utilization of Ferula assa foetida L Based on combination of Approach of Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge: A Case StudyPages 195-203AimsToday, scholars and researchers, while collecting and applying traditional methods, are an attempt to consolidate the indigenous and scientific approaches into a superior body. This study was performed to apply a consolidated approach for the assessment of harvesting medicinal plant Ferula assa-foetida in Tangsorkh Rangelands, Boyer-Ahmad county, Iran.Materials and MethodsIn the descriptive study, a number of interviews were held with the local stakeholders along with a literature review to solicit information on the possible set of indicators determining different aspects of harvesting F. assa-foetida. The main method applied was the exploitation of indigenous knowledge based on a participatory-exploratory research method. For this purpose, the researcher traveled to the area during the harvesting season in the spring and summer 2015, to accompany the beneficiaries of F. assa-foetida in the Tangsorkh rangelands. During the interviews and direct observations, questions were asked to explore the factors affecting the utilization of F. assa-foetida and the results were qualitatively analyzed.
Findings: Indigenous and scientific knowledge shared similarities in terms of cutting intervals, plant viability and cutting age, yet differing in cutting method and frequency. The consolidated approach of Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge suggested that conventional method, one and two-sided cutting s, four-day intervals, 20 cuttings per year and a plant age of 5-10 years as the suitable harvesting principles.ConclusionThere are evident differences between the indigenous and scientific knowledge of harvesting F. assa-foetida, with Dominated convergence. It appears that scientific knowledge has been considerably concerned with plant viability to achieve a sustainable level of productionKeywords: Boyerahmad County, Consolidated Approach, Ferula assa-foetida, Harvesting, Tangsorkh Rangelands