فهرست مطالب

Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine - Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Peyman Saberian, Pir, Hossein Kolivand*, Parisa Hasani, Sharamin, Fatemeh Dadashi, Amir Reza Farhoud Page 1
    Introduction
    The earthquake is one of the most natural catastrophic crises that can cause a lot of casualties. Considering an earthquake-prone country, Iran is ranked as one of the world's most dangerous countries
    Objective
    In this article, we describe the actions taken by emergency medical service (EMS) after the earthquake in Kermanshah, Varzaghan, and Bam and compared the strengths and weaknesses of the emergency response program and the limitations and challenges of this system in dealing with these major crises.
    Method
    This study is a cross-sectional study that compares some of the information and findings related to three earthquakes that occurred in Iran, including Bam, Varzaghan and Sarpol-e-Zahab earthquakes. The data reported in the present article is descriptive and is based on various independent sources such as National Emergency Operation Center, Local Emergency Operations Center (EOC), the EMS of the country, the World Health Organization, the United Nations, the statistics website, the Forensic Data website, the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, conferences and personal interviews. To ensure the credibility of the information, the authors reported data that had been verified by two or more sources.
    Results
    The characteristics of the geographic area of the 3 earthquakes has been described. Post-earthquake response activities were described in details in subheadings including rapid warning and response, surge capacity plan, rapid response teams, emergency medical teams, increasing the capacity of health facilities, increasing transfer capacity, and handling, transportation and distribution of injuries.
    Conclusion
    In the recent earthquake, had been occurred in Sarpol-e-Zahab, the health response of the country was largely satisfactory. The existence of structures such as EOC at various levels, the unified incident command system, emergency operations plan, and Medical Care Monitoring Center are among the most important reasons for satisfactory performance.
    Keywords: Civil Defense, Earthquakes, Emergency Medical Services, Patient Transfer, Surge Capacity
  • Saeed Safari, Ali Faghfouri*, Ashkan Vahdati Page 2
    Introduction
    Policymaking in order to increase the quality of medical journals needs having accurate data from their current status.
    Objective
    The present study was designed with the aim of introducing a demographic scheme of Iranian journals in the field of medical sciences.
    Method
    This cross-sectional study was performed on all the medical journals being published in Iran in 2016. The list of all journal titles was extracted by referring to the medical journals databanks (ministry of health, Magiran, IranMedex, Irandoc and…), and the data required for the study were gathered using journals’ homepages or by phone or in person, by attending the journal’s office.
    Results
    Totally, 521 journals were assessed. Publication language used was English in 297 (57%) journals and 515 (98.85%) were open access. 381 (73.1%) journals were published quarterly and the year of starting publication was 2010 onwards in case of 245 (48.0%) of journals. There were 29 (5.56%) journals, which were indexed in all 3 databases of ISI, PubMed and Scopus. Only 4.81% of the journals had an official impact factor announced by Thomson-Reuters or Clarivate Analytics Company. Mean time needed for review of articles was 1.89 ± 1.52 (0.5 – 12) months (n = 146) and mean time interval between accepting an article and its print or electronic publication was 3.63 ± 2.17 (0 – 12) months (n = 144). Rate of membership of these journals in COPE and ICMJE were 40% and 27%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Most medical journals being published in Iran were English quarterly journals that were regularly published in the fields of general medicine, open access, with university affiliations, centered in the capital, and more than 80% of them had started publishing from 2000 and afterwards.
    Keywords: Abstracting, Indexing as Topic, Iran, Journalism, Medical, Medicine, Publications
  • Ehsan Hajzargarbashi, Rakhshan Rashedi*, Seyedmehdi Pourafzali, Mehrdad Esmailian Page 3
    Introduction
    Waiting time in the hospital directly affects the quality of healthcare providing centers. One of the waiting times in hospital is the time spent waiting for receiving various consultations and visits requested by emergency medicine specialists from specialist services.
