فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, Summer 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ali Yazhari Kermani , Farshad Nasrollahi , Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad Pages 129-136
    Background
    The use of daylight in offices has become an effective strategy to improve the quality of indoor space and energy efficiency. There is enough potential to have daylight autonomy in Kerman as a city with more than 300 sunny days a year. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship
    between facades configuration and the amount of daylight in office buildings of Kerman.
    Methods
    This study was carried out based on the simulation in DesignBuilder software (DBS). In this study, 36 typical rooms, with the same physical characteristics (4 m×6 m×4 m), with window-to-wall ratio (WWR) between 10- 90% with four overhang depths (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m) were modeled.
    Results
    Based on daylight utilization, the results indicate that an optimal WWR for a room with 1 m overhang depth ranged from 50% to 70%. Also, the room with 0.5 m overhang depth and without overhang, had suitable daylight while WWR was at least 50%, but the room with 1.5 m depth would not
    encounter glare problem even when WWR was 90%.
    Conclusion
    The results confirm that overhang depth and WWR have significant effect on daylight parameters such as daylight factor (DF), work plane illuminance (WPI), and WPI ratio. Hence, these insights can be useful for designers to design buildings with lower energy use and higher daylight
    quality, when enough light is provided in office rooms
    Keywords: Sunlight, Office, Kerman, Uniformity, Design software
  • Zabihollah Yousefi , Mohammad Behbodi , Reza Ali Mohammadpour Pages 137-142
    Background
    Slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) is hardly treated due to the large amount of organic matter, nutrients and suspended solids. These materials are naturally decomposed through biological processes, and then environmental pollution, transmission of pathogens and problems become smelled. Conventional purification methods require high investment costs, high energy consumption and expert workforce. Therefore, the efficient and sufficient treatment of SWW with low cost, efficient construction and operation is important.
    Methods
    A combined anaerobic system consisting of three pilot-scale anaerobic baffled reactors (ABRs) in the first stage and three anaerobic filters (AFs) were used to treat SWW. The ABR reactors arranged at three hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12, 18 and 24 hours and organic loading rates
    (OLRs) of 4, 7 and 10 kg/m3/d. The OLR applied for ABR reactors, was 0.5 to 1.55 kg COD/m3/d.
    Results
    Evaluation of the ABR reactor indicated that this reactor at OLR of 7 and 10 kg COD/m3/d and HRT of 18 hours, had removal efficiency of 83.29% and 85.79%, respectively. AF reactor, at OLR of 0.981, 0.576 and 0.561 kg COD/m3/d and HRT of 36 hours, had removal efficiency of 79.39%, 74.09%
    and 63.14%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The optimum HRT and OLR were 24 hours and 7 kg COD/m3/d and 36 hours and 1 kg COD/m3/d in ABR and AF reactor, respectively
    Keywords: Waste water, Slaughterhouse, Anaerobic treatment
  • Fariba Sherri , Amir Hossein Mahvi , Abbas Toloie Eshlaghy , Amir Hessam Hassani Pages 143-151
    Background
    Water distribution networks (WDNs) are facilities that require massive investment and their optimization is very important. This study aimed to optimization and development of models for promoting WDNs with using engineering judgment. In this method, instead of controlling all system states,
    it is possible to search the optimal set of options based on engineering judgment and hydraulic and physical status of the system. Thus, the time to solve the optimization problem is greatly reduced, which is very important in widespread networks with many components. The case study was a WDN in western Tehran.
    Methods
    To reduce the calculation size and increase the convergence rate using engineering judgment, the parts of the network where there was no possibility of parallel piping was ignored. For other parts with a low pressure problem, parallel piping was defined. A FMGA and WaterGEMS hydraulic software were used to optimize the WDN. Cost minimization and pressure benefit maximization were the objective functions and the diameters of the pipes were considered to be the decision variables.
    Results
    The results of optimization the network showed that, the cost decreased 89.84% and the pressure in all nodes, except one node, reached within the standard range (26-60 mH20). It included 2387 m of pipe with diameters of 100, 150, 200, 250, 350, 400 and 500 mm.
    Conclusion
    The results of optimization and modification of the network using engineering judgment confirm that the cost decreased significantly and the pressure level in all the nodes increased to above the allowable minimum pressure
    Keywords: Water, Judgment, Software, Pressure, Engineering
  • Balal Oroji , Eisa Solgi , Asghar Sadighzadeh Pages 153-157
    Background
    In recent years, Tehran has faced major problems with air pollution for many reasons, and this issue has become a critical point in most of the days. However, less attention has been paid to the indoor air pollutants in exercise centers and their possible health effects. In this research, it was tried to briefly describe the characteristics and chemical composition of the aerosols present in the exercise centers of Tehran.
    Methods
    Sampling was carried out by a high volume sampler with a value of 1.5 m3/min. Fiberglass filters were used to sample aerosol particles. The samples were then studied by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) method.
    Results
    The results showed that average concentration of aerosol particles in the indoor and outdoor sports halls was 125 and 162 μg/m3, respectively. Therefore, there was a minor difference in the aerosols concentration inside and outside the sports venues during the competition period and in the presence of athletes. Also, chemical composition and morphology of the aerosol particles showed that there was a minor difference between the atmospheric particles inside and outside the exercise centers. Major elements found in the PM2.5 aerosol were Si, O, C, Mg, Ca, Mn and K. In general, common major crustal elements found in the atmospheric particles over all the sites were Si, Al, and Fe.
    Conclusion
    It seems that many citizens of the polluted cities exercise indoor because of causes other than outdoor air pollution such as lack of time or appropriate facilities. Thus, it is necessary for all students, athletes, people and other health workers involved in sports and exercise medicine to know
    briefly about indoor air pollutants and its possible health effects on athletes who exercise in these environments
    Keywords: Air pollution, Athletes, Aerosols, Outdoor
  • Shokufeh Delfi , Mohammad Mosaferi , Ali Khalafi , Khaled Zoroufchi Benis Pages 159-166
    Background
    Combustion of fossil fuels contributes to sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. To deal with this issue, the government of Iran has appointed the oil refineries to upgrade their installations and produce high quality fuels. Thus, this study investigated the status of SO2 emissions in Iran and the capability of
    advanced technologies to control SO2 emissions.
    Methods
    The status of SO2 emissions was reviewed and discussed through national online reports. Meanwhile, the environmental impacts of sulfur recovery and tail gas treatment (TGT) plant (STP) were assessed by applying rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) for implementation and nonimplementation alternatives in Tabriz Oil Refinery Company (TORC).
    Results
    SO2 emissions have been increased by 2.1 times during 2004-2014 in Iran. Power plants and transportation play a significant role in this regard and overall contribute 82% of emissions. Among the other fossil fuels, fuel oil and gasoil account for 95% of SO2 emissions. Based on the environmental
    impact assessments (EIAs), sulfur recovery management and enhancing sulfur removal efficiency from flue gas up to 99.9% are two main positive environmental aspects of STP project that would enable TORC to prevent 87 600 tons of SO2 emissions, annually. Nevertheless, flue gas and sour gas streams which have been determined as probable pollution sources of process, should be managed through proper monitoring framework.
    Conclusion
    The increasing trend of SO2 emissions and significant role of fuel oil and gasoil has required Iranian oil refineries to enhance the quality of fuels by employing clean and cost-effective technologies
    Keywords: Air pollution, Fossil fuels, Oil, gas industry, Environmental assessment, Tabriz
  • Fatemeh Khademi , Kamyar Yaghmaeian , Mohammad Taheri , Mohammad Ali Hayatabadi , Alireza Nasiri , Mohammad Malakootian Pages 167-174
    Background
    In this study, the effect of wastewater produced by pistachio processing in processing terminals on wastewater treatment plants with activated sludge process was investigated.
