فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products - Volume:14 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:14 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Olusegun Abayomi Olalere *, Hamid Nour Abdurahman , Rosli Bin Mohd Yunus , Oluwaseun Ruth Alara Page 1
    Background
    Black- and white pepper extracts are natural products, which had been extensively used in food industries as a seasoning agent, and in herbal medicine for the treatment of many free radical-related diseases. Owing to the medicinal and nutritive benefits of this functional spice, the need then arises to find a way of extracting its fixed oil at optimum condition.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction parameters on the extraction yield, antioxidant activities, microstructure, functional group characteristics, and elemental composition of fixed oils extracted from the two cultivars.
    Methods
    Extraction of fixed oil was carried out using a heat reflux extraction technique. The dietary elemental composition was conducted using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The effect of localized heating on the extracts was evaluated to determine the structural changes in the pepper sample using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
    Results
    The optimal fixed oil yields under the optimum condition were 10.38 mg/g for the black pepper and 15.27 for the white pepper. The antiradical powers (ARP) of 0.007985 and 0.009046 mL/µg were obtained for black- and white pepper fixed oil, respectively. This suggests that the fixed oil from white pepper exhibited higher antiradical characteristics than black pepper fixed oil. The results of BET-parameters revealed the percentage of deformations related to the black- and white pepper under the localized heating was 21.47% and 29.14%, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The results revealed a greater deformation on the microstructure of white pepper than black pepper. Moreover, rich dietary elements present in the extracts succinctly unveiled the potential of fixed oil extracts in curative applications and preventive traditional medicine.
    Keywords: Antiradical Power, Dietary Elements, Heat Reflux Extraction, Localized Heating, Black-, White Pepper
  • Seyyed Mohammad Hosein Ale Omrani Nejad , Hassanali Naghdi Badi *, Ali Mehrafarin , Vahid Abdossi , Farahnaz Khalighi, Sigaroodi Page 2
    Background
    Environmental factors may affect qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil in medicinal plants.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of macro environmental factors on essential oils content and composition of Iranian populations of Oliveria decumbens.
    Methods
    The aerial parts of 25 wild populations of Oliveria decumbens Vent. were collected from various natural habitats in the southwest of Iran. The essential oil of samples was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Therefore, macro environmental factors were determined by the PCA method. The correlations between the factors were calculated based on the Pearson correlation coefficient.
    Results
    The major compounds of essential oils were thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and y-terpinene, respectively, with an average of 28.77%, 25.31%, 14.02%, and 8.12%. The results showed that the altitude, mean evaporative per month (MEM) and Mean Day Temperature (MDT) were effective macro environmental factors on essential oil, thymol, and carvacrol content.
    Conclusions
    The highest content of essential oil, thymol, and carvacrol was related to warm and semi-humid regions.
    Keywords: Oliveria decumbens Vent., Essential Oil, Environmental Factors, Thymol, Population
  • Maryam Ekhtelat *, Maryam Maghamesi Mahmoodi , Ali Fazlara , Forough Namjoyan Page 3
    Background
    Medicinal herbs have a long record of application in therapy throughout the world. Today, knowledge and public acceptability of the usage of herbal drugs is on a growing trend. However, medicinal plants may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms. Enterococci are among nosocomial pathogens that are commonly found in large numbers in foods, plant materials, and vegetables.
    Objectives
    We aimed to detect enterococci contamination in industrial and traditional medicinal herbs by using standard and impedance methods.
    Methods
    Eighty samples of industrial and traditional medicinal herb samples (40 per group) were analyzed for the detection of enterococci by using standard and impedimetric techniques.
    Results
    In general, Enterococcus contamination rate in herb samples was found to be 33.7% and 25% by using standard and impedimetric methods, respectively. McNemar’s test did not reflect any significant difference between the two methods in identifying Enterococcus contamination. Comparing the results of enterococci contamination obtained from the two methods, no significant differences were found between the industrial and traditional samples, although contamination was greater in traditional herb samples.
    Conclusions
    The current standard methods for detecting enterococci are labor-intensive and time-consuming compared to advanced methods such as impedance. However, based on our results, sensitivity and specificity of impedance method could vary based on the type of samples being evaluated. However, it is recommended to perform further diagnostic tests for confirming our results.
    Keywords: Enterococci Contamination, Medicinal Herbs, Standard, Impedance
  • Asma Karamkhani , Jasem Saki * Page 4
    Background
    Blastocystis hominis are anaerobic protozoan parasites that belong to the family stramenopiles. They are found in the human large intestine and infect a variety of vertebrates.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of sea cucumber on induction of apoptosis in Blastocystis hominis cysts in order to introduce a novel potential drug combination.
