فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 46 (تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • حنیف رحیمی پردنجانی، علی اصغر شیرازی *، محسن مراثی صفحات 5-15
    تاکنون به جنبه های ادبی و اطلاعات تاریخی که دیباچه های مرقعات در خوددارند توجه فراوانی شده، لیکن زمینه های جامعه شناختی آن ها و توجه به ارجاعات متن به بیرون وبستر تاریخی که در آن قرارگرفته اند همچنان مغفول مانده است. دیباچه قطب الدین محمد بر مرقع شاه تهماسب در سال 964ق از معدود دیباچه هایی است که در این برهه زمانی علاوه بر خوشنویسی به مسئله نقاشی و نقاشان می پردازد. این پژوهش به دنبال این مسئله است که علل برآمدن دیباچه قطب الدین محمد در خصوص نقاشی در قرن دهم کدامند؟ برای پاسخ، از جامعه شناسی تاریخی تحلیلی که بیشتر به دنبال «چرا»یی امور و پاسخ های مبتنی بر روابط علی معتبر است، بهره گرفته شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که دیباچه به عنوان دفاعیه ای از نقاشی و نقاشان ظهور یافته و زنجیره های علی متنوعی متشکل از فضای سیاسی مذهبی آن دوره تاریخی، سنت نوشتاری و پیش زمینه فکری، تحصیلاتی و شغلی مولف منجر به تالیف دیباچه گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: دیباچه، نقاشی، خوشنویسی، قطب الدین محمد، جامعه شناسی تاریخی تحلیلی
  • مهدی مکی نژاد* صفحات 17-27
    از حدود قرن سوم هجری خط کوفی در معماری ظاهر شد و تا حدود قرن هفتم هجری، گونه های متنوعی از کوفی در مناطق مختلف ایران شکل گرفت. در یک تقسیم بندی کلی، می توان عنوان کوفی تزئینی به آنها اطلاق کرد.این خط، محکم، استوار و ساختار هندسی اش مبتنی بر حرکت های صاف، زاویه دار و کشیده های طولانی است. خطوطی مانند "کوفی بنایی، کوفی معقلی، کوفی های گره دار و گل دار". این گونه ها، بیشترین سازگاری و هماهنگی را با فضاهای معماری از جهات اجرا، زیبایی و مصالح داشتند و به واسطه قابلیت های ویژه ای مانند: انعطاف پذیری، هندسه و اندازه های متغیر حروف، ضخامت های متفاوت، کشیدگی، ترکیب و تلفیق با نقوش هندسی و گیاهی و سایر قابلیت ها، زمینه شکل گرفتن و پدید آمدن انواع کوفی تزئینی را فراهم ساختند. بیشترین نمونه های کوفی گل دار و گره دار را می توان در آجرکاری های دوره سلجوقی و گچبری محراب های دوره ایلخانی مشاهده کرد. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی ساختار و قابلیتهای متنوع کتیبه های کوفی تزئینی دوره سلجوقی و ایلخانی در معماری دوره اسلامی ایران است. سوال این است که اجزای تشکیل دهنده کتیبه های کوفی تزئینی کدامند و چه ویژگی ها و قابلیت هایی دارند؟ روش این تحقیق توصیفی و تحلیلی و جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای و تصاویر میدانی تهیه شده اند. گزینش کتیبه های مورد نظر به صورت انتخابی و از هر دوره تاریخی، پنج کتیبه که با اهداف این پژوهش مطابقت داشته اند گزینش شده اند. بررسی ها نشان می دهد کتیبه های کوفی تزئینی، از سه بخش عمده شامل نظام نوشتاری، هندسی (گره) و گیاهی، تشکیل شده اند که بیشترین دامنه خلاقیت و تنوع، در نظام هندسی و گیاهی صورت گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: کتیبه نگاری، کوفی تزئینی، معماری ایران، ساختار خط، سلجوقی، ایلخانی
  • فاطمه شه کلاهی* صفحات 29-41

    در نقاشی ایرانی، پیکر انسانی دارای جایگاه ویژه ای است و نوع بازنمایی آن متاثر از نگرش خیال محور در سنت ادب فارسی است. جنید در ترسیم پیکر های انسانی برای نخستین بار به مضامین غنائی توجه کرده است و در آثارش به یک سبک کاملا ایرانی دست یافته است که پیشقدم شیوه پیکرنگاری در ادوار بعدی نقاشی ایرانی محسوب می شود. موضوع این تحقیق بررسی شیوه های ترسیم و تناسبات پیکر بندی انسان در آثار جنید السلطانی است و هدف آن شناخت الگوهای احتمالی پیکرنگاری در نقاشی مکتب جلایری با استناد به آثار جنید است. سوالات این مقاله عبارت اند از: 1. تنوع موضوعیپیکر ها در آثار جنید چگونه است؛ 2. الگو و تناسبات انسانی در پیکرنگاری جنید چگونه قابل تبیین است؟ این پژوهش به روش توصیفی - تحلیلی صورت گرفته و برای سنجش تناسبات پیکر ها از طول (ارتفاع) سر هر پیکر به عنوان واحد اندازه گیری استفاده شده است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات نیز کتابخانه ای است.
    نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که جنید به سه نوع پیکرنگاری تغزلی توجه داشته است: «پیکر شاهان و شاهزادگان»، «پیکر نگهبانان و شکارچیان» و «پیکر غلامان». جنید مطابق دیگر اسلاف خود در ترسیم پیکر شاهان و شاهزادگان از یک الگوی معین که ریشه در سنت ادبیات و نقاشی ایرانی دارد بهره برده است. پیکرهایی بلند با قامتی برابر 7 سر از ویژگی های شکلی این الگوی پیکرنگاری است. الگوی ذکر شده با کمی تغییرات - قامتی برابر 6 واحد سر - به همراه چهره پردازی مغولی در پیکر نگهبانان و شکارچیان دیده می شود. در پیکر غلامان عدم تعادل و تناسبات بدن، آن ها را از دیگر پیکرها متمایز می کند و بیشتر نشان دهنده تیپی خاص در نگاره های جنید است که به ندرت در آثار دیگر هنرمندان تکرار می شود. وجه شاخص آن ها پیکره های لاغر است که با قامتی برابر 8 سر از دو گروه قبلی بلندتر هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی ایرانی، مکتب جلایری، نسخه مصور، جنید السلطانی، خواجوی کرمانی، پیکرنگاری
  • میترا معنوی راد *، مریم رزقی راد صفحات 43-59
    در سیر تاریخی فرهنگ و تمدن، تصاویر و تولیدات بصری به عنوان مناسب ترین دستمایه ها و واسطه ها در امر بقا و بالا رفتن سطح آگاهی بشر اهمیت فوق العاده ای داشته اند. از مصادیق این کاربرد، استفاده از انگاره انسانی در نقش نشانه های فرازبانی بر آثار هنری دوران باستان است. با این ملاحظه، هدف جستار حاضر واکاوی نقش انسان کنشگر بر ظروف کلریت جیرفت با تاکید بر عناصر و ارزش های بصری و مفاهیم ملهم از آن است. این تحقیق با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و اتکا به منابع کتابخانه ای در پی پاسخگویی به این سوالات است: 1- با خوانش بصری ظروف کلریت جیرفت چه ویژگی هایی از نقش انسان کنشگر مشخص است؟ 2- بازنمود نقش انسان کنشگر بر ظروف کلریت جیرفت با توجه به تحلیل بصری دارای چه مفاهیمی است؟ یافته نخستین نگارندگان بر آن است تکرار نقش انسان در نظام معنایی آثار جیرفت، حاصل تفکرات خدای گونه انسانی، تمامیت خواهی بشر و مرتبط با ریشه های اعتقادی مشترک بوده است. دوم آنکه با توجه به اشتراکات متعدد میان نقش مایه های انسانی، این نمادگرایی ها با طرح ریزی قالب بصری و شکلی خاص برای القا مفاهیمی از انسان- قهرمان و با استفاده از کهن الگوهای اولیه بشری از انسان قدرتمند خلق شده که نه تنها صرفا فردی و خاص هنرمندان جیرفت یا تابع الهامات درونی شان، بلکه جهان شمول نیز هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: جیرفت، نماد، انسان کنشگر، ظروف کلریت، نقوش
  • زهرا قاسمی، ابوالفضل عرب بیگی * صفحات 61-73

    کاشی های هفت رنگ قاجاری نمود بارزی از هویت تصویری هنر این دوره را به نمایش می گذارد که از نظر سبک و سیاق هنری تفاوت های عمده ای با دوران قبل از خود دارد. از این میان، کاشی نگاران شیرازی در این دوره مطابق با فرهنگ عامیانه، کاشی هایی با ویژگی های خاص تولید کردند و سبک کاشی نگاری شیراز را بنا نهادند.
    این مقاله به بررسی یک دروازه مزین به کاشی نگاره کتیبه دار در حراجی بونامز لندن می پردازد و می کوشد با توجه به اسناد موجود و نیز مقایسه و تطبیق ویژگی های مشترک این اثر با آثار مشابه هم دوره در کاشی نگاره های شیراز از جمله درمانگاه نمازی، خانه صالحی و خانه عطروش علاوه بر بازشناسی ویژگی های شاخص سبک کاشی نگاری شیراز، مسئله انتساب زمانی، مکانی و هویت کاشی نگار آن را نیز روشن سازد.
    تحقیق حاضر به روش تحلیلی تطبیقی و گردآوری اطلاعات بر پایه مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه ای انجام یافته است.
    نتایج به دست آمده از یافته های پژوهش حاضر بیانگر این است که اثر مورد بررسی به لحاظ موضوعات، نقش مایه ها، رنگ بندی و شیوه رنگ گذاری ویژگی های معناداری با کاشی نگاره های مکان های مذکور دارد که مبین تعلق آن به مکتب کاشی نگاری شیراز در اواخر دوره قاجار است. همچنین بررسی کتیبه های این اثر و کتیبه های موجود در مکان های مذکور روشن می سازد که هنرمند این اثر همان ابراهیم بن فریدون است که آثار امضا دار آن در درمانگاه نمازی و مسجد وکیل وجود دارد و حیات وی معاصر با مشهدی ابوطالب معمار و میرزا عبدالرزاق؛ مهم ترین کاشی پز شیراز در اواخر دوره قاجار بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: دوره قاجار، کاشی هفت رنگ، مکتب کاشی نگاری شیراز، استاد ابراهیم، میرزا عبدالرزاق
  • عباس غفاری *، مریم صلاحی صفحات 75-87