    Objective
    The present study was designed and performed to assess the waiting times for receiving specialist visits and consultations requested in the emergency department based on the corresponding service in a referral hospital in Isfahan, Iran.
    Method
    In the present cross-sectional study, patients presenting to emergency department of Dr. Shariati Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from October 2017 to March 2018, who were in need of visit or consultation from other specialist services based on the opinion of the emergency medicine specialist, were studied. By attending the patients’ bedside, the researcher filled out a checklist consisting of demographic data and waiting time of the patients and other probable related factors. Finally, raw data were entered to the computer and after correction of errors were statistically analyzed via SPSS software.
    Results
    Overall, 400 patients with the mean age of 53.3 ± 24.3 years were included in the study, 58.8% of which were male. Mean waiting time for receiving a visit or consultation among the studied patients was 242.0 ± 202.4 (min: 5 and max: 1200) minutes. Mean waiting time for a visit or consultation did not significantly correlate with the corresponding physician being resident or on-call. However, it showed a statistically significant correlation with triage level (p = 0.013), work shift (p = 0.000), type of service requested/the specialist service asked for a consultation or visit (p = 0.049), and the consultation or visit being emergent or non-emergent (p = 0.000). In addition, emergent visits or consultations by on-call physicians had been performed significantly faster than those by resident physicians; while non-emergent visits or consultations by resident physicians had been performed significantly faster than those by on-call physicians (p = 0.001).
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study showed that patients with triage level 2, emergent visit of consultation and a visit or consultation request in the morning or evening shift wait a shorter time for receiving the visit or consultation. In addition, neurosurgery, nephrology, and pediatrics services had the shortest waiting times, while gastroenterology, gynecology, and infectious disease services had the longest waiting times for giving the visit or consultation requested from them.
    Keywords: Appointments, Schedules, Emergency Service, Hospital, Patients
  • Mohammadreza Yasinzadeh, Hamed Basir, Ghafouri, Niloofar Abazarian, Seyed, Mohammad Hosseini, Kasnavieh, Shahrzad Behjat* Page 4
    Introduction
    Hand and wrist soft tissue injuries are common orthopedic problems that are traditionally treated with short arm splint, which covers the forearm to 1 cm distal to the elbow crease.
    Objective
    The present study was conducted to compare the treatment efficacy of traditional standard-size splint with half-length short arm splint.
    Method
    In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial, patients with hand and wrist soft tissue injuries were randomly assigned to two groups. Group one received standard-sized short arm splints and the other group received half-length short arm splints. The swelling and pain scores were compared between the groups by the end of weeks one, two and three.
    Results
    A total of 256 patients with a mean age of 36.96 ± 12.27 years were enrolled in this study, and 71.9% of them were male. No statistically significant differences were observed in terms of swelling between the two groups after one and two weeks (P=0.41, P=0.18). None of the patients had swelling after three weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the pain score after one, two and three weeks (P=0.47, P=0.29, P=0.92).
    Conclusion
    In this study, half-length short arm splints were found to be as effective as standard short arm splints.
    Keywords: Immobilization, Hand, Soft Tissue Injuries, Splints, Wrist
  • Mohammad, Taghi Talebian, Sahar Mirbaha, Elnaz Davarinezhad, Moghadam, Pooya Payandemehr * Page 5
    Introduction
    Migraine is a frequent chief complaint of patients in the emergency department. A wide range of treatments are used for acute migraine.
    Objective
    This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of a combination of metoclopramide + dexamethasone with those of ketorolac for treatment of acute migraine in the emergency department.
    Method
    This quasi-experimental study enrolled patients identified as migraine headache cases admitted to the emergency departments of Shohadaye Tajrish and Sina hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The patients were divided into two groups and treated with either 8 mg Dexamethasone + 10 mg Metoclopramide or 60 mg ketorolac, and then compared regarding the rate of pain control based on visual analogue scale (VAS) on arrival and 1 and 2 hours afterward.