    Methods
    After mass proliferation of Blastocystis hominis cysts in RPMI1640 medium, 100 µL of sea cucumber extracts with the concentrations ranged from 1 µg/mL to 256 µg/mL and 100 µL of parasite culture medium containing 1.5 × 105 cells were added to 96 well plates. The plates were kept at 37°C for 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure and then the effect of the extracts was assessed using MTT assay. To differentiate between apoptosis and necrosis, the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract was determined after 72 hours using flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation tests.
    Results
    The value of IC50 after the exposure of the parasites with different concentrations of the methanol extracts for 24, 48 and 72 hours were 219, 56 and 21 µg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of apoptosis was shown after 72 hours exposure of the parasites to the extract with a concentration of 21 µg/mL using flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation tests.
    Conclusions
    This study showed that methanol extract of sea cucumber can induce apoptosis in Blastocystis hominis. Therefore, further studies for determining the effectiveness of this extract in vivo condition can help to achieve an appropriate drug combination for treatment of Blastocystis hominis.
    Keywords: Blastocysts hominies, Sea Cucumber, Holothurian leucospilota, Apoptosis
  • Leila Yavari , Behrooz Heidari *, Saber Khodabandeh , Mahvash Hadavi Page 5
    Background
    Sea anemones are toxic sedentary invertebrates that are often present in the intertidal zone.
    Objectives
    In this study, cytotoxic effects of the crude extract and its fractions from the oral disk of Stichodactyla haddoni on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were investigated.
    Methods
    Samples were collected from the intertidal zone in the Persian Gulf. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and Millipore filters were used to prepare the crude extract and its fractions, respectively. MCF-7 cells were exposed to the crude extract or one of its five fractions, (with molecular weights < 3 kDa to > 100 kDa) at concentrations of 200 to 1400 μg/mL for 24 to 48 hours.
    Results
    All treatments inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cancer cells. The highest inhibitory effect belonged to fractions 2 and 5, with 85 and 81.3% lethality, respectively. These fractions with the concentration of 1200 and 1400 μg/mL had the most anticancer effects against MCF-7.
    Conclusions
    The 1200 μg/mL concentration of fraction 5 containing peptides < 3 kDa is recommended for separation and purification of its components for pharmacological studies to control breast cancer.
    Keywords: Sea Anemone, Cancer, Peptide, MCF-7
  • Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi Birgani, Mansour Zabihzadeh , Saeideh Aliakbari *, Mohammad Ali Behrouz , Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Page 6
    Background
    Lead has been widely used for internal shielding. It is recognized as a toxic material that pollutes the environment and does not fit well the patient's body because of its inflexibility.
    Objectives
    In this study, a specific combination (70% W, 18.61% Ni, and 11.39% C) of lead-free and flexible putty metal was introduced and validated for internal shielding by Monte Carlo study.
    Methods
    To evaluate the putty metal for internal shielding by Monte Carlo study, Varian 2100 C/D was validated within measurements. Then, using the given energy spectrum of Varian 2100 C/D, the shield thickness and backscatter factors were calculated by Monte Carlo study and compared with those of lead.
    Results
    The results showed that this putty metal shield required a comparable thickness compared to lead for providing protection. In addition, it is nontoxic and flexible and can be easily cut. Internal shielding with high atomic number materials causes dose enhancement that is not taken into account in treatment planning systems. This study showed that this composition as an internal shield causes 5% - 7% reduction in electron backscatter factor compared to lead.
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that lead can be replaced by putty metal with a specific combination (70% W, 18.61% Ni, and 11.39% C). It is lead-free and flexible and its required thickness for protection is acceptable under clinical condition. It causes a 5% - 7% reduction in electron backscattering.
    Keywords: Flexible Internal Shielding, Dose Enhancement, Electron Backscattering
  • Hossein Piri , Faezah Seyyed, Attaran , Nematollah Gheibi , Reza Najafipour , Majid Sirati, Sabet , Sajjad Asl, Fallah , Dariush Ilghari * Page 7
    Background
    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b) plays a crucial role in cell signaling pathway, regulating several key biological processes, including cellular differentiation and proliferation. Different types of cancers, including breast cancer, have also been associated with various genetic alterations in the kinase domain of FGFR2b.
    Objectives
    The present study was conducted to shed new light on a possible mechanism, by which flavonoids alter FGF cell signaling.
    Methods
    Recombinant pLEICS-01 expression vectors containing the gene encoding the FGFR2b kinase domain were transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3). Expression of the recombinant protein was then induced with IPTG. Next, the protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein functionality was assessed using PAGE, by analyzing interactions of the protein with the wild type and the mutant SH2 domains of phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ). Finally, stability and structural changes of the kinase domain were studied upon interaction with gallic acid, naringenin, quercetin and catechin.
