فهرست مطالب

Preventive Medicine - Volume:9 Issue: 12, 2018
  • Volume:9 Issue: 12, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Hossein Faraji * Page 1
    As an important group of health problems, glucose metabolism disorders are associated with a number of diseases as well as mortality rate. Recently, studies have demonstrated that the consumption of decaffeinated coffee‑enriched chlorogenic acid (CGA) can reduce the risk of diabetes and blood glucose rise, while the results of some previous studies have shown an opposite effect. Hence, a systematic search was conducted based on literature search and appropriate keywords through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, Science direct, Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus databases from 2003 to 2018. After searching, 1593 articles were found. Then, we excluded papers based on the duplication and relevant for title and abstract, whereas 25 relevant articles remained for checking eligibility criteria. Since only randomized clinical trials studies (RCTs) could be included in the current study, six RCTs remained in end‑stage for qualitative synthesis. The results of reviewed studies showed no signifcant effect of decaffeinated coffee‑enriched CGA on blood glucose concentration. Although recent studies have suggested the effectiveness of decaffeinated coffee‑enriched CGA on blood glucose in animals, and there are various mechanisms for this effect, and the result of our review showed that there is not suffcient evidence for this claim in healthy humans. Hence, further research in this area seems necessary.
    Keywords: Blood glucose, chlorogenic acid, coffee, decaffeinated coffee, diabetes mellitus
  • Vajihe Izadi, Bagher Larijani, Leila Azadbakht * Page 2
    Coffee and green tea are two of most usual consumed beverages in the world which have several beneft components. Coffee and green tea have signifcantly inverse correlation with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin and leptin are the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue and play the important roles on the status of chronic diseases. In the present study, we aimed to review the evidence about relationship between these beverages and adiponectin and leptin levels.
    We searched in PubMed to January 2013 using several key words such as coffee, green tea, caffeine, leptin, adiponectin, and adipokines. Finally, most related articles were recruited in this regard. Several fndings suggested the positive association between coffee and adiponectin level. Different studies showed contradictory results regarding green tea and adiponectin level. However, most of them reported the positive role of green tea in adiponectin concentration. Fewer studies are conducted
    about the association between these beverages and leptin, and their results are controversial. More longitudinal investigations should be conducted in this regard to declare these associations.
    Keywords: Adipokine, adiponectin, caffeine, coffee, green tea, leptin
  • Salman Khazaei, Mehdi Yaseri, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Zahra Zobdeh, Vida Sheikh, Mohammad Ali Mansournia * Page 3
    Background
    Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the treatments provided to end‑stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A few studies have investigated the survival rate of HD patients in Iran. Hence, we decided to investigate the survival rate and it is predictors among Iranian ESRD patients.
    Methods
    This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in 165 HD patients in Tuyserkan city (Hamadan province) during 20 years from 1996 to 2015. The checklist used to gather information was comprised of patients’ demographic and clinical information. The analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves, log‑rank test, and cox regression model.
    Results
    The most prevalent cause of ESRD was reported to be high blood pressure (32.7%). The probability of survival rate at the end of 1st, 5th, and
    10th year was 0.65, 0.16, and 0.05, respectively. Results of multivariate cox regression showed that old age, catheter vascular access, and high hemoglobin level have a negative signifcant effect on survival of HD patients (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Overall, the survival of HD patients seems to be low in Tuyserkan as compared to other studies. Age, ESRD cause, vascular access, marital status, and hemoglobin level among other factors are proved to have a signifcant effect on survival probability.
    Keywords: Cox regression models, end?stage renal disease, hemodialysis patients, survival
  • Reza Ghadimi, Seyyed Reza Hosseini, Samaneh Asef, Ali Bijani, Behzad Heidari, Mansour Babaei * Page 4
    Background
    Smoking has deleterious effects on bone mass and is associated with the subsequent development of osteoporosis, particularly in elderly participants. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of smoking in the elderly male smokers.
    Methods
    All male participants aged 60 years and older of the Amirkola cohort who performed bone densitometry entered the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) using the dual‑energy X‑ray absorptiometry method. In statistical analysis, the smokers and nonsmokers were compared according to BMD, frequency of low bone mass defned as BMD T‑score <-1 at either LS or FN, and the number of bone fractures. SPSS software version 18 was used for analysis.
    Results
    A total of 203 smokers with mean smoking duration of 21.67 ± 17.7 years and the mean number of 36.4 + 15.8 cigarettes per day were compared with 408 nonsmokers. The mean BMD values in LS (0.90 ± 0.14 vs. 0.94 ± 0.19) and FN section (0.87 ± 0.13 vs. 0.89 ± 0.15) and also the frequency of bone fractures were signifcantly lower, and the frequency of low bone mass at either LS and FN was signifcantly higher in smokers (P = 0.014, 0.038, 0.003, and 0.004, respectively). In multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking was independently associated with low bone mass by odds ratio of = 2.27 (95% confdence interval: 1.49–3.44).