    صندوق قبر شیخ صفی الدین و شاه اسماعیل اول از آثار چوبی و نفیس هنر دوره اسلامی به شمار می آیند. ساخت این دو صندوق قبر در بسیاری از منابع غربی و بعضا ایرانی، به دوران حکومت همایون شاه و هنرمندان هندی نسبت داده شده است؛ این در حالی است که بر اساس مطالعات صورت گرفته دلایل بسیاری مبنی بر اصالت و خاستگاه ایرانی دو صندوق قبر مذکور می توان ارائه داد، از جمله تزیینات، مواد مصرفی و شیوه خاتمکاری متفاوت در مقابر هند و ایران، شباهت ساختاری دو صندوق قبر مذکور با آثاری از دوره اسلامی در ایران و دلایل تاریخی دیگر که در جریان پژوهش به طور مشروح مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. هدف پژوهش حاضر نقد فرضیه اهدا نمودن دو صندوق قبر مذکور توسط همایون شاه به شاه طهماسب اول صفوی و اثبات خاستگاه ایرانی این دو اثر فاخر هنری در قلمرو حکومتی دوره تیموری و صفوی در ایران است. این پژوهش در صدد پاسخ گویی به سوالات ذیل هدف گذاری گردیده است: آیا دو صندوق قبر مذکور اهدایی همایون شاه به شاه طهماسب اول و ساخته شده به دست هنرمندان هندی است؟ با استناد به چه دلایلی خاستگاه ایرانی صندوق قبر شیخ صفی و شاه اسماعیل مسجل میگردد؟
    روش تحقیق در مقاله حاضر توصیفی-تحلیلی، رویکرد پژوهش، تطبیقی و جمع آوری داده ها و اطلاعات از طریق مشاهدات میدانی و مطالعات کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است. پژوهش به نتایج قابل توجهی منتهی گردیده از جمله آنکه در هیچ یک از منابع تاریخی مورد مطالعه، به اهدا نمودن صندوق چوبی از جانب همایون شاه به شاه طهماسب اشاره نشده است. این دو صندوق قبر به دو دوره متفاوت تاریخی تعلق داشته که احتمال همزمانی و اهدایی بودن هر دو از جانب همایون شاه به شاه طهماسب وجود ندارد. الگوهای تزیینی و فنون اجرایی در صندوق مقابر مذکور از منابع هنری دوره تیموری و صفوی در ایران تبعیت نموده است که به دست هنرمندان ایرانی و آشنا با این منابع هنری اصیل ساخته شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: صندوق قبر، شیخ صفی، شاه اسماعیل اول، هنرهای سنتی، هنر تیموری، هنر صفوی، هنر گورکانیان
  • مرضیه سادات حسینی، اصغر جوانی*، رسول بیدرام صفحات 89-101
    نقاشان ایرانی تا اواخر دهه هفتاد شمسی بازاری بسته و نامشخص داشتند و شرایط لازم برای فعالیت اجتماعی را نداشته اند اما با گذر زمان شرایط متحول شد و فرآیند رو به رشدی را طی کرد. از نتایج آن موسسات بزرگی همچون کریستیز و ساتبیز شعبه هایی را در منطقه خاورمیانه تاسیس کرده اند و معبر صعود هنرمندان ایرانی به حراجی ها شده اند. از این رو مسئله اقتصاد و خرید و فروش آثار هنرمندان ایرانی به صورت جدی مطرح شد. هدف این مقاله شناخت فرآیند مشارکت نقاشی معاصر ایران در حراجی هاست. پرسش های اصلی در این تحقیق این است که «چه عواملی در موفقیت ورود اثر هنرمندان در حراجی ها تاثیرگذار بوده است»، «چه کسانی و چه موسساتی برای ورود اثر هنرمند در این حراجی ها دخیل بوده اند» و «نقاشی معاصر ایران چگونه در حراجی ها مشارکت داشته است.» بدین ترتیب باستفاده از روش توصیفی تحلیلی اطلاعات به دست آمده از مصاحبه های اکتشافی، این نتیجه دریافت گردیده است که چهار عامل در موفقیت ورود اثر هنرمند به حراجی ها تاثیرگذار هستند: سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه اقتصادی و سرمایه نمادین. همچنین نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد هشت گروه مهم در چرخه حراج اثر هنری فعالیت موثر دارند که عبارت اند از: هنرمند، گالری داخلی، دلالان، مشاور داخلی، متخصص خارجی، گالری خارجی، حراجی و خریدار مرسوم ترین نوع مشارکت هنرمند و اثر هنری در حراجی ها از طریق شش گروه هنرمند، گالری داخلی، مشاور داخلی، متخصص خارجی، حراجی و در آخر خریدار بوده است. در رابطه با مسئله چگونگی مشارکت، مشخص شد که هنرمندان نقاش به دو شیوه در حراجی ها مشارکت دارند: 1- مشارکت مستقیم، 2- مشارکت غیرمستقیم.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی معاصر ایران، اقتصاد هنر، حراجی هنر
  • زهرا پاک زاد* صفحات 103-111

    شاهنامه فردوسی محفوظ در کتابخانه ملی فرانسه به شماره 490 متعلق به عصر صفویه است. با توجه به امضا و کاتب آن در تاریخ ذی قعده 1012 ه.ق (30 آوریل 1604 میلادی) به دست محمد جان الکرمانی کتابت آن به پایان رسیده است. این نسخه دارای 55 نگاره بدون امضا و رقم است.
    هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی و معرفی حامی، کارگاه و نگارگران آن است. به این منظور از طریق بررسی ویژگی های این نسخه همچون تذهیب، شیوه اجرایی نگاره ها و مقایسه تطبیقی و تاریخی آن با نسخ مشابه، هنرمندان، حامی و کارگاهی که این نسخه در آن تهیه شده است را شناسایی و معرفی می نماید. سوال اصلی این تحقیق حاضر آن است که کارگاه، سفارش دهنده و نگارگران شاهنامه کتابخانه ملی فرانسه به شماره 490 چه کسانی هستند. روش این تحقیق بر پایه مقایسه تطبیقی، تاریخی و بررسی شیوه های اجرایی نگاره ها می باشد. برای این منظور از منابع مکتوب و اسناد تاریخی و کتابخانه ای استفاده می شود.
