فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Heibatullah Kalantari, Azin Samimi, Soheila Alboghobeish, Pooria Taghavi Moghadam, Marzieh Zeinvand , Lorestani * Pages 1-6
    Background and Objective
    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a widespread problem; the role of brain oxidative stress has been suggested in the genesis of epilepsy and in the post-seizure neuronal death. However, studies investigating the effects of arsenic on seizure and related mechanisms are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of prolonged exposure to sodium arsenite on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, male NMRI mice received sodium arsenite (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) in the drinking water for a period of 30 days. After exposure, all animals were injected PTZ (PTZ; 85 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce seizure, and the seizure parameters were evaluated for 30 minutes. Then, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in the brain.  
    Results
    The results of this study showed that sodium arsenite decreases the latency to the seizure onset and time of death (p<0.05). The greatest effect was observed at concentration of 50 ppm. The data indicated that exposure to sodium arsenite increases the levels of MDA (p<0.05) and decreased the levels of GSH in brain (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that PTZ effects potentiated by arsenic and oxidative damage involved in exacerbation of arsenic convulsive effects. Considering the role of arsenic in brain tissue damage following the seizure, it is recommended to control arsenic in drinking water.
    Keywords: Sodium arsenite, Oxidative damage, Seizure, Pentylenetetrazole
  • Mohammadreza Khodaie, Neda Alibeigi, Venous Mirzaei * Pages 7-14
    Background and Objective
    Considering the hypothesis of the effects of the use of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid on the improvement of oxidative stress induced by schizophrenia, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid as an adjunctive therapy with risperidone in controlling the symptoms of schizophrenia.
    Materials and Methods
    This randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients with schizophrenia admitted to Tehran's Razi hospital of psychiatry in 2018. The patients were divided into control and intervention groups. The group treated with ascorbic acid received this drug daily at 500 mg twice daily and the placebo group received a similar drug, similar to ascorbic acid, at the same rate for 4 months. The PANSS (Positive & Negative Symptom Scale) questionnaire was used to determine the status of the positive and negative symptoms and the SCORS (Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale) questionnaire was used to determine the cognitive status at the end of weeks 8 and 16 when entering the study. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Wilcoxon in SPSS 20 software.
    Results
    The effect of ascorbic acid on the positive and negative symptoms of patients at the 8th and 16th weeks showed that after eight weeks of treatment, among the positive symptoms, conceptual disorganization, excitement, hostility and grandiosity, among the negative symptoms, blunted affect has had a significant improvement relative to before intervention. After 16 weeks of treatment, except difficulty in abstract thinking, all of the symptoms showed a significant improvement compared with the symptoms of the patients before the study. Compared to ascorbic acid, the effect of placebo on all of the positive and negative symptoms and other symptoms in most cases was not significant. Regarding the effect of ascorbic acid on the cognitive symptoms of patients in the 8th and 16th week, there was no significant difference in the few numbers of cognitive symptoms in the eighth week, although after eight weeks, overall cognitive symptoms were significantly improved (p<0.05). In addition, after 16 weeks of treatment, almost all of the parameters of the cognitive symptoms and the total of cognitive symptoms were significantly improved compared to the pre-intervention (p<0.01). Compared to ascorbic acid, the effect of placebo on cognitive symptoms in most cases was not significant (P >0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that ascorbic acid, having its antioxidant effects after sixteen weeks of treatment, reduced the patients' positive and negative symptoms and their cognitive symptoms. Compared to ascorbic acid, the effect of placebo on cognitive symptoms and positive and negative symptoms was not significant in most cases.
    Keywords: Schizophrenia, Ascorbic Acid, Risperidone, Positive & Negative Symptom, Cognitive Symptoms
  • Iman Ansari *, Faramarz Fallahi, Ali Ghanem, Elnaz Babakhani, Zahra Hashemi, Ensieh Mohammadian, Saeid Sadeghian, Jafar Bolhari, Nader Fallah Pages 15-20
    Background and Objective
    Depression is one of the most common psychological problems, which can elevate the risks of cardiovascular complications. This study was performed with the aim of retrospectively reviewing the relationship between these two illnesses in middle-aged people.
    Materials and Methods
    In this case control study, 200 patients were randomly chosen as the case group from among patients whose diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was confirmed by angiography, women younger than 55 and men younger than 45, and another 200 patients without IHD were chosen as control subjects. In order to assess the patients’ depression, Beck’s Depression Questionnaire was used in both groups. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.16 software  .
    Results
    Results of the Beck’s Questionnaire taken from both groups showed a mean score of 13.9±8.48 in the case group and 10±5.93 in the control group (p<0.001). Moreover, the difference between the two groups pertaining to the severity of depression was also found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Also, more women were found to be clinically depressed compared to men (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Depression is considered an independent risk factor for the development of IHD, moreover, based on the previous studies conducted, risk of developing IHD are higher among those already affected by depression and in middle-aged people which needs further analyses and studies to be conducted in order to better understand this relationship and to better develop treatment strategies.
    Keywords: Depression, Ischemic Heart Disease, Middle-aged
  • Mohsen Rezaee, Fatemeh Hajighasemi * Pages 21-26
    Background and Objective
    Peganum harmala is a medicinal plant that has been used for treatment of numerous diseases including viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Anti-proliferative and anti-tumor effects of Peganum harmala extracts and its derivatives have been reported. In the present study, cytotoxic effect of Peganum harmala seeds aquaous extract on leukemic U937 and Molt-4 cells was evaluated in vitro.
    Materials and Methods
    U937 and Molt-4 cells were cultured in RPMI with 10% FBS. Then, the cells at logarithmic growth phase were incubated with different concentrations of aquaous extract of Peganum harmala seeds (0.1-5 mg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Then, viability and proliferative response of leukemic cell lines was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion (TB) and MTT assays, respectively.
    Results
    Peganum harmala aquaous extract has a cytotoxic effect on leukemic cells used in this study, dose and time-dependently. This cytotoxicity was shown at ≥ 0.5 mg/ml after 24 hours and at ≥ 0.1 mg/ml after 48 and 72 hours incubation time. The Peganum harmala seeds aqueous extract cytotoxicity at > 0.2 mg/ml concentration was significantly increased with time in this order: 72 h>48 h>24 h.
    Conclusion
    The leukemic cells used in this study showed sensitivity to Peganum harmala seeds aquaous extract dose and time dependently. This sensitivity significantly increased with time at > 0.2 mg/ml concentration. Peganum harmala seeds aquaous extract shows cytotoxicity for leukemic cells and might be a valuable natural candidate in development of innovative therapeutic procedures for leukemia and probably other cancers.
    Keywords: Peganum harmala, cytotoxicity, leukemia
  • Mohammad Niakan, Iman Pouladi *, Rasoul Kaviani, Elham Esmaili Pages 27-30
    Background and Objective
    Nanoparticles have been introduced as novel antimicrobial agents because of their properties that are different from their bulk properties. Present study was aimed to investigate antimicrobial activity of silver nitrate and zinc oxide nanoparticles against three main bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii.
    Materials and Methods
    Solutions of nanoparticles were prepared at various concentrations (31.5-4000 ppm) in a serial method. Disks with various concentrations of nanoparticles were then placed on bacterial cultures for 24 hours and diameter of inhibition was measured after 24 hours of exposure to nanoparticle in incubator. Using a diagram without statistical analysis, diameters of inhibition were compared between various concentrations and kinds of bacteria. Analysis of variance was used to compare the diameter of inhibition between bacteria based on a variety of nanoparticles regarding their concentration.
    Results
    Nanoparticles of zinc oxide made an inhibitory diameter of 13.6 mm at highest concentration to 7 mm at lowest concentration of nanoparticle for S. aureus. For this bacterium, silver nitrate nanoparticle had a larger inhibitory diameter (16.33 mm to 8.67 mm). Zinc oxide nanoparticle did not have an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The maximum inhibitory diameter of silver nitrate nanoparticle on P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii was measured 13.33 mm and 22.67 mm for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. For both bacteria, inhibitory area reached to zero at a concentration of 125 ppm. Inhibitory areas of silver nitrate were significantly greater than those for zinc oxide (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    In summary, silver nitrate nanoparticles have greater antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was restricted to gram-positive bacteria.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Nanoparticles, Silver nitrate, Zinc oxide, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii
  • Zohreh Kaedi, Jamshai Narenjkar, Mehrdad Roghani * Pages 31-36
    Background and Objective
    Lipolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule isolated from bacteria such as the enterobacteriaceae family with a negative effect on memory and learning through disturbing the balance of free radicals and creating oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we evaluated  the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and LPS-induced memory impairment in the rat.
    Materials and Methods
    Male rats (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, control under treatment with quercetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg, LPS, and LPS groups treated with quercetin at doses of 10 or 50 mg/kg. For induction of inflammation, LPS dissolved in normal saline (500 μg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After one week, the passive avoidance behavior was tested in the shuttle box and hippocampal homogenate was prepared. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured using specific kits. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16).
    Results
    Step-through latency (STL) in quercetin50-treated LPS group was significantly greater than control group (p<0.05). In addition, AChE activity and level of MDA was significantly lower in quercetin50-treated LPS group versus LPS group (p<0.05). Meanwhile, quercetin at a dose of 10 mg/kg did not have such a significant effect.
    Conclusion
    Quercetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg has a protective effect on learning and memory impairment due to LPS and part of its beneficial effect is mediated via attenuation of lipid peroxidation and AChE.
    Keywords: Lipolysaccharide, Quercetin, Neuroinflammation, Lipid peroxidation, Cholinesterase
  • Amirhossein Gaeini, Fatemeh Hajighasemi * Pages 37-42
    Background and Objective
    Carvedilol, a non-specific β-blocker, has been used for treatment of hypertension, stroke and congestive heart failure. The therapeutic effects of β blockers in cancer patients have been shown. Carvedilol has considerable anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties. In this study, the effects of carvedilol on proliferation of human U937 and Molt-4 leukemic cells were studied in vitro.
    Materials and Methods
    Human leukemic T cells [Molt-4] and monocytes [U937] were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 complete medium and were treated with different concentrations of carvedilol (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cytotoxicity of carvedilol on U937 and Molt-4 cells was determined using MTT (3-[4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay.
    Results
    Carvedilol significantly decreased human U937 and Molt-4 leukemic cells proliferation, concentration- and time-dependently in comparison with control cells.
    Conclusion
    According to our results, carvedilol has anti-proliferative effect on U937 and Molt-4 leukemic cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Thus, carvedilol might be a useful candidate for treatment of leukemic patients as well as other cancers.
    Keywords: Carvedilol, U937, Molt-4, Sensitivity