فهرست مطالب

Rehabilitation Journal - Volume:16 Issue:38, 2018
  • Volume:16 Issue:38, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • Mohammad Ashori *, Ghasem Norouzi , Seyyedeh Somayyeh Jalil, Abkenar Pages 331-338
     
    Objectives
    Motor therapy plays a key role on the bilateral coordination skills and motor activities of children with Intellectual Disability (ID). The present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of motor therapy on motor skills and bilateral coordination skills of students with ID.
    Methods
    This was a quasi-experimental research with pre-test and post-test and control group design. The study participants were 26 male students with ID from 2 special schools in Tehran City, Iran. The samples were selected by cluster sampling method. They were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups and each group consisted of 13 students. In the experimental group, motor therapy was performed during 16 sessions, while the control group did not receive any trainings. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of motor proficiency was used for measuring gross motor skills, fine motor skills and bilateral coordination skills of the students. The obtained data were analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA).
    Results
    MANCOVA results indicated a significant difference between the gross motor skills, fine motor skills and bilateral coordination skills in the experimental group, following the intervention (P<0.0001).
    Discussion
    Motor therapy improved motor skills and bilateral coordination skills of students with ID. Therefore, taking motor therapy could have positive impacts on the motor skills and bilateral coordination skills of students with ID.
    Keywords: Motor, Motor skills, Intellectual disability
  • Faeze Seyedi , Mansour Fathi , Asghar Dadkhah , Seyed Hossein Mohaqeqi Kamal *, Pouria Rezasoltani Pages 339-346
    Objectives
    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of social group work interventions with cognitive behavioral approach on social competence in physically disabled adolescents.
    Methods
    This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test and control group design. The statistical population included physically disabled adolescents aged 13-18 years who were referred to the Center of Rehabilitation and Vocational Training in Sanandaj City, Iran, to participate in educational programs. To this end, 30 physically disabled adolescents were selected based on inclusion criteria and were divided into 2 matching groups (intervention and control). Social competence questionnaire was completed by both groups at the beginning and at the end of training. The intervention group was trained for 8 weeks in terms of social competence, whereas the control group received no special training. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS. The Chi-square, Independent samples t-test, and Paired t test were used to verify the study assumptions.
    Results
    Comparing the intervention group with the controls before and after training reveled that teaching patients with cognitive behavioral strategies had a significant impact on increasing their social competence (Mean±SD, 181.66±17.88 versus 120.93±10.47; P=0.0001) and its dimensions (cognitive, behavioral, emotional and motivational) of the former group.
    Discussion
    It seems that one of the efficient methods to increase social competence among physically disabled adolescents is cognitive behavioral therapy within the social group work. Thus, coaches and teachers of this group are recommended to use this method, to increase their social competence and subsequently increasing their presence in public areas.
    Keywords: Disabled persons, Adolescents, Social work, Social competence, Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Zahra Mohamadi, Nahid Jalilevand*, Masoud Roudbari , Azar Mehri Pages 347-352
     
    Objectives
    Based on recent studies, verb naming is more impaired than noun naming in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD). Noun and verb retrieval problems has been well documented in patients with cortical damage. To explore the possible contribution of cortex and subcortex areas in word finding test performance, we studied verb and object naming in patients with cortical and subcortical lesions.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, object and verb naming were examined in two patient groups, including patients with PD and patients with cortical stroke. The healthy control group was also matched on age and education with the patients. The non-parametric tests were performed to investigate the obtained data.
    Results
    Both the PD patients and patients with cortical stroke presented a significant impairment in their capacity to name objects and verbs, compared to the healthy controls (P<0.05). Both patient groups did not statistically perform differently on these tasks (P>0.05). There was also a significant difference between verb naming and object naming in both patient groups (P<0.001).
    Discussion
    The similarity between two patient groups and the difference between them and healthy individuals in language output, can denote the role of both cortical regions and basal ganglia in the language processing.
    Keywords: Naming, Object naming, Parkinson Disease, Cortical stroke, Basal Ganglia
  • Naser Havaei , Akram Azad *, Mehdi Alizadeh, Zarei , Abbas Ebadi Pages 353-359
     
    Objectives
    Handwriting problems are among the most frequent reasons for case referrals to school-based occupational therapy centers. Persian Handwriting Assessment Tool (PHAT) is a valid tool available in Iran to evaluate handwriting components in school-aged children. However, its reliability has not been investigated yet. This study aimed to determine the reliability of the PHAT in Iranian primary school-aged children.
    Methods
    The current methodological study was performed in Tehran city, Iran during 2015-2016. In total, 208 primary school-aged students participated in this study that aimed to investigate the internal consistency of the PHAT. Forty-eight students were also recruited to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the PHAT. Selection of the schools and sampling were conducted using the random cluster sampling method.
    Results
    Results suggested good to excellent internal consistency (α=0.84 to 0.99) for the measures of PHAT in dictation and copying domains. Intra-rater reliability of the PHAT ranged from 0.87 to 1.00. Furthermore, PHAT inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.7-1.00.
    Discussion
    The PHAT is a reliable tool to evaluate handwriting components in primary school-aged children. It can also be useful for Iranian therapists to identify primary school students with handwriting problems.
    Keywords: Educational assessment, Handwriting, Primary schools, Reliability
  • Mohammad Lalehgani Dezaki , Gholamreza GhaedaminHarouni *, Sina Ahmadi , Meroe Vameghi , Homeira Sajjadi , Mansoore Ghafari Pages 361-369
    Objectives
    Disability occurs as a sudden and unexpected incident, and coping with it depends on the conditions and lifestyle, the remaining abilities, cooperation of other family members, and the role of rehabilitation team. Rehabilitation work includes medical, professional and social rehabilitation teams. The family is also defined as an essential member of the social rehabilitation team. The present study aimed to assess the quality of life of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities, as an important member of the social rehabilitation team.
    Methods
    In this analytical and descriptive study, statistical population consisted of all Mothers of Mentally Retarded Children (MMRC) (educable, trainable and isolated), and Mothers of Children with Normal Intelligence (MCNI) in Shahr-e-Kord City, Iran. Total sample size was considered to be 306. For gathering data, the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument, validated in Iran, and for analyzing the data 1-way ANOVA, linear regression and discriminant analysis were used.
    Results
    In terms of all quality of life dimensions and total score, there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.001) and MCNI group scored higher compared to MMRC group. The greatest difference between the two groups was related to physical function (effect size=40.7%), and the least was related to limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems (effect size=30.9%).
    Discussion
    Mothers are an important mediator in providing rehabilitation services (secondary or tertiary prevention) to their children. Once their roles are neglected in the rehabilitation team work, the secondary and tertiary prevention activities for the disabled child will not be effective, and in the near future, mothers will be among the most vulnerable groups requiring rehabilitation services. Therefore, during the provision of secondary and tertiary prevention services for children, mothers’ health status should also be monitored for the purpose of primary prevention.
    Keywords: Social rehabilitation team, Mothers’ health-related quality of life, Children with intellectual disability, Burden of care
  • Peyman Zamani , Ebtesam Hozeily, Neda Tahmasebi *, Akram Ahmadi , Negin Moradi Pages 371-377
     
    Objectives
    Learning disabilities can cause serious communication and socio-emotional disorders in students. Teachers, as specialists who are in direct contact with students on a daily basis, have an important role in identifying and referring students suspected of these disabilities. Therefore, this study investigated the role of primary school teachers’ awareness and attitude about the signs and symptoms of learning disabilities on the referral of students of Ahvaz City, Iran to speech therapy centers.
    Methods
    This case-control study was conducted on 165 elementary school teachers in Ahvaz in 2016-2017. The teacher’s awareness questionnaire was used to determine the teachers’ awareness level. A logistic regression test was used to explore the role of teachers’ attributes on the referral of students to speech therapies.
    Results
    The mean total score of teachers’ awareness about students’ learning disabilities was significantly different in the case and control groups (P<0.05). Teachers’ awareness scores had a direct and significant relationship with working experience (P<0.05) and participation in educational workshops (P<0.05). However, there was no significant relationship between the teachers’ awareness score with age and gender (P>0.05).
    Discussion
    Teaching experience, educational level, history of participation in educational workshops and the teachers’ awareness of learning disabilities are critical factors in referring students to speech therapy centers. It is recommended that teachers participate in workshops at regular intervals to update their knowledge on this topic
    Keywords: Learning disabilities, Teachers’ awareness, Speech therapy
  • Maryam Ramshini , Saeid Hassanzadeh *, Goholamali Afrooz , Hadi Hashemi Razini Pages 379-386
     
    Objectives
    Parents of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children often have a negative attitude towards themselves. They are often negatively affected by these challenges and the failure of their children. Thus, their interaction with their children is negatively influenced. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of family-centered nature therapy on the interaction of parents with their children.
    Methods
    The present research was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design and a control group. Statistical population included all ASD children aged 3-7 years in Tehran city, Iran. A sample of 14 children with ASD were selected through convenience sampling method. The subjects were non-randomly assigned into either the experimental or control groups. The necessary data were collected through Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) and the program of nature therapy developed on the basis of the current theoretical frameworks and research findings. The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).
    Results
    The obtained results suggested that the Mean±SD score of experimental group on PCRS after the treatment was 100.14±11.82. While the Mean±SD score of the control group was 84.14±3.93. Moreover, the results of the statistical tests revealed that the difference between the experimental and control groups was statistically significant, indicating that the family-centered nature therapy was effective in improving the parents’ interactions with their ASD children. In addition, the ANCOVA results indicated that the estimated F (13.32) was statistically significant at P=0.001, indicating that the treatment had a positive effect on the dependent variable.
    Discussion
    Family-centered nature therapy was effective in improving the parents’ relationship with their children. The ASD children had fewer conflicts with their parents, enjoyed a positive relationship with their parents, and showed lower dependence on their parents after receiving the treatment. Therefore, this therapy can be a complementary method along with other standard treatments received by ASD children. It is an effective, simple and readily accessible option to improve the interaction of parents with their ASD children
    Keywords: Autism, Family-centered, Eco therapy
  • Hossein Sourtiji , Mehdi Rassafiani , Seyed Ali Hosseini *, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh , Mehdi Noroozi Pages 387-394
     
    Objectives
    Time-use has become an important field of research in social and medical sciences. Time diary is the most popular method for measuring time-use that has 2 different methods of administration including yesterday and tomorrow diary. The present study aimed to compare these methods of measuring time-use.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 256 under 5-year-old healthy children that were selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in 2017. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman correlation coefficient, 2-way ANOVA, Independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U Test.
    Results
    Participants spent 1476.23 min/d on aggregate daily occupations, according to the yesterday-diary estimate, and 1492.14 min/d according to the tomorrow-diary. In one area of occupation, the yesterday and tomorrow diary estimates differed slightly. Two-way ANOVA found no significant interaction between diary method and age category (F5,234=1.222, P=0.300) and no significant main effect of diary method (F1,234 =0.830). While, the ANOVA revealed a significant main effect for age category (F5,234=4.91, P=0.00). There were no significant mean differences in the number of occupational repertoires between the participants of yesterday and tomorrow diary groups. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the number of verbatim of the two groups.
    Discussion
    The findings of our study indicated no difference between yesterday and tomorrow diaries estimates in terms of measuring under 5-year-old children’s time-use
    Keywords: Time-use, Yesterday-diary, Tomorrow-diary, Children
  • Alireza Karimpour Vazifehkhorani , Mansoureh Karimzadeh , Mohsen Poursadeghiyan , Fatemeh Rahmati, Najarkolaei * Pages 395-403
     
    Objectives
    The present study investigated the role of psychoeducation in improving mental health literacy and adaptation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Methods
    The present study was an interventional study with pre-test, post-test and follow-up design with a control group. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes who referred to Iran Hospital. Based on the research method and considering the missing data, a sample size of 80 people was considered. In total, 40 patients were selected as the intervention group and 40 subjects as the controls by purposeful sampling method. The subjects were randomly assigned into the two groups. The obtained data were collected by O’Connere and Casey’s mental health literacy questionnaire and psychosocial compatibility questionnaire of Moro and colleagues. The purpose of psychological education in this study, which was used as the intervention, was Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Training was performed in a group format. Therapeutic sessions were 11 one-hour sessions.
    Results
    The obtained results suggested that the effect of intervention in the post-test phase was 57% on mental health literacy and 48% in follow-up. In addition, the effect of intervention on adjustment in the post-test phase was 39%, and in the follow-up phase 38%.
    Discussion
    Psychological trainings like CBT can predict the information that is more important in diabetes self-management. Increasing the mental health literacy rate for psychiatric disorders associated with type 2 diabetes, improves compatibility, which will improve the quality of life and lifestyle of people with type 2 diabetes
    Keywords: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Adjustment to illness, Mental health literacy, Type 2 diabetes
  • Fahimeh Imankhah *, Abbas Ali Hossein Khanzadeh , Ahya Hasirchaman Pages 405-412
     
    Objectives
    Motor skills play an important role in language, play, academic and adaptive behaviors of individuals. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of music therapy along with play therapy in rising motor coordination of children with autism.
    Methods
    In this quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design, Autism Evaluation Scale and Motor Development Scale were administered to 30 randomly selected male students with autism spectrum disorder aged between 6 and 11 years before and after the intervention. The experimental group attended 15 sessions (each lasted 60 minutes), twice a week and were trained by music therapy along with play therapy program. However, the control group did not receive such programs. One-way analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data.
    Results
    There was a significant difference (P<0.001) between the experimental and control groups after applying music therapy along with play therapy.
    Discussion
    Considering the problems with autism in motor coordination, applying music therapy along with play therapy is necessary for rehabilitating these children. Implications of these results are useful for planning intervention strategies to decrease motor problems in this population.
    Keywords: Music therapy, Play therapy, Motor coordination, Autism
  • Samira Boroumand , Afsoon Hassani Mehraban* Pages 413-422
     
    Objectives
    Virtual reality is a new technology that has been recently used for different purposes in the rehabilitation of children. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of this method in balance rehabilitation of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP).
    Methods
    This was an A-B-A design single subject study in which 3 children with hemiplegic CP participated. The baseline phase and intervention phase, lasted 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Then, the secondary evaluation phase was held at an evaluation session. Intervention sessions as the baseline phase were repeated 3 times a week. In each session, children performed different computer games with displacement of the center of pressure in frontal and sagittal planes (for 21 min). The secondary evaluation phase of this study was held 2 to 3 months after the completion of the intervention phase. The changes made in this study were evaluated by assessment tools of Pediatric Reach Test (PRT), Single Limb Stance (SLS), Plate sensitive to pressure of Biometrics Ltd E-LINK force plate, and Activity Scale for Kids (ASK). Finally, the results were evaluated by C static and the visual analysis method.
    Results
    Comparison of the results of PRT, ASK and the evaluation of planes sensitive to pressure of Biometrics Ltd E-LINK in all 3 phases revealed the significant improvement of dynamic balance and the enhancement of the independence performance of children in daily living activities and the sustainability of the recovery in the secondary evaluation phase. Although, the SLS test results and data of force Plate indicated no significant improvements in the static balance of patients.
    Discussion
    The study results suggest that weight shift exercises with the use of virtual reality can effectively improve the dynamic balance of children with CP. However, it fails to make a significant change in the static balance of these children.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Postural balance, Weight shift, Cerebral palsy, Hemipleg
  • Nastaran Habibi , Mahboobe Firoozkoohi Moghaddam , Elham Salari , Nasrin Dodangi , Ramin Radfar , Mandana Sadeghi , Hamed Bahari , Mona Eslami , Alireza Noroozi , Omid Massah , Elaheh Ahounbar *, Ali Farhoudian Pages 425-432

    Millions of children are left to survive on the streets around the world. Investigations on drug use disorders among street children reveal that they not only abuse all types of drugs higher than their peers who live at home or in shelters, but also they abuse more harmful drugs such as injection drugs or methamphetamines. This guideline provides a comprehensive approach to the treatment and management of substance use disorders among children of 3 to 18 years of age for the staff of substance use disorder clinics. It highlights examples of how to perceive and approach the management and issues of substance abuse among street children at an early stage of development through various medical, psycho-social, and other interventions. It also defines the characteristics of the street children with a focus on prevention. These provisions consist of addressing the applicability matters in this area and necessity of a decision model in our country.
    Keywords: Therapeutic interventions, Street children, Substance use disorders