    ویژگی های بصری نگاره های شاهنامه کتابخانه ملی فرانسه به شماره 490، خصوصیات مکتب قزوین و اصفهان را نشان می دهند. با توجه به جایگاه حبیب الله ساوه ای در آن مقطع تاریخی و تاثیر شیوه اجرایی او در نگارهای این شاهنامه بی تردید می توان برخی از نگاره های آن را به وی منتسب نمود، سایر نگاره های این نسخه به شیوه محمد هروی اجرا شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری ایران، مکتب قزوین، مکتب اصفهان، شاهنامه مصور، کتابخانه ملی فرانسه
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  • Ali Asghar Shirazi* Pages 5-15
    Album making is a long-standing tradition in the history of Islamic Art in Iran, especially at the end of the Timurid and Safavid Periods. Albums contain scattered pages of calligraphy and paintings which are bound together and form a book that is used in order to review the masterpieces of the artists in cultural meetings. These albums have some advantages for the art of Iran. Firstly, they preserve the works of art. Secondly, there is a place for workmanship and thirdly, sometimes the patron or the owner wanted an author to write a preface for it. In fact prefaces of the albums must be known as the first art histories of Iran which include precious information about artists, patrons and sometimes the history of forming the arts of calligraphy and painting. Hitherto there has been much attention to literary aspects and historical information in the prefaces of the albums, but sociological contexts of them and references of texts to their historical setting is still neglected. Preface to Shah Tahmasb’s Album, written by Qutb al-Din Mohammad in 964 AH, is one of the rare prefaces which in addition to calligraphy includes the issue of painting and painters. Many contemporary scholars point to it and it has an important place in the studies of Persian painting since the time it has been known, but a few scholars have studied it critically. After Dust Muhammad’s preface in 952 AH, this is the second preface which pays attention to paining and painters. While based on documents and texts neither of the authors is a painter but calligrapher. Now the question is that why in the mid-century an author like Qutb al-Din Mohammad after Dust Muhammad, paid attention to painting and painters? In fact this research sought to identify which causes led to the making of Qutb al-Din Muhammad’s preface about the painting in the tenth/sixteenth century. To answer this question, the analytical historical sociology approach is taken. This method, by means of primary and secondary sources, mostly focuses on “whys” in matters and answers based on authentic causal relationships; causes which lead to similar results. At First step, researcher studied the biography of Qutb al-Din Muhammad and tried to solve the disagreement between the scholars about the real identity of him and similar historical figures like Qut al-Din Baghdadi and Qutb al-Din Muhammad Yazdi. After that the article paid attention to the text of preface and analysis of it. Qutb al-Din Muhammad in different ways, directly and indirectly tries to advocate painting and painters. He uses different sources like Hadith, historical remarks, poems and so on to prove the rightfulness of painting and the position of painters. Then the religio-political setting for the making of the preface was investigated. In that way, the life of Shah Tahmasb and his influence on the art and artist and also the influence of clerks on Shah Tahmasb and the court are discussed. Lastly, researcher assumes that different chains of linear and transversal causes like the political-religious atmosphere of that period, written tradition and finally intellectual-educational-professional background of the author tend to converge and the preface was written. One can regard these causes as two interwoven existential causes and formative causes. The presence of clerks in politics and their influence on King’s mind and pressure to artists, especially musicians and painters, changing King's mood and his reluctance of painting, miserliness and at last firing the painters from the court, are existential causes of writing the preface in defense of painting and painters. Written tradition of writing prefaces in the Safavid period which began many years ago in different branches of literature and not in painting, skill of the author in literature and his familiarity with techniques of lettering and secretary; also his religious beliefs in connection to his job as a storyteller (Qisi Khwan) and a link between clerks and the artist are known as formative causes. But the main cause must be known as the pressures of clerks on painting and painters and writing the preface as a result was a reaction in defense of painting.
    Keywords: Preface, Painting, Calligraphy, Qutb al-Din Muhammad, Analytical Historical Sociology
  • mahdi makinejad* Pages 17-27

    From the third century AH Kufic calligraphy appeared in architectural works and until about the seventh century AH, various species of that were formed in different regions and areas of Iran, among which are the cities of Isfahan, Kerman and Khorasan. In a general classification, they can be described as "decorative Kufic". This kind of script is stable and sturdy in style, and its geometric structure is based on smooth, angled and long drawn strokes. It includes scripts such as banna-i Kufic (Square Kufic) and Moaqqeli Kufic, Gereh-dar Kufic (Knotted Kufic) and Gol-dar Kufic (Floral Kufic). These species had the most adaptability and harmony with architectural spaces in terms of implementation, beauty as well as materials, and due to their special flexibility, variable geometry, different size and thickness of their letters, length, combination with floral and geometrical patterns and other capabilities, provided ground for the formation of various kinds of decorative Kufic.
    The main reason for diversity in Kufic calligraphy in architecture is its diversity in spaces and various architectural surfaces. Kufic calligraphy gets its identity from the dimension, size and the space in handwriting, so it is not possible to find rigid and fixed geometric rules for it.
    According to the decorative Kufic inscriptions in the historical buildings of Iran, we can divide the components of the Kufic calligraphy into three major parts of written, geometric and vegetal systems.
    Written system: It is readable texts and writings, either letters or words apart from geometric and non-geometric decorations, which are most important as content and semantic parts of inscriptions. It is cansidentd on the following lower seat of the Tines.
    This part of inscription, in regard to both content and formality, is considered the main body of the line and cannot be removed from the inscription space. The character and general form of Kufic inscriptions depend on the type of writing system. If the line has soft and delicate curves, the engineering system as well as herbaceous system should be designed in accordance with the same softness and elegance, in other words homogeneous designs should be selected to avoid non-convergence in letters and decorative elements.
    Geometric system: the second part of the decorative Kufic category consists of geometric and knotted motifs. These motifs are often placed in the middle of the vertical axis of the handled words, Alfie, Lam, Ta, and Za. They connect loops between the written system and vegetal system.
    Vegetal system: the upper part of the letters and words in the inscriptions is allocated to vegetal designs. The two best known types of these motifs, Eslimis and khatais, derived from natural elements and abstract motifs with twisting and abstract motions can move freely in the space of inscription. Extending and expansion of these designs depend on the space of the inscription.