    Conclusions
    These fndings indicate a signifcant association between low bone mass and bone fracture at either LS or FN in the elderly male smokers.
    Keywords: Association, bone mineral density, elderly men, smoking
  • Narges Amel Zabihi, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Maryam Mahmoudabady, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Farzaneh Sohrabi, Saeed Niazmand * Page 5
    Background
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prime risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The convincing experimental and clinical evidence indicated that the onset of DM is closely associated with oxidative stress and that the generation of reactive oxygen species increases in both the types of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Teucrium polium (TP) hydroalcoholic extract on the blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and oxidative stress markers of the heart and aorta in streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats.
    Methods
    The male Wistar rats assigned into six groups (n = 8 in each group): Control, diabetic, and diabetic rats treated with TP extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or met and metformin (300 mg/kg) formin (300 mg/kg) group, by daily gavage for 6 weeks. Diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p). Serum lipids and glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, total thiol level, and also the activities of Cu, Zn‑superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the cardiac and aortic tissues were assessed.
    Results
    TP extract reduced serum glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol. The MDA levels were reduced signifcantly in all TP‑treated groups and metformin. Total thiol levels were improved in the heart and aorta of TP extract‑treated groups and metformin compared to the diabetic rats. The activity of SOD in the cardiac and aortic tissues of TP extract‑ and metformin‑treated groups was higher than diabetic group.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that chronic administration of TP in STZ‑induced diabetic rats could decrease blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride and also attenuate the oxidative stress in the aortic and cardiac tissues.
    Keywords: Aorta, diabetes mellitus, heart, oxidative stress, Teucrium polium
  • Leila Mohammadinia, Davoud Khorasani, Zavareh, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Payam Roshanferk, Hossein Malekafzali * Page 6
    Background
    Social determinants of health (SDH) provide a platform in improving health society such as safety. Safety is essential for children because it is directly related to the health and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current home safety in the capital city of Iran for children below fve years by community-based initiative and its association with common SDH variables.
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional study, considering community- and family-based initiative. According this fve domains checklist which was including physical, kitchen, bath, toys, and f rst-aid kit , 200 family home safety were evaluated. Moreover, the relation between children safety and social determinants of health was assessed. Furthermore, the research team designed an attractive record card for each child that was distributed among families by community volunteers.
    Results
    The result was extracted into two age groups: less and more than 6 months. We designed an attractive card for each child and distributed among families by volunteers. It showed that children of age above 6 months had higher home safety score. We found a positive association between mother’s education and total safety score.
    Conclusions
    This study was a part of MAZDAK project which means friendly environment for children in Persian word. It showed that an effective way for promoting children safety in the community would be community engagement and family cooperation. As the family education can help reduce children injuries, MAZDAK as a model can been run in the other places to check the effects of SDH on home safety for children. This was an experience of improving community knowledge and behavior about home safety by the parents themselves to improve their children safety environment, and it is going to continue the effcacy of Intervention.
    Keywords: Children, community?based initiation, safety, social determinants of health
  • Saide Miri, Tahereh Safari *, Gholam Reza Komeili, Mehdi Nematbakhsh, Abbass Ali Niazi, Mehdi Jahantigh, Hossein Bagheri, Fatemeh Maghool Page 7
    Background
    L‑arginine is an important precursor for the formation of nitric oxide (NO). According to previous studies, NO function is related to gender. Likewise, chronic renal diseases have lower prevalence in female. Gentamicin (GM) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. According to some studies, males are more sensitive to GM renal nephrotoxicity. This study attempts to fnd protective effects of L‑arginine on GM nephrotoxicity in male and female rats.
    Methods
    Male and female rats were divided into eight groups: Rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups each including both male and female rats. The frst and second groups received vehicle (saline), the third and fourth groups received gentamicin (80 mg/kg), the ffth and sixth groups received L‑arginine (150 mg/kg), and fnally, seventh and eighth groups received gentamicin+ L‑ arginine. Next, 9 days after administering drugs, blood samples were collected from the heart. After making sacrifces, the level of blood urea, creatinine (Cr), nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in serums. Likewise, nitrite and MDA were measured in the homogenized kidney tissue.
    Results
    GM signifcantly increased serum level of urea and Cr in male and female rats (P < 0.05). However, co‑administration of GM + L‑arginine signifcantly did not decrease urea and Cr level in male rats, whereas, in female rats, they signifcantly reduced (P < 0.05). In response to GM, renal MDA level increased in male and female rats (P < 0.05), and in the presence of GM + L‑arginine, the level of MDA signifcantly decreased in both genders (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    L‑arginine demonstrated some protective effects
    in female rats but did not protect against GM nephrotoxicity in male rats for unknown reasons, probably related to the effects of sex hormones which needs further studies to be confrmed.