    Results
    Overall, 86 patients were recruited, of whom 50 were male (58.1%). Their mean age was 37.6 ± 10.3 years. Thirty-five (40.7%) were in the ketorolac group and 51 (59.3%) were in the dexamethasone + metoclopramide group. Treatment success was defined as a reduction of at least 3 points in pain severity in comparison to the admission time. One hour after administration of medications, the reported pain intensity was 4.7 ± 2.0 and 6.2 ± 2.3 in ketorolac group and dexamethasone + metoclopramide group, respectively. By the second hour, pain intensity was 3.4 ± 1.2 and 2.9 ± 1.3 in ketorolac group and dexamethasone + metoclopramide group, respectively. The two groups did not show a significant difference in terms of the reported pain at this time (p= 0.04).
    Conclusion
    Based on our findings, the pain reduction time was relatively shorter for ketorolac in acute migraine, but the final response was identical in the two groups.
    Keywords: Dexamethasone, Emergency Department, Hospital, Ketorolac, Metoclopramide, Migraine Disorders, Pain Management
  • Morteza Noaparast, Karamollah Toolabi, Azadeh Hghiri* Page 6
    Introduction
    Training is the primary route of attaining required skills among residents in general surgery.
    Objective
    This study was conducted to evaluate the minimum number of required sessions for attaining basic skills in laparoscopic surgery in a skill-lab among surgical residents.
    Method
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Imam-Khomeini Hospital during 2012. A total of 20 surgical residents were enrolled. There were 45–60 mins sessions weekly, which included the following seven elementary skills: first knot tie, second knot tie, peg exchange, peg drop, rope pass, needle pass, and paper cut. These skills were evaluated weekly, and qualitative evaluations were done every 2 weeks.
    Results
    Mean age of the 20 surgical residents was 32.2 ± 4.7 years, and 55.6% of them were males. The median session counts were as follows: six sessions for first knot tie, six sessions for second knot tie, three sessions for peg exchange, eight sessions for needle pass, and five sessions for paper cut.
    Conclusion
    Based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that relatively five sessions are required for acquiring basic skills in laparoscopic surgery by surgical residents.
    Keywords: Laparoscopy, Simulation Training, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
  • Atasi Bhattacharjee, Arpith Easo Samuel* Page 7
    Introduction
    Pancytopenia can be caused by underlying disorders such as certain autoimmune conditions, leukemia or even a few nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency most commonly presents as megaloblastic anemia but can also be associated with pancytopenia. It can present with a range of symptoms associated with anemia and gastrointestinal or neurological systems. Understanding the etiology of the deficiency is crucial for initiating proper treatments.
    Case Report
    A 19-year-old patient presented with complaints of dyspnea and fever, myalgia and generalized tiredness. Examinations found him to suffer pancytopenia and esophageal candidiasis caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. This deficiency can be associated to inadequate intake and the diet of the patient as a vegetarian. Parenteral B12 treatment led the patient to symptomatically improve.
    Conclusion
    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a reversible cause of bone marrow failure and can be easily treated if diagnosed early enough. Eggs and animal-derived foods constitute the usual source of this vitamin. Vitamin B12 deficiency should therefore be of high index suspicion to a clinician if the patient presents in similar conditions with a vegetarian diet. In the event of the deficiency being caused by inadequate intake or intrinsic factor deficiency, the treatment can be started quickly leading to the dramatic improvement of the patient’s condition.
    Keywords: Anemia_Megaloblastic_Dyspnea_Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
  • Nadien Khaled Fahim, Ahmed Negida*, Ahmed Khaled Fahim Page 8
    In the previous educational articles, we explained how to calculate the sample size for a rate or a single proportion and how to calculate the sample size for an independent cohort study. In this article, we will explain how to calculate the sample size for an independent case-control study based on the odds ratios or two proportions representing the exposure rates in the case and the control groups.