    The only script in which the structures and design may combine in connection to the main body of the line is Kufic script in the inscription. This script, with its defined rules, comes more from written system rather than vegetal or geometric condition and create new compositions. The structure of decorative Kufic calligraphy is a geometrical one but in the meantime flowing and extendable to all directions.
    There is no prescribed form of writing in teaching decorative Kufic calligraphy, but in a systematic written system the arrangement, combination and amount of whiteness and blackness are observed as in other inscriptions. In geometrical and vegetal systems, because of lines, transversal, horizontal, vertical, diagonal and circular tractions, the most motions and creations are applied by the designees.
    Most of the examples, Gereh-dar Kufic (Knotted Kufic) and Gol-dar Kufic (Floral Kufic), can be seen in the brickwork of the Seljuk period and the stucco of the Ilkhanid mihrabs. The brickwork inscriptions of the mosque of Malek Zozan of Khorasan, the Khorgerd School, the Kerman Minaret and the Bastam stucco inscriptions, the inscription of the mosque of Orumieh, the inscription of the Mihrab of the Tabriz Jame- Mosque, are among these works.
    The question is what the components of decorative Kufic inscriptions are and what are their capabilities and attributes?
    Using visual and library resources and descriptive-analytic methods, this article aims at answering to the following question: how geometric structure of the decorative Kufic could be adapted to each level and size? It also investigates the special features of the Knotted Kufic and Floral Kufic, and explains three different types of writing, geometric and vegetal design systems for the first time in Kufic calligraphy framework.
    Keywords: Inscription, Decorative Kufic calligraphy, Iranian Architecture, Calligraphies’ Structure, Seljuk, Ilkhanid
  • Fatemeh Shahkolahi* Pages 29-41


    In Persian painting, human figure has a special place and its representations are influenced by imagination-centered attitudes in Persian literary tradition. The limited and repetitious visual characteristics of human body in Persian literature such as the likeness of face to the moon, height to the cedar, lips to the bud, etc., and the continuation of this kind of attitude in the expressions of the poets and the pictures of the painters, have created a traditional image in the works of all Iranian artists. This visual culture which is mostly based on the lyrical themes of Persian literary works has been considered in the most of the Persian configuration almost before the Qajar era, and the purpose of the painters is to present the ideal human body. Therefore, the painters always avoid drawing natural and objective forms and proportions. In drawing human figures, Jonayd, the famous painter in Jalāyerid School who worked in Sultan Ahmad court, paid attention to lyric themes for the first time. He achieved a completely Iranian style in his works which is considered as forerunner of the figuration methods in later periods of the Persian painting. Therefore, the subject of this study is examination of drawing methods and proportions of human configuration in Jonayd al-Sultani’s works based on the illustrated version of three poems (namely Homay o Homayun, the Kamal-Namah and the Raudat ul-Anwar) by Khwaju Kermani, kept in the British Museum under inventory number 18113, aiming at identifying possible patterns of figuration in paintings of Jalāyerid school based on the works of Jonayd al-Sultani. This manuscript, which is the masterpiece of the Jalāyerid painting school, is a turning point in the history of Persian painting. Because in addition to including the first signature (raqam) of an Iranian painter _ jonayd al-Sultani_ it is considered as a sample of figurative painting until the end of the tenth century AH / sixteenth century AD. The questions of this article are: 1. How is the thematic variety of figures in Jonayd’s paintings? 2. How can the pattern and human body proportions in Jonayd’s paintings be explained? This study was carried out through a descriptive- analytical method to measure the overall and partial proportions of the forms of the figures. Length (height) of the head in each body was used as the unit of measurement. This measurement criterion is in relation to the theoretical foundations of Persian painting, and it is different from the Western ones. The organs that are measured in each figure are: length of head, hands, feet, stature, and width of waist. Also the simplicity of the forms of the bodies has been considered to achieve an accurate measurement of the proportions and description of the configuration system. Jonayd's figures, in the illustrated version of three poems by Khwaju Kermani, are the statistical population of this study which is considered to be the only reliable work by him. Therefore 21 different figures that are selected by not-probable (selective) method constitute the sample in this study. The criteria for choosing samples are based on the characteristics of the subject, the state and the gender of the bodies. The data collection was also done through library research.
    The results of this study showed that Jonayd had considered three types of lyrical figuration: "figures of kings and princes", "figures of guards and hunters", and "figures of servants". Like his predecessors, Jonayd had used a certain pattern to draw the figures of kings and princes which was rooted in Persian painting and literary tradition. Tall figures are drawn at 7 heads tall, arms are 2.75 and legs are 3.75 heads long which constitute the formal features of this figuration pattern. Although the figures are apparently various, they all share a single drawing sample. There is not even much difference between men and women in figurative paintings, and the sex is merely distinguished through painting details such as the head cover and decorative objects which represent the kinds of cover and objects of the eighth century AH / fourteenth century AD. The above-mentioned pattern can be seen with little changes along with Mongolian portraiture in the figures of the guards and hunters. Their figures are 6 heads tall, the lengths of their arms and legs are respectively 2 and 2.75 heads. The figures of servants are distinguished from other figures due to the lack of balance and proportions in their bodies, and they mainly show a certain style in Jonayd’s paintings that is rarely repeated in the works of other artists. Their distinctive feature is their lean bodies, drawn at 8 heads tall, which are taller than those of the previous groups. Their arms are 2.75 heads, and their legs are 4 heads long.