    Results
    The PAGE analysis clearly demonstrated that the recombinant protein interacts only with the wild type SH2 domains of PLC-γ, suggesting the kinase domain is functional. The results also showed that presence of the flavonoids cause a red-shift in the intrinsic fluorescence emission spectra of the kinase domain, suggesting a change in the overall structure of the kinase domain. Further structural studies, using a comprehensive step chemical denaturation analysis, conspicuously showed that the presence of the flavonoids significantly changed the tertiary structure of the kinase domain.
    Conclusions
    The comprehensive structural analyses revealed that the flavonoids significantly impinge on the tertiary structure of the kinase domain thereby suppressing fibroblast growth factor signaling.
    Keywords: Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Tyrosine Kinase, Flavonoids, Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • Seyede, Arefe Payami , Hossein Babaahmadi, Rezaei , Mohammad, Ali Ghaffari , Esrafil Mansouri , Ghorban Mohammadzadeh * Page 8
    Background
    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, commonly known as ginger, has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic properties.
    Objectives
    We assessed the effects of Z. officinale hydroalcoholic extract on the P-p65 protein level and kidney damage in the rats with diabetic nephropathy.
    Methods
    In this experimental study 16 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including healthy control, diabetic control given 1.5 mL/kg distilled water, and diabetic treated with 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The renal function tests were assessed by using a biochemical analyzer. The P-p65 protein level and kidney histology were assessed by western blot and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, respectively.
    Results
    Diabetic rats showed kidney dysfunction, as verified by increased blood glucose, blood creatinine, proteinuria, and urine 24-hour volume, accompanied by an elevation in the body weight and ratio of the kidney weight to body weight. An improvement in these abnormalities were significantly observed after treatment with the extract (P < 0.05). Moreover, histological changes of kidneys in diabetic rats treated with the extract significantly improved. In diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg of the extract a significant reduction in the level of P-p65 was detected (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Beneficial effect of Z. officinale hydroalcoholic extract in rats with diabetic nephropathy at least mediated by its anti-hyperglycemic effect that accompanied by inhibition of NF-KB signaling pathway through reduction of P-p65 protein level.
    Keywords: Diabetic Nephropathy, NF-?B, Ginger, P-p65
  • Pouria Jarsiah , Mohammad Karami , Anahita Nosrati , Ahad Alizadeh , Mohammad Bagher Hashemi, Soteh * Page 9
    Background
    Acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning is the most common drug intoxication, which often leads to acute liver failure and necrosis of liver tissue following the use of its excessive amounts.
    Objectives
    In this study, the effects of toxic and therapeutic doses of acetaminophen were assessed on miR-122 and miR-192 compared to aminotransferase (AST and ALT) and liver pathological lesions in rats at the first and third hours of injection.
    Methods
    In this study, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected and divided into eight groups (four groups for the first-hour and four groups for the third-hour injection). In the case groups, three groups after one hour and three groups after three hours of injecting with APAP doses (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally were sampled and killed. Changes in necropsy and macroscopic features of the rat liver were recorded after staining. The plasma levels of miR-122 and miR-192 were evaluated using the real-time PCR method and plasma levels of liver enzymes such as AST and ALT were measured by using an automated analyzer.
    Results
    The histopathological examination at the dose of 150 mg/kg revealed mild hyperemia and edema in the portal areas, as well as mild infiltration of inflammatory cells. Centrilobular necrosis was mild at 300 mg/kg. ALT and AST activities were not significantly different between the case and control groups at the first hour, but they were significant between the groups receiving APAP for three hours. Moreover, the results of miRNA were significant at different times and doses (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Due to the ability to induce a protective system against acetaminophen toxicity, the plasma level of miR-122 and miR-192 activity at the early hours will be more helpful than measuring ALT and AST levels (P < 0.05).
    Keywords: Acetaminophen, AST-ALT, miR-122, miR-192, Biomarker
  • Ardeshir Arzi, Hoda Mojiri, Forushani *, Neda Sistani Karampour Page 10
    Background
    Vitex agnus-castus is a source of phytoestrogens and is used traditionally in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. The beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on anxiety have been shown in some studies.
    Objectives
    In this research, we aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of hydroalcoholic V. agnus-castus extract in animal models.
    Methods
    For analyzing the antianxiety effects of the extracts, the elevated plus-maze test was applied. Thirty minutes before the test, different doses of V. agnus-castus (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were administered to mice. Diazepam and saline were used as the positive and negative controls, respectively. Tamoxