فهرست مطالب

Nutrition, Fasting and Health - Volume:6 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Majid Rezayi *, Seyedeh Zeynab Mousavian, Mohammad Safarian, Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Zahra Pasdar Pages 168-173
    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are plants or animals whose genetic make-up has been transformed by recombinant DNA technology, which has new features such as resistance to herbicides, virus and insect. Recently, genetic modification of food products has increased in order to reduce world poverty and hunger and increase food production However, the impact of GMOs on the human health is a growing concern worldwide. Due to increased global production of GMOs, the presence of these in food products need to be monitored and has been attended by many researchers recently. The quick, simple, accurate and sensitive detection methods for these products have attracted the attention. Electrochemical DNA biosensors as one of these fast methods are highly studied by many researchers due to their high sensitivity, low cost, rapid reaction and the possibility of working in aqueous solutions. The present review will focus on several studies on the detection of GMO based on electrochemical biosensors.
    Keywords: Genetically modified organisms, DNA biosensor, Electrochemical
  • Majid Ghayour, Mobarhan, Rahim Vakili, Mohammad Safarian, Monireh Dahri, Maral Amini, Mostafa Abrishami, Gordon Ferns, Mohsen Nematy* Pages 174-181
    Overweight and obesity has increased in prevalence over the last two decades in many developed and developing countries including Iran. The aim of this present study was to compare the weight reduction effects of ketogenic and low calorie diets on overweight and obese Iranian children. Seventy-six overweight or obese children aged 9-16 years recruited from outpatient Ghaem Hospital, Nutritional Clinic, were randomized into two groups: a low calorie diet (n=38), a ketogenic diet (n=38). Both groups were treated for three months and followed up weekly. Fasting lipid profiles, blood sugar, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, , and weight were measured. Body fat percentages were measured using Bioimpedance Analysis (Tanita body composition analyzer, BC-418, Japan) for all subjects’ in each visit. Both ketogenic and low caloric diets reduced obesity indices including body fat percentage and improved lipid profiles (P<0.05). Changes in body weight and BMI did not differ significantly between two groups (P>0.05). However, low caloric diet had more potential beneficial effect on body fat percentage and lipid profile than ketogenic diet (P<0.05).Results showed ketogenic diet did not have any remarkable effect on weight loss versus low caloric diet and it seems that both diets had similar effect on weight loss in overweight and obese children. This study revealed the low caloric diet had more potential beneficial effect on body fat percentage and lipid profile than ketogenic diet.
    Keywords: Ketogenic diet, Low calorie diet, Obesity, and Weight loss
  • Meisam Barati, Mahmood Alizadeh, sani, Hossein Safari, Samira Taghizadeh Jazdani, Reza Taghizadeh Jazdani * Pages 182-190
    Introduction
    Vitamin D deficiency is a major health problem, which is unexpectedly prevalent in Iran. The ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun are considered to be the foremost source of vitamin D in humans. In contrast, several environmental factors could decrease UV transmission to the earth, thereby reducing vitamin D absorption. Considering that the key role of environmental factors in vitamin deficiency has been neglected, the present study aimed to investigate the associations between environmental factors (e.g., geographical and air pollution parameters) with the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran.
    Methods
    The duration of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were extracted from the previous studies conducted in different cities in Iran, where vitamin D deficiency was reported. Afterwards, the environmental factors that were reported to affect sunlight transmission through the atmosphere were collected based on the place and time of vitamin D deficiency as mentioned in the reviewed studies via different geographic databases. The associations between the environmental factors and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were determined. In total, 35 studies were reviewed completely.
    Results
    The results indicated significant correlations between the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and some environmental factors (e.g., cloudy and clear days). However, no significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and other environmental factors, such as geographical parameters (e.g., sunshine, longitude, latitude, elevation, humidity, and temperature) and air pollution (e.g., number of days with dust and visibility of ≤2 km).
    Conclusion
    According to the results, there were significant associations between the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency andenvironmental factors, such as cloudy and clear days. Therefore, adequate exposure to sunlight for the absorption of vitamin D is strongly recommended.
    Keywords: Vitamin D, Prevalence, Air pollution, Environmental factors, Iran
  • Mohammad Safarian, Fahime Vafisani, Maryam Alinezhad, Namaghi, Zahra Asadi, Shirin Seyyed Hamzeh* Pages 191-197
    Introduction
    Food quality in hospitals plays a key role in the integrated program for the improvement of nutritional care in hospitals. Providing appropriate nutrition programs in the hospital setting is particularly challenging due to the diverse dietary needs of patients. The present study aimed to determine the influential factors in the satisfaction of patients with the food service in the hospitals in Mashhad, Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 patients in five wards of two major teaching hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Mashhad, Iran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire about hospital meals upon the discharge of the patients. The first assessment was conducted in Ghaem Hospital in 2010, and the next evaluation was performed in Ghaem Hospital and Imam Reza Hospital in 2016. The median length of hospital stay in the patients admitted in Ghaem Hospital and Imam Reza Hospital was 3.4 days. The questionnaire was completed by dieticians upon the discharge of the patients, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was estimated at 0.78.
    Results
    Overall patient satisfaction with hospital food services was significantly correlated with food temperature, quantity, taste, appearance, replacement meal, and diet compatibility. The rate of patient satisfaction was 60.8%, and the quality of food services in the selected hospitals was good or excellent.
    Conclusion
    Patient satisfaction with hospital food services plays a key role in evaluating the efficacy of the applied strategies. The results of this study could help dieticians focus on specific indicators in order to improve the food catering services and maximize patient satisfaction with hospital foods.
    Keywords: Food Service, Hospital, Patient Satisfaction
  • Fatemeh Ahmadi, Mohsen Nematy, Mojtaba Shafiee, Seyed Mostafa Arabi, Abdolreza Norouzy, Maryam Tayefi, Habibollah Esmaeili, Mohammad Hashemi* Pages 198-204
    Background
    Obesity is a common health problem associated with a number of diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, gout, gall bladder and liver disease, cancer, and depression. The prevalence of obesity is dramatically increasing around the world, especially in the Asia Pacific region. omega-3 is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have several beneficial effects on some diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, bipolar disorder and asthma. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to determine the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in subjects with different categories of BMI (healthy- weight, overweight, and obese) and WC (not at risk, increased risk, and substantially increased risk).
    Method
    In the current study, a total of 151 individuals consist of 58 men and 93 women (aged 18-65 year) were randomly recruited from patients attending the nutrition clinics of Mashhad, Iran. Participants were divided into three groups according to body mass index (BMI) (healthy-weight, overweight, and obese) and WC categories (not at risk, increased risk, and substantially increased risk). Plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids were analyzed in blood sample of all participants by gas chromatography apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Mashhad University of Medical Science (MUMS) and written informed consent was obtained from all individuals.
    Results
    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were inverse association with increasing both overall (p<0.001, p
    Conclusion
    Plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated free fatty acids were inversely in relation with anthropometric measures of obesity including BMI and WC. Further studies are needed to identify the possible mechanism(s) that links plasma omega-3 fatty acids with overall and abdominal obesity.
    Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, BMI, ALA, EPA, DHA
  • Seyedeh Forogh Sajjadi, Kosar Hassanpour, Majid Assadi, Farzaneh Yousefi, Afshin Ostovar, Iraj Nabipour, Alireza Rahbar* Pages 205-212
    Introduction
    The study was aimed to assess the intakes of nutrients of individuals in month of Ramadan.
    Materials and Methods
    In total, 119 participants visited twice: once before Ramadan and then the 3rd week of Ramadan. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day food intake recall used to determine the nutrient intake during Ramadan and other months. Weight, height and other demographic parameters were also gathered.
    Results
    One sample T-test showed a significantly higher intake of Calorie, total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamin A carotene, vitamin A total, vitamin B2, B12, C, niacin and phosphorous were significantly higher than RDA before Ramadan (P<0.05). However, Carbohydrate, fiber, polyunsaturated fat, folate, cooper, magnesium, potassium, selenium and sodium of subjects’ diets were significantly lower than RDA before Ramdan. paired sample T-test illustrated that Calories, carbohydrate, fiber, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamin A carotene, total vitamin A, vitamin B1, C, E, folate, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, selenium and sodium intake all significantly decreased after 3 weeks of fasting. However, only Calories, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, vitamin A carotene, vitamin B2, B6, C, E, folacin, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, selenium and sodium intake in 3rd week of Ramadan were significantly lower than RDA and vitamin A and niacin were significantly higher than RDA during Ramadan.
    Conclusion
    The present study demonstrates a significant decrease in some micronutrients during the month of Ramadan and indicates to imply nutritional recommendation in selecting foods.
    Keywords: fasting, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Fat, Protein, Carbohydrate
  • Hojjatolah Rahimi *, Najmeh Tavakol Pages 213-219
    Background
    Effect of Ramadan fasting on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is unknown and limited studies have been conducted in this regard. Nutritional, physiological, psychological and behavioral changes in fasting individuals during Ramadan may affect GERD. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of these changes on GERD symptoms with more meticulous method.
    Materials and Methods
    The patients with clinically diagnosed GERD by gastroenterologist were enrolled in this study and followed in three consecutive months from one month before to after the holy month of Ramadan using GERD-Health Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaires filled by patients. For ethical considerations Antisecretory drugs were prescribed for all patients. After data collection, subjects were divided into two groups of fasting and non-fasting and compared using the SPSS.
    Results
    Sixty nine patients completed all follow ups. Among the participants, 33 were fasting, and 36 cases did not fast. No significant differences in Total, Heartburn and Regurgitation scores changes were seen between Fasting and Nonfasting groups from before Ramadan to Ramadan, Ramadan to after Ramadan and also before to after Ramadan (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    Ramadan fasting has no effects on GERD symptoms in patients who use antisecretory drugs during this month.
    Keywords: Ramadan fasting, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD
  • Ahmad Sadati * Pages 220-221
    UN Food and Agricultural Organisation believes that there is no balance between hunger and producing food and the world is producing more than enough food (1). It estimated that one third of the food produced in the world for human consumption every year — approximately 1.3 billion tones gets lost or wasted (2). Inefficiencies and losses in agricultural production and consumers' behavior all play a role (4). About consumer behavior Aktas et al. showed that Food choice motives, financial attitudes, planning routines, social relationships, food surplus and Ramadan effect on Consumers’ food waste (5). Farr-Wharton et al. emphasized on food shopping as the main cause of food waste (6). Schanes et al. showed that food waste is complex and multi-faceted issue that cannot be attributed to single variables (7). Sociologically there hugely under-researched area of interest for social scientists about food waste (8). This is a qualitative study which was conducted in Yazd University between September 2018 to January 2019. Data were selected by 70 one open ended questionnaire 'Why Iranian people have food waste behavior?" In addition 2 focus group discussions were conducted among the students considering ethical consideration. Data were analyzed by conventional content analysis method.
    Keywords: food waste, Iran, Students' view