    Keywords: Persian Painting, Jalāyerid School, Illustrated Manuscript, Jonayd al-Sultani, Khwaju Kermani, Figurative Painting
  • Mitra Manavirad*, Maryam Rezghirad Pages 43-59


    In the historical course of culture and civilization, art and the visual media have provided significant materials and intermediaries for the survival and raising of the level of human consciousness. One of the examples of this application, is the use of human imagery as a metaphorical sign in ancient art works. Regarding this issue, the purpose of this study is to examine the role of activist human beings in Jiroft Chlorite Vessels, with emphasis on visual elements and values as well as inspirational concepts. This research is based on a descriptive-analytical method, relying on library sources in response to these questions: 1. what are the characteristics of the role of activist human through visual reading of Jiroft Chlorite Vessels? 2. What are the concepts of the role of activist human represented in Jiroft Chlorite Vessels with regard to visual analysis? The initial finding of the writers is that the repetition of the role of man in semantic system of the works of Jiroft and the focus of its existence in relation to other beings, are the result of mankind’s god-like thinking, the symbol of the dualities of the human soul, humanitarian totalitarianism associated with the roots of common beliefs. Secondly, due to the multiple interactions between human elements, these symbolisms are created by designing a visual and special form to indoctrinate the concepts of human-hero and by using the primordial human percepts of a powerful human being that is not merely individual and specific to artists of Jiroft or inspired by their inner inspirations, but is universal as well.

    The role of the activist human is one of the greatest symbolic visual manifestations in Jiroft's works, which enables them to visualize the horizons of human history in ancient Iran. Jiroft's artist has an ontological approach to his world, and in the end, he has fashioned such creations that show the theme of human thinking in the Bronze Age. The visual connection in the creation of motifs by activist human is a mental and practical effort through the proper utilization of various visual elements and qualities in order to make a connection between the form and the concept. The semantic susceptibility and visual beauty of Jiroft's motifs have been remarkable in expressing the subject and decoration, and in combination with the creator's awareness of individual aesthetics and nature, they have promoted the quality of art and the creation of insignificant designs.
    In fact, the images of the nature in that period are derived from the fact that the artist has explained the position of man in the nature and environment of his life. The artist's purpose seems to be the recall of the human role in the mind of the viewer through the repetition of man-made heroes. This dual concept can be derived from the early human hierarchies of mankind-hero as a man of action or superior force, probably with the aim of stabilizing human standing in nature or inspiration from the role of man in the ordinary way in the universe. It seems that the Jiroft artist has an ontological approach to his world, and has made such creations that are full of mythological symbols and the theme of the human thinking in the Bronze Age. The sequencing of the role of the human being can also be attributed to the inspiration of the creators to insinuate certain mythical, religious themes. The symbol of activist human beings along with other symbols contains the common concept of the combination of opposites, such as life and death, symbolic implications, such as displaying the natural realm of human life, cosmic features, and the god of a human species-hero, as a ruler over the mountains with symbols of nature like stars and moon. The scenes of the struggle between man and animal in nature are also a show of two contradictory and complementary powers that seem to be in an endless struggle, and in a symbolic state, they intend to build their supernatural powers. In spite of the combination of different animal members in the body of imaginative creatures, human bodies appear to be active and muscular. The visual association in the creation of man-made motifs is the result of a mental effort through the proper utilization of various visual elements in order to link the form and the concept. In this regard, inspired by the early prototypes of the powerful man, the symbolic concepts and the god of the species, such as the absolute ruler, human, hero, are created immensely frequent; however, despite the artist's success in applying actual faces and the combination of human actors as a central element in the system of Jiroft's works, there is no specific concept in the various creations of these symbols, and although they are beautiful in terms of type and meaning, they provoke different forms of thought in the mind of the audience
    Keywords: Jiroft, Symbol, Activist Human, Hero, Chlorite Vessels, Motifs
  • zahra ghasemi, abolfazl arabbeigi* Pages 61-73


    Tilework decoration has an importance role as an art in Iran's architecture. Almost all Iran's architectural masterpieces have taken advantage of glorious tilework that are beautifully painted. The polychrome tilework of the Qajar period reveals the pictorial identity of its era which has a different artistic style comparing to earlier periods. In spite of some similarities in artistic style, the decorative tiles of this era have their own characteristics in each region (Tehran, Isfahan, and Shiraz). Shiraz’s tile makers of this period provided particular polychrome tiles with specific features according to costumes and folkloric culture and established the Shiraz school of tiling. The enormous use of polychrome tiles with various subjects decorating both inside and outside of nonreligious buildings, especially residential buildings, is an important character of Shiraz tilework in the Qajar era. The themes of this tiles revitalize national-religious, cultural and traditional desires. These themes which are the combination of Shahnameh’s tales within folk narratives and sacred fictions, famous male and female portraits in European costumes, and flowers and birds known as Gol-O-Morgh are painted in naturalistic style. Another characteristic of Shiraz tiles is the use of bright and lighthearted colours such as pink, purple, brown, yellow, green, white and blue, however it must be noted that pink is more prominent than other colours .The composition, colours, motifs and painting style of these tiles are repetitive in most of the buildings of this period.
    Just like the rest of Iranian art pieces that have been smuggled from Iran, the tile works of the Qajar era have been sold in antique auctions and are kept in personal and public collections and museums out of Iran .This article studies an archway decorated with inscriptive polychrome tiles which was located in an art auction house: Bonhams, London. Paintings of this archway depict Solomon's kingdom, birds and flowers, Gol-O-Morgh motifs, separate frames of Qajar women and young couples. The visual impact of this archway is very similar to the tile decorations of the rest of the buildings in shiraz during the Qajar era and the two inscriptions below this archway’s pillars demonstrate this piece was made by master Ebrahim’s factory and ordered by Haji Abdolmohamad.This article concentrates on the tilework of this archway, comparing its common features with the other contemporaneous similar tileworks in Shiraz such as that of Namazi clinic, Salehi and Atrvash historic houses as well as clarifying the time, place and the identity of the artist attributed to this archway, in addition to recognizing the specific features of the Shiraz school tiling based on available documents.The method of this article is comparative-analytical and data has been gathered via field study and library research.
    The following results of this article represent that this archway is related to tileworks of the mentioned places in Shiraz in terms of themes, motifs, colour palette and colouring method which elucidate that the archway belongs to the Shiraz school of tiling in the late Qajar period. Also examination of the inscriptions of this archway and other available inscriptions in the mentioned places, clarifies that the artist of this tilework is Ebrahim Ibn Fereydoon whose signed works exist in Namazi clinic and Vakil masque and that he was a tile maker from Shiraz during the late Qajar era and he was contemporaneous with "Mashhadi Abootaleb" the architect and "Mirza Abdolrazaq", one of the most famous tile makers of Shiraz in the late Qajar era. Despite previous researches on Qajar tiles, due to the wide geographic extent and large numbers, these tiles have a great deal of research potential in different aspects of technical and decorative styles. Field and documentary studies on artworks outside Iran's borders are necessary for the sake of understanding the origin of artistic identity and the preservation of cultural values
    Keywords: Qajar Era, Polychrome Tile, Shiraz School of Tiling, Ostad Ebrahim, Mirza Abdolrazaq
  • Abbas Ghaffari*, maryam salahi Pages 75-87

    The caskets of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili and Shah Ismail safavi are considered as the wooden and exquisite works of Islamic art. Current location of these two caskets is the tomb of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili in the city of Ardabil. Shaykh’s casket belongs to the Timurid period while Shah Ismail safavi’s casket belongs to the Safavid period. These two caskets have been built with different techniques such as carving, inlay, mosaic and wood drainage, and decorated with types of Iranian noble designs. The construction of these two caskets has been attributed in many Western and sometimes Iranian sources to the reign of Homayon Shah, the Indian emperor, and Indian artists. However, according to studies and researches, there are many reasons for the originality and Iranian origin of these two caskets; among which are the differences between the ornaments, the types of decorations and consuming materials and the different methods of inlaying in tombs in India and Iran, the structural similarity of the two caskets with works of the Islamic period in Iran as well as presenting the name of the Iranian artist and founder in the inscriptions of these two wooden caskets and other historical reasons that have been analyzed in a detailed manner in the research process. This important detail is explained by the above-mentioned reasons in order to disambiguate the origin of the two works of the Islamic period in Iran.
    The necessity of this article is due to the fact that no research has been done in connection with the Iranian origin of these two caskets and only decorations are checked in articles that are linked with these two caskets. The purpose of the present research is to criticize the hypothesis of presentation of these two caskets as gifts by Homayoun Shah to the Safavid Shah Tahmasb I and to prove the Iranian origin of these two great works of art in the Timurid and Safavid era territory in Iran. The research aims at answering the following main questions:Are two caskets presented by Homayoun Shah to Shah Tahmasb I and made by Indian artists?
    What reasons would confirm the Iranian origin of the Shaykh Safi’s and Shah Ismail’s caskets?
    Research method in this essay is descriptive and analytical and the approach of this research is Comparative. Also data has been gathered via field study and library research. This article contains important and significant results. The presentation of wooden boxes by Homayoun Shah to Shah Tahmasb was referred to in none of the studied historical sources. In addition, these two caskets belong to two different historical periods; a fact that dismisses the possibility of their concurrence and presentation of both by Homayoun Shah to Shah Tahmasb. Also, decorative patterns and executive techniques in the aforementioned caskets have followed the sources of the Timurid and Safavid periods in Iran. Decorative patterns and executive techniques specify that these two caskets were made by Iranian artists who were familiar with original and Iranian art sources. In other words, Indian artists could not be exactly well-informed of the artistic and original Iranian sources. These two caskets in terms of shape and form are like other caskets built in Iran. In other words, their form is cubic. Another important result is the existence of similarity between tomb decoration and decoration of these two caskets. The carvings of both caskets are similar to the carvings of the Timurid and Safavid periods. Also the most common motifs of the Timurid and Safavid periods were used. Eventually based on historical studies and comparisons and analysis, it can be said that these two caskets were not Homayoun Shah's gifts to Shah Tahmasb safavi, therefore these two wooden caskets have Iranian origin and were made by Iranian artists and in accordance with the Iranian art style
    Keywords: Casket, Shaykh Safi, Shah Ismail I, Traditional Arts, Timurid Art, Gurkanian Art, Safavid Art
  • marzieh hosseini, Asghar Javani*, rasol bidram Pages 89-101


    Iranian painters had a closed and uncertain market in the late 1370’s, and the social conditions were not satisfying for emergence of an active art –however, after a while these conditions changed and improved. As the result, from Ordibehest 1384 ,big institutions such as Christies and Sotheby's established branches in the Middle East (Dubai) which paved the way for the Iranian and Arab artists. Iranian artists did well in this local market and got their position in international markets as well. This was the first huge step for the modern art of Iran. Certainly, Iranian artists’ participation in international markets in the early 21 century was significant, mainly in terms of sales. This auction has had a brilliant effect on the fate of Iranian artists and has linked them to international markets. Following that the presence of Iranian artists in the Middle East auctions began. Artists cannot easily participate in auctions, unless they have achieved the minimum requirements and the conditions for participation in the auctions. Individuals and institutions such as gallery owners and collectors, consultants, auction specialists, as well as other factors are to allow the works of art to be auctioned and give credit and role to artists. Therefore, economy and trade of the works of Iranian artists became an issue for governors. It is very important to pay attention to the questions such as: what are the causes of the success of Iranian artists in auctions? Which organizations and individuals were responsible for this participation and how? The purpose of this paper is to study the process of participation of Iranian contemporary painters in auctions. In this study the reasons for the Iranian artists’ success in terms of sales as well as the influence of people on this achievement (individuals and organizations (were explored. The descriptive and analytical methods have been used and data are collected from discovering interviews. The results show that artists participating in auctions were affected by four factors: cultural capital, social capital, economic capital and symbolic capital. These four factors can play different roles together and could make wealth in different combinations, but the best combination that could save the artists at the auction, gives them credit. It is first to know the cultural capital of the artist (for example, artist's background, creativity, intelligence and artistry, quality and variety in the artist's works), and the artist's social capital is absorbed (for example, the permanent and continuous presence of the artist in the art world, the artist's communication networks, the artist's character, the press attention, the taste of the agents of the auction, ...), then turn into symbolic capital (reputation). Finally, the combination of these capitals created economic capital. This kind of combination is a natural and correct process for participation in auctions. Artists can earn other combinations to achieve easier economic capital, but these capitals make a disproportionate combination which leads to the artist's failure in the next auction. Of course it may be that in a short period of time, obtaining the unreasonable emotional record of an auction, but that will not be permanent. Eight important groups considerably affect the cycle of art marketing: artists, inland gallery, dealer, inland counselors, external specialist, auction, external gallery and buyers. The most popular kind of participation of artists and artworks in auctions is through six categories of: artists, inland gallery, inland counselors, external specialist, auction and buyers.