    Keywords: Gentamicin, L-arginine, Nephrotoxicity, Sex difference
  • Peter Schwandt *, Gerda?Maria Haas Page 8
    Objectives
    The PEP Family Heart Study is a perspective community‑based long‑term project for the whole family to improve cardiovascular health aiming to assess and to amend risk factors in children and their parents by lifestyle change.
    Methods
    A total of 48,667 subjects (24,927 adults and 23,740 children) from 3,370 families living in 94% of the elementary school districts of Nuremberg (Germany) participated in this observational study from 1993/1994 ‑2007/2008. The yearly surveys consisting of personal and family histories, structured interviews on leisure time physical activity and tobacco smoke exposition, physical examinations and nutritional intake as documented by seven days weighed dietary protocols and sustained healthy lifestyle counselling were mainly performed at home. Fasting blood collections for biochemical analyses in the study laboratories, cooking courses and seminars on healthy lifestyle were performed on weekends in central school buildings.
    Results
    Here we report some of the main results demonstrating e.g., that at least one CVD risk factor in a child conferred a 2–4 fold higher risk among their parents, that obese children and adolescents had a nearly fve times higher prevalence of hypertension than nonoverweight youths.
    Conclusions
    Sustained healthy lifestyle behavior can be implemented in daily life of family members which results in amended nutritional intake and improved cardiometabolic risk factors.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular disease risk factors, prospective community?based study, lifestyle change
  • Kambiz Abachizadeh, Yalda Soleiman Ekhtiari, Ali?Asghar Kolahi * Page 9
    Background
    Smoking is a modifable risk factor for noncommunicable diseases with a wide range of harmful health outcomes. Identifcation of sociodemographic characteristics of smokers can be a guideline to development of effective intervention proportional to target population. This study aimed to determine smoking pattern and its associated sociodemographic factors in Iran.
    Methods
    This cross‑sectional study was conducted based on data from the sixth round of nationwide  STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) survey in the 31 provinces of Iran. A total of 10,834 participants aged ≥15 years were selected through a multistage cluster sampling method. Collecting data was performed via three‑step questionnaire (ecological, behavioral risk factors, and physical and biochemical measurements). Data analysis was performed via Epi Info and then SPSS version 21 softwares using descriptive methods and analytical tests.
    Results
    Of all participants, 9.6% were current cigarette smokers, which was signifcantly more frequent among men than women (21.5% vs. 1.1%, respectively, P < 0.001). Smoking was signifcantly associated with being self‑employed and having under diploma education level (P < 0.05). Of all current cigarette smokers, 8.7% were daily smokers. The mean ± standard deviation of systolic blood pressure and history of cardiovascular symptoms in current smokers were higher than nonsmokers (P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). Coughing for >4 weeks, frequent wheezing, and shortness of breath were signifcantly more frequent in current smokers than nonsmokers (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.02, respectively).
    Conclusions
    Our results draw a picture of sociodemographic distribution of smoking pattern to determine the specifc characteristics of the target population affecting cigarette smoking and identifed specifc demographic strategies for preventive and control action plan.
    Keywords: Cigarette smoking, noncommunicable diseases, risk factors, tobacco smoking
  • Marzieh Nasrazadani, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Emanuela Dreassi, Behzad Mahaki * Page 10
    Background
    According to the last report of Iran cancer registry, stomach, colorectal, and bladder cancers are the most prevalent cancers. The present study focused on separating the latent risk surface into shared and disease‑specifc components.
    Methods
    In this study, data consisting of stomach, colorectal, and bladder cancers in 30 provinces of Iran during 2004–2009 are considered. These data are analyzed by polytomous logit model. The incidence of stomach cancer acts as the reference category (the surrogate for smoking). Then, the log odds are decomposed into shared and specifc structured spatial and unstructured spatial components. These latent components help to detect spatial patterns of shared and disease‑specifc risk factors.
    Results
    Central, Southern, Eastern, and Southwestern provinces are supposed as high‑risk regions for shared risk factor for colorectal and bladder cancers. This shared risk factor is slightly associated more with bladder than with colorectal cancer. Northern, northwestern, and central regions and also three borderline provinces in southwestern are high‑risk regions for colorectal cancer. Central, eastern, southern, and western strip of the country except Ilam are found as the high‑risk regions of bladder cancer.
    Conclusions
    After considering known shared risk factor of the three cancers, it turns out that colorectal and bladder cancers have unknown shared risk factor. The signifcant difference in their lifestyle and eating habits could be an assumption of the risk factor.
    Keywords: Colorectal neoplasms, disease mapping, polytomous logit model, shared component model, stomach neoplasms, urinary bladder neoplasms