    Methods
    The pilot of activated sludge was constructed at the laboratory scale similar to wastewater treatment plant in Kerman and it was investigated in different ratios of the wastewater of pistachio processing with urban wastewater and return sludge ratios of 50% and 75%. The best reactor efficiency
    in treating pistachio processing wastewater was obtained at a ratio of 5% with urban wastewater and return sludge of 50% plus 5 and 10% with urban wastewater and return sludge of 75%.
    Results
    The removal efficiency in the reactor in the aforementioned ratios was obtained to be 96.9%, 98%, and 96.2% for COD, 95.7%, 97.2%, and 93.3% for BOD5, and 7.1%, 99%, and 96.97% for phenolic compounds, respectively. The removal efficiency of BOD5 and COD reduced with the increase in
    the ratios of pistachio processing wastewater especially with the presence of phenolic compounds. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that in the aforementioned ratios of pistachio processing wastewater with urban wastewater, the mean COD and BOD5 in the output wastewater were
    significantly lower than the standards of Iranian environmental organization and guidelines of World Health Organization (WHO).
    Conclusion
    Activated sludge process is able to remove organic compounds of pistachio processing wastewater at a ratio of 5% and return sludge of 50% along with ratios of 5 and 10% and return sludge of 75% with urban wastewater with a high efficiency
    Keywords: Activated sludge process, Wastewater, Pistachio, Environment
  • Mehdi Bibak , Masoud Sattari , Ali Agharokh , Saeid Tahmasebi , Javid Imanpour Namin Pages 175-179
    Background
    Land and water pollution by heavy metals is a universal issue. Although the pollution affects all countries, but its range and severity vary hugely. The pollution of the marine environment by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. Marine sediments can be sensitive indicators for monitoring contaminants in aquatic environments.
    Methods
    The concentration of 10 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Al, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) was determined in the sediments of four shoreline stations including Imam Hassan port, Ameri port, Bushehr port, and Nayband Bay at the west Persian Gulf from March to December 2017. The elements were measured by
    inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.
    Results
    The contamination of the sediments was assessed based on the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF). Spearman correlation matrix was calculated between all the trace metals and major elements as well as corresponding sampling regions. Statistically significant inter-elemental correlations (e.g., Cr-Fe, Cr-Al, Cr-Ni, Cr-Zn, and Cr-Cu) were found between some metals. High EF levels for Fe, Al, and Pb suggest that metals in the sediments of the northern Persian Gulf could have originated from anthropogenic sources.
    Conclusion
    The contamination pattern of sediments is affected by factors such as sedimentation patterns, physical and chemical properties of the sediments. For example, sediments with fine-grained and high surface area-to-volume ratio can act as good absorbents for many pollutants
    Keywords: Heavy metals, Geologic sediment, Persian Gulf, Bushehr
  • Zabihollah Yousefi , Alireza Ala , Masoumeh Eslamifar Pages 181-186
    Background
    Today, bottled water is used in many countries of the world due to its relatively low cost, better taste, ease of access and low levels of impurities. In unfavorable conditions, the maintenance of microorganisms due to hydrophobicity and adherence to bottles and as a result of increased lipolytic activity can lead to undesirable changes in color, taste and odor, and in cases of more severe load, microbial contamination may cause unhealthy water and flooding. In this study, the presence or absence of coliform in a number of bottled water brands was examined.
    Methods
    The microbial quality of 10 markers of bottled water present in the market of Sari that was randomly selected from each mark and three samples was examined. The samples were analyzed using the coliform - presence/absence (P-A) test. The results were compared with national standards and the
    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24 and EXCEL.
    Results
    Samples showed no microbial contamination Also, coliform and fecal coliforms were not observed in any of the samples. Finally, it was revealed that all cases were in accordance with national standards and WHO guidelines.
    Conclusion
    Increasing the health indexes of places, food supply and distribution centers, and maintaining health conditions and measures that have been considered especially in the recent years on the health of bottled water, have greatly reduced the problems
    Keywords: Taste, Drinking water, Bacteria, World Health Organization, Bottled water