    The Iranian artists take part in sales events in two ways:1-Direct participating which is too difficult and lacks the guarantees.
    2-Indirect participating that provides the guarantees and almost permanent participation. In the indirect participation method, there are many ways to get the artist's work to an auction, so that the artist himself may be unaware of his exposure to the auction. In this article, 17 types of participation are discussed. One of them is direct participation and the other 16 are indirect participation types. Of course, there are other paths that remain outside the scope of this article. Among these 17 indirect contributors to the auction, one is more conventional and well-known than the rest. In this research, the aim is to study the status and trends of the artist's presence from the first stage of production to selling it at auctions and determine what the current trend is and what is really going on
    Keywords: Contemporary Iranian Painting, Art Economy, Art Auction
  • zahra pakzad* Pages 103-111


    The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, kept in the National Library of France, registered under number 490 and transcribed by Mohammad Jan Al-Kermani in 1012 AH, was first introduced in “Manifestation of Persian Art” by Francis Richter, but the data presented there has been limited to a library registration form that merely referred to the painters, orderers, and the workshop where this copy of the book was produced. Quoting Stchoukin, Richter writes in the same book that “Stchoukin believes these paintings are the works of numerous artists of that era in Shiraz and Qazvin”. Transcription of this well-known poetry book by Ferdowsi, as it can be found out from the signed page of the book, page 469, was performed in the late Dhu al-Qidah of 1012 AH (April 30, 1604 AD). This copy includes 50 paintings that without doubt have been painted later than the texts, considering that their transcription and style are entirely different from the first five paintings. The specifications of this copy of Shahnameh are not mentioned in any of the manuscript books listing, except for Francis Richter’s book. Richter believes that fifty paintings existing in this illustrated copy belong to a time later than its transcription. “The first four paintings are not related to the Shanameh’s text, but the fifty other ones inserted into the Shahnameh manuscript correspond to the Shahnameh stories”. This manuscript is described compared to the 1008 AH copy of Shahnameh kept in Niavaran palace-museum. The 1008 AH copy of the Shahnameh is transcribed and illustrated in Herat workshop, while transcription of the 1012 AH Shanameh has begun in Herat library, but its paintings have been completed some years later (the interval between transferring the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan) in the era of Shah Abbas I in a royal workshop in Isfahan.
    The purpose of this research is to identify and introduce the patron, workshop and its illustrators. For this purpose, this research identifies and introduces this version, through the examination of the features such as illumination, the method of painting of the illustrations and comparing it, comparatively and historically with similar copies, artists, patron, and the workshop in which this version has been created. The main question of the present research is that, “what is the ordering workshop”, and “who are the illustrators” of Shahnameh of National Library of France, numbered 490. The methodology of this research is based on a comparative, historical comparison and reviewing of the executive methods of the illustration. For this purpose, written references, and historical and library documents are used. It is concluded that both manuscripts were transcribed under supervision of the same workshop artists. The similarity between paintings in terms of structure and executive method also support this claim. On the other hand, the name of the writer of these two illustrated copies of Shahnameh, i.e. Mohammad Jan Al-Kermani, reinforces this probability. The scribe of this copy has not signed it, but from its execution method and its style and register we can find out that at least three of four artists, have cooperated in creating the paintings of this copy.
    Since this copy is transcribed in 1012 AH and in Herat City, as one of the most prominent painters of this era, we can name Habibullah Savoji. The ruler of that era took him from Qom to Herat and assigned the responsibility of the workshop to him. After that, he was recruited by Shah Abbas I and began his work first in Qazvin and then in Isfahan. Welch in his book “Shah Abbas and Isfahan Artists” writes “He was in the service of Abbas Mirza in Herat and was transferred to Qazvin along with him and was considered one of the court painters”. The visual features of the illustrations of Shahnameh of French National Library represent the characteristics of the Qazvin and Isfahan schools. Considering the position of Habibollah Savoji at that historical period and the influence of his operational method on the illustration of this version of Shahnameh, some of its illustrations can be undoubtedly attributed to him; other illustrations of this version were performed in the manner of Mohammad Heravi. In fact, creativity of the artists who have been active by 1006 AH in royal library of Herat and then in Qazvin, has flourished in Isfahan school, and on the other hand, is followed and supported in Herat and in the library of Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan (Turkman), two patrons of illustrated manuscripts. In sum, cooperation of several painters can be seen in the paintings of the Shahnameh existing in National Library of France. Two of the most notable of these painters are Habibullah Savoji (Mashhadi) and Mohammad Heravi, whose manner of execution is recognizable in this copy of Shahnameh
    Keywords: Persian miniature, School of Qazvin, School of Isfahan, Illustrated Shahnameh, National Library of France