فهرست مطالب

Basic Medical Sciences - Volume:22 Issue: 3, 2019
  • Volume:22 Issue: 3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Abbas Shapouri, Moghaddam , Mohammad Hadi Saeed modaghegh, Hamid reza Rahimi, Seyyed, Morteza Ehteshamfar, Jalil Tavakolafshari * Pages 215-224
    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a thrombotic-occlusive as well as an inflammatory peripheral vascular disease with unknown etiology. Recent evidence has supported the immunopathogenesis of the disease, however, the factors contributing to the altered immune function and vascular tissue inflammation are still unclear. This review was intended to collate the more current knowledge on the regulatory molecules involved in TAO from an immunoreactive perspective. The homeostasis of the immune system as well as a variety of progenitor cell populations appear to be affected during TAO and these alterations are associated with intrinsic signaling defects that are directing to an improved understanding of the crosstalk between angiogenesis and the immune system, as well as the potential of new co-targeting strategies applying both immunotherapy and angiogenic therapy.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis, Immune system, Molecular biology, Signal pathways, Thromboangiitis obliterans
  • Niloofar Kahkeshani , Fatemeh Farzaei, Maryam Fotouhi, Seyedeh Shaghayegh Alavi, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Rozita Naseri, Saeideh Momtaz, Zahra Abbasabadi, Roja Rahimi , Mohammad Hosein Farzaei *, Anupam Bishayee Pages 225-237
    Objective(s)
    Gallic acid is a natural phenolic compound found in several fruits and medicinal plants. It is reported to have several health-promoting effects. This review aims to summarize the pharmacological and biological activities of gallic acid in vitro and animal models to depict the pharmacological status of this compound for future studies.
    Materials and Methods
    All relevant papers in the English language were collected up to June 2018. The keywords of gallic acid, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, gastrointestinal-, cardiovascular-, metabolic-, neuropsychological-, and miscellaneous- diseases were searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus.
    Results
    Several beneficial effects are reported for gallic acid, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. This compound has been reported to have therapeutic activities in gastrointestinal, neuropsychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders.
    Conclusion
    Current evidence confirms the pharmacological and therapeutic interventions of gallic acid in multiple health complications; however, available data are limited to just cellular and animal studies. Future investigations are essential to further define the safety and therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid in humans.
    Keywords: Anticancer, Antioxidant, Gallic acid, Health benefits, Pharmacological effects
  • Mehdi Goudarzi *, Gita Eslami, Razieh Rezaee, Mohsen Heidary, saeed khoshnood, Raheleh Sajadi Nia Pages 238-245
    Objective(s)
    In the current research, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus clones and genes encoding antimicrobial resistance and toxins were examined among 120 S. aureus strains from nosocomial infections in tehran, Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined, based on disk diffusion and PCR method to identify resistance and toxin-encoding genes. Based on the polymorphisms in SCCmec, agr, spa, and MLST, the isolates were typed.
    Results
    Among 120 S. aureus isolates, 85 (70.8%) were methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 35 (29.2%) were methicilin sensetive S. aureus (MSSA). The tested isolates contained resistance genes, including ant(4΄)-Ia (90%), aac(6΄)-Ie/aph(2˝) (80%), aph(3΄)-IIIa (30%), erm(A) (26.7%), erm(B) (10.8%), erm(C) (11.7%), msr(A) (40.8%), msr(B) (14.2%), tet(M) (45.8%), and mupA (8.3%). The MRSA strains were clustered into six different clones. The most common genotypes included ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (23.3%), ST239-SCCmec III/t388 (22.5%), ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (8.3%), ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (7.5%), ST585-SCCmec III/t713 (5%), and ST239-SCCmec III/t924 (4.2%), respectively. ST182/t196 (8.3%) and ST123/t171 (5%) belonged exclusively to MSSA strains. Overall, 10 (66.7%) and 5 (33.3%) out of 15 isolates with pvl genes were attributed to clones ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 and ST15-SCCmec IV/t084, respectively. ST22-SCCmec IV/t790, ST239-SCCmec III/t037, and ST15-SCCmec IV/t084, were related to high-level mupirocin-resistant phenotypes.
    Conclusion
    The genetic diversity of S. aureus was confirmed in our hospitals, and ST239-SCCmec III/t037 showed a relatively high prevalence in our study. It seems that assessment of resistance and virulence genes in different S. aureus molecular types is necessary for proper antibiotic consumption.
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, SCCmec, agr, MLST, MRSA, spa
  • Effat Ramshini , Hojjat allah Alaei *, Parham Reisi, naser Naghdi, Hossein Afrozi, Samaneh Alaei, Maryam Alehashem, Shahrzad Eftekharvaghefi Pages 246-250
    Objective(s)
    Many studies have focused on ventral tegmental area than of other mesocorticolimbic areas, and implicated a key role for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the development of addictive behaviors. So far, the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the discriminative properties of morphine has received little attention and few studies evaluated the role of these receptors in drug dependence. Hence, we investigated the role of this receptor on morphine- induced GABA/ glutamate (GLU) changes in the mPFC following morphine administration using in vivo microdialysis.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, 60 rats weighing 270-300 g were divided into six groups. First, microdialysis probe was inserted into the mPFC and was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid and collected the baseline samples in all groups. In saline and morphine groups, the saline, in phaclophen and (phaclofen+morphine) groups, phaclofen (100 nmol), and in bicuculline and (bicuculline+morphine) groups, bicuculline (20 nmol) was injected intracerebroventricular. In saline, phaclofen and bicuculline groups 20 min later, animals received saline (0.2 ml, IP) and others groups received morphine (20 mg/kg, IP).
    Results
    Our results showed that morphine increased the average concentration of GABA and decreased the concentration of GLU within mPFC. Pretreatment with phaclofen and bicuculline 20 min before morphine administration had no effect on GABA and GLU release for 100 min.
    Conclusion
    The present study indicated that morphine influence the GABA and GLU transmission in mPFC. Therefore evaluation of neurochemistry changes of this neural circuitry may provide further insight into the mechanisms underlying drug dependence.
    Keywords: Addiction, GABA-A receptor antagonists GABA-B receptor antagonists Morphine Prefrontal cortex
  • Hai, Xia Liu , Jin Li, Qi, Xiong Li* Pages 251-254
    Objective(s)
    Doxorubicin (DXR)-induces glomerular atrophy and fibrosis in rat kidneys. The objective of the current study was to investigate the protective effects of valsartan on DXR-induced glomerular toxicity and its mechanisms of actions in rats.
    Materials and Methods
    Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups, and each group contains ten rats. First group was control and was treated with saline only. Treatment groups were injected with DXR (6.5 mg/kg) alone, or intragastric gavage with 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of valsartan after DXR treatment.
    Results
    Rats treated with DXR only showed significant changes in concentrations of urinary protein, serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Moreover, glomerular structural damages were observed in rats treated with DXR. Valsartan significantly alleviated the effect of DXR. Dramatic elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and significant reductions in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) were seen after DXR treatment. These effects were effectively ameliorated by co-administration with valsartan.
    Conclusion
    The findings of our study indicate that valsartan may play an important role in protecting DXR-induced renal toxicity, at least in part, through its antioxidant properties.
    Keywords: Antioxidants, Doxorubicin, Histopathology, Nephrotoxicity, Valsartan
  • Mahsa Kaveh , Naeima Eftekhar, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady* Pages 255-261
    Objective(s)
    The effects of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) on tracheal responsiveness (TR), total protein (TP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon gamma (INF-γ) level and INF-γ/IL4 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of sensitized rats were examined.
    Materials and Methods
    TR to methacholine and ovalbumin (OA), BALF levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE as well as IL-4, INF-γ and INF-γ/IL4 ratio were measured in control group (non-sensitized, group C), sensitized rats to OA (group S), S groups treated with two concentrations of ALA and dexamethasone group.
    Results
    TR to methacholine and OA, BALF levels of TP, PLA2, IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased but BALF level of INF-γ and INF-γ/IL4 ratio decreased in group S compared to group C (P
    Conclusion
    Results showed an immune modulatory effect of the ALA that increased INF-γ, INF-γ/IL4 ratio (as an index of Th1/Th2) and decreased IL-4 in sensitized rats. ALA also showed preventive effect on inflammatory markers and tracheal responsiveness in sensitized animals comparable to the effect of dexamethasone.
    Keywords: Asthma, Alpha linolenic acid, Inflammatory markers, Sensitized rats, Th1-Th2 balance, Tracheal responsiveness
  • Fang, Fang Mo, Hai, Xia Liu, Yi Zhang, Jing Hua, Dan, Dan Zhao, Tian An, Dong, Wei Zhang, Tian Tian, Sihua Gao * Pages 262-266
    Objective(s)
    JiangTangXiaoKe (JTXK) granule, a Chinese traditional herbal formula, has been clinically used and demonstrated to be beneficial in controlling high glucose and to relieve the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for decades. In this study, we explored how loganin, one of the components in JTXK granule, mediated the anti-diabetic effect.
    Materials and Methods
    We generate a cell model with the dysfunction of insulin secretion by over-expression FOXO1 in INS-1 cells. MTT method was used to detect cytotoxicity after treated with Loganin. ELISA analysis was used to examine insulin secretion. The expression levels of FOXO1 and Akt were evaluated by Western blot.
    Results
    Treatment with Loganin did not change the expression level of FOXO1 in INS-1 cells, but increased phosphorylation of FOXO1 and inhibited the nuclear translocation and accumulation of FOXO1, which improved the insulin secretion of the cells. Mechanistically, we found PI3K/Akt signaling pathway involved in these effects, which were blocked by an Akt inhibitor, LY294002.
    Conclusion
    Loganin mediated the subcellular distribution of FOXO1 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which protected the function of insulin secretion in islet INS-1 cells.
    Keywords: Akt pathway, Factor forkhead box O1-(FOXO1), INS-1 cells, Loganin, Pancreatic ?-cell
  • Hussein Hussein , Ali Moghimi *, Ali Roohbakhsh Pages 267-276
    Objective(s)
    Pioglitazone (PGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, has significant neuroprotective effects and has been reported to regulate inflammatory processes.
    Materials and Methods
    We evaluated the effects of PGZ on febrile seizure (FS) in rat pups. Three groups of male rat pups received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of PGZ (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and kainic acid (KA) were injected to induce FS. The rat pups behaviors were recorded and analyzed. Seizure latency, duration, and severity were recorded to evaluate the effect of PGZ on FS. Novel object recognition task (NORT) was used to evaluate the effect of PGZ on cognitive deficits induced by FS. At the end of the experimental protocol, molecular and histological tests were done.
    Results
    PGZ significantly increased seizure latency and decreased seizure duration and median of seizure scores (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.001) after induction of FS. Rat pups exposed to FS had memory deficits both in short-term and long-term memories in the NORT that were reversed by PGZ-treatment (P<0.01 and P<0.001). PGZ significantly reduced interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase concentration in the hippocampus (P<0.05 and P<0.01). In addition, PGZ decreased the number of degenerating and TUNEL positive neurons in CA1, CA3, and DG subfields of the hippocampus (P< 0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The present results indicated that PGZ had anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects with ameliorative effects on cognitive deficits induced by FS in rat pups.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Febrile seizure, Hippocampus, Inflammation, Memory, Pioglitazone
  • Ghaidafeh Akbari , Seyyed Ali Mard *, Mahin Dianat Pages 277-281
    Objective(s)
    This research aimed to test the impact of liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) insult on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, functional enzymes, histological, and hemodynamic parameters of heart, as well as protective function of crocin on these variables in rats.
    Materials and Methods
    Thirty two rats were randomly assigned into 4 experimental groups (8 rats in each). I: sham-operated, II: IR induction, III: Crocin alone, and IV: Crocin+IR induction. Groups I and III received normal saline at 2 ml per day and crocin at 200 mg per kg on a daily basis for a week via intraperitoneally injection. Afterwards, laparotomy was performed. Groups II and IV was also received normal saline and crocin and then experienced a 45 min ischemia followed by 1 hr reperfusion. Tissue samples of heart and blood were taken to use for further microscopic and laboratories analysis. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by tail cuff method.
    Results
    Findings indicated that crocin dramatically elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and attenuated serum concentrations of hepatic and cardiac enzymes. Crocin also inhibited histopathological disarrangements, and modulated hemodynamic parameters beyond IR-induced hepatic insult.
    Conclusion
    Current experiment indicated that crocin has potential cardioprotective action following hepatic I/R-induced damage. Therefore, it can be administered before elective hepatic surgeries.
    Keywords: Crocin, Heart, Hemodynamic parameters, Ischemia-Reperfusion, Liver
  • Mahdi Hatamipour , Amirhossein Sahebkar , Seyedeh Hoda Alavizadeh , Mahyar Dorri , Mahmoud Reza Jaafari* Pages 282-289
    Objective(s)
    Curcuminoids, comprising curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), are bioactive phytochemicals with numerous pharmacological effects. Oral biological availability of curcuminoids is low due to the low aqueous solubility and rapid metabolism. This study aimed at fabricating a nanomicellar curcuminoid formula with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties.
    Materials and Methods
    Curcuminoids nanomicelles were prepared and characterized regarding particle properties, stability, release profile and pharmacokinetic parameters.
    Results
    Encapsulation efficiency of curcuminoids in nanomicelles were 100%. Particle size analysis demonstrated a mean size of around 10 nm that remained stable for 24 months. Dissolution test showed the complete dissolution of encapsulated curcuminoids from nanomicelles within 20 min while the free curcuminoids were poorly dissolved (approximately 7% after 60 min). The results of long-term (24 months) and accelerated (6 months) stability studies showed no changes in the size and content of nanomicelles. The release studies in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) showed no release of curcuminoids for at least 4 hours. In vivo study in BALB/c mice showed improved pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach the maximum concentration (Tmax) with nanomicelles as compared to free curcuminoids and two other commercial products. Tmax for all the three curcuminoid components was observed 30 min following oral administration. AUC of nanomicellar curcuminoids was 59.2 times more than free curcuminoids.
    Conclusion
    These data indicated that nanomicelles could improve solubility, oral bioavailability and also the stability of curcuminoids. Thus, they merit further investigation for enhancing pharmacological effects of curcuminoids.
    Keywords: Biological availability, Curcuminoid, Drug stability, Micelle, Pharmacokinetics
  • Golnar Rahimzadeh , Pooria Gill, Mohammad Sadegh Rezai* Pages 290-295
    Objective(s)
    During the last years with increasing resistant bacteria to the most antibiotics bacteriophages are suggested as appropriate treatment option. To investigate lytic activity of bacteriophages there are indirect microbial procedures and direct methods. The present study to complement microbial procedures and investigate ultra-structural characteristics of infection bacterium-phage use atomic force microscopy technique.
    Materials and Methods
    The Siphoviridae bacteriophages were isolated from sewage at the Tertiary Pediatric Hospital. Bacteriophages (10×108 PFU/ml) were diluted and were mixed with 100 μl of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 (1.5×108 CFU/ml). The tubes were incubated for 20 min at 37 °C, at intervals 10 min, 10 μl samples were removed and directly were investigated MRSA ATCC morphology, roughness parameter, 3D topography, cell height, and fast Fourier transform (FFT) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Concurrently turbidity assay were performed.
    Results
    Concentration of MRSA ATCC No. 33591 strain after 10 min in phage-treated MRSA S3 (1.5×106 CFU/ml), S4 (1.5×105 CFU/ml), S5 (1.5×104 CFU/ml), S6 (1.5×103 CFU/ml) decreased 2-log, 3-log, 4-log, and 5-log respectively. The results AFM micrographs shown the most changes in bacterial morphology and 3D topography, destruction of cell wall, decrease of cell height, and loss of their shape after 10 min at phage-treated MRSA S3 (1.5×106 CFU/ml), S4 (1.5×105 CFU/ml), S5 (1.5×104 CFU/ml), S6 (1.5×103 CFU/ml) respectively .
    Conclusion
    In this study MRSA ATCC ultra-structural changes in phage-treated MRSA ATCC groups directly were detected using AFM technique.
    Keywords: AFM, Bacteriophages, Lytic activity, MRSA, 3D Topography
  • Yiping Lin , Yanli Wei, Xiaoxia Hu, Mei, Ling Wu, Jingchan Yao, Xiaoqian Ying, Xiaoyan Fu, Mingxing Ding, Liman Qiao* Pages 296-301
    Objective(s)
    In this study, a cocktail of probe drugs was used to assess whether lentinan could influence the activities of rat enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 in vivo.
    Materials and Methods
    Fourteen days after intraperitoneal injection of lentinan, rats were given an oral dose of a cocktail solution containing phenacetin, tolbutamide, omeprazole, metoprolol, and midazolam. Then, we obtained blood in specific durations for the determination of plasma concentration of the probe drugs using UPLC-MS/MS. We also evaluated the pharmacokinetic parameters using the DAS 2.0 software.
    Results
    We found that various concentrations of lentinan increased the activity of rat CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 but not CYP2C9.
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that clinical application of lentinan combination with CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, or CYP2D6 should be given careful consideration as this may lead to herb-drug interactions and hence treatment failure.
    Keywords: Cocktail, CYP, Herb-drug interaction, Lentinan, Probe drug
  • Mohammad Doosti , Mohammadreza Nassiri *, Khadijeh Nasiri , Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, saeed Zibaee Pages 302-309
    Objective(s)
    The results of studies on vaccine development for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus show that the use of inactivated vaccines for FMD virus is not completely effective. Novel vaccinations based on immuno-dominant epitopes have been shown to induce immune responses. Furthermore, for safety of immunization, access to efficient adjuvants against FMD virus seems to be critical.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, we produced epitope recombinant vaccines from the VP1 protein of the FMD virus for serotype O of Iran. Constructs were included polytope (tandem-repeat multiple-epitope), polytope coupled with interleukin-2 (polytope-IL 2) as a molecular adjuvant and IL-2. Three expression vectors were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). To evaluate whether these recombinant vaccines induce immune responses, BALB/c mice were injected with the recombinant vaccines and their immune responses were compared with a negative control group. The humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by ELISA.
    Results
    The results showed that IL-2 co-expressed or co-inoculated with Polytope protein enhances the immune effect of multiple epitope recombinant vaccine against FMD virus. The results of total immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgG2a levels and secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-4 and IL-10 revealed that there were significant differences between negative control group and other injected mice with the recombinant vaccines (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Observations indicated that the epitope recombinant plasmid of the VP1 protein co-expressed or co-inoculated with IL-2 was effective in inducing an enhanced immune response. Therefore, IL-2 can be recommended as a potential adjuvant for epitope recombinant vaccine of the VP1 protein from FMD virus.
    Keywords: Adjuvant, Foot-and-mouth disease-virus, Immune response Interleukin-2, VP1 protein
  • Neriman G?züaç?k , Asl? Zengin Türkmen, Asiye Nurten, Nurhan Enginar * Pages 310-314
    Objective(s)
    Fasted rodents treated with antimuscarinics develop convulsions after refeeding. Food deprivation for 48 hr produces changes in [3H]glutamate binding suggesting glutamatergic contribution to the underlying mechanism of the seizures that are somewhat unresponsive to antiepileptics. Studies in animals and epileptic patients yielded considerable information regarding the anticonvulsant effect of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of ketamine and its combinations with valproate and carbamazepine on convulsions in fasted animals.
    Materials and Methods
    Following 24 hr of fasting, mice were given saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg ketamine, 250 mg/kg sodium valproate, 24 mg/kg carbamazepine, 5 mg/kg ketamine+sodium valproate, or 5 mg/kg ketamine+carbamazepine and then were treated with saline or 2.4 mg/kg atropine (5-9 mice per group). The animals were observed for the occurrence of convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum.
    Results
    Ketamine, valproate and carbamazepine pretreatments were ineffective in preventing the convulsions developed after atropine treatment and food intake in fasted animals. The incidence of convulsions was significantly higher in 5 and 10 mg/kg ketamine, carbamazepine, and carbamazepine+ketamine groups, but not in the valproate and valproate+ketamine treated animals.
    Conclusion
    In contrast to previous findings obtained with the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), ketamine lacks activity against convulsions developed after fasting. The drug does not enhance the efficacy of valproate and carbamazepine either. Using different doses of ketamine or other NMDA antagonists, further studies may better clarify the anticonvulsant effect of ketamine and/or role of glutamate in these seizures.
    Keywords: Atropine, Carbamazepine, Convulsion, fasting, Glutamate, Ketamine, Valproate
  • Soheila Alboghobeish , Masoud Mahdavinia *, Leila Zeidooni, Azin Samimi, Ali Akbar Oroojan , Saeid Alizadeh, Mohammad Amin Dehghani , Akram Ahangarpour , Layasadat Khorsandi Pages 315-323
    Objective(s)
    Bisphenol A (BPA) as a synthetic compound is applied in many plastic industries. BPA has been reported to have endocrine-disrupting feature with cytotoxic effects. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Naringin against testicular toxicity induced by BPA in adult rats.
    Materials and Methods
    The animals were assigned into six groups of control, BPA-treated (50 mg/kg), BPA+Naringin-administrated (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) and Naringin-treated (160 mg/kg) for 30 days. At the end of experiments, testicular weight, total testicular protein, epididymal sperm count, testicular enzymes, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol, testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathology of testis tissue were evaluated by their own methods.
    Results
    The results showed a reduction in testicular weight, total testicular protein, epididymal sperm count, testicular enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) and decrease in the serum TSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol in BPA-administrated rats. Furthermore, BPA reduced the enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in testis tissue. Also, BPA caused an induction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reactive oxygen species levels, whereas it decreased the glutathione content of testis tissue. Histological findings exhibited seminiferous tubules vacuoles, atrophy and separation of the germinal epithelium in BPA-administrated rats. Oral administration of Naringin along with BPA normalized the biochemical, morphological and histological changes and reduced the testicular toxic condition.
    Conclusion
    These results demonstrated that Naringin significantly managed male reproductive toxicity by antioxidant capabilities, preventing morphological modifications and escalating defense mechanism, thereby reducing oxidative stress from BPA-induced damage.
    Keywords: Bisphenol A, Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Naringin, Oxidative stress, Testicular toxicity
  • Gallegos Martha Patricia *, Guillermo Moisés Z??iga, Gonz?lez , Karen G?mez, Mariscal, M?nica Alejandra Rosales, Reynoso, Luis E Figuera, Ana Mar?a Puebla, Pérez, Tomas Pineda, Razo Pages 324-327
    Objective(s)
    The rs712 polymorphism in a let-7 microRNA-binding site at KRAS gene has been associated with cancer. To examine its association with rs712 polymorphism, we analyzed Mexican individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) and healthy subjects.
    Materials and Methods
    Genotyping of the rs712 polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction in 281 controls and 336 CRC patients.
    Results
    The observed frequencies of rs712 polymorphism indicated an associated protective factor for CRC (P=0.032). An association between genotype and the disease was evident in: colon localization (allele T, odds ratio (OR) 3.82, 95% confidence Intervals (CI) 2.77-5.28, P=0.0001), node metastasis (genotype TT, OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.45-4.28, P=0.0009), poor differentiation (genotype GT, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.35-4.1, P=0.0033), and poor chemotherapy response (genotype GT, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.7-4.24, P=0.0001).
    Conclusion
    Comparison of the data from patients with control group showed that polymorphism of rs712 in KRAS gene was protective factor, which was associated with susceptibility for CRC. However, the genotypes TT and GT of rs712 polymorphism in KRAS could contribute significantly to colon localization, node metastasis, poor differentiation and poor chemotherapy response in CRC patients in this sample population.
    Keywords: Colorectal cancer, KRAS, let-7, Mexican population, Polymorphism
  • Mohammad Taher Boroushaki , Sahar Fanoudi, Hamid Mollazadeh, Samaneh Boroumand, Noughabi, , Azar Hosseini* Pages 328-333
    Objective(s)
    Gentamicin belongs to the family of aminoglycoside antibiotics and is a preferred drug in developing countries because of its low cost, availability, and potent effects against bacterial. However, gentamicin can induce nephrotoxicity. In this research, hydroalcoholic extract of Rheum turkestanicum was used against gentamicin- induced nephrotoxicity. Rheum turkestanicum is used against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and in this study its effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats has been investigated.
    Materials and Methods
    The rats were placed into one of these groups: saline group, gentamicin group that received gentamicin 80 mg/kg/day for six days, and two treatment groups that received R. turkestanicum intraperitoneally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, 1 hr before gentamicin injections. Urine samples were collected at 24 hr to measure glucose and protein concentration. Blood samples were collected to determine serum urea and creatinine. One kidney was homogenized to measure malondialdehyde and thiol, and the other kidney was kept for pathological studies.
    Results
    Gentamicin increased the level of urinary glucose and protein, and increased malondialdehyde while it decreased thiol in kidney tissue, and increased the concentration of urea and creatinine in the serum. Histopathological pathology revealed renal damage following gentamicin usage; however, the extract was able to improve gentamicin toxicity.
    Conclusion
    R. turkestanicum has positive effects in the attenuation of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Keywords: Rheum turkestanicum, Gentamicin, Reactive Oxygen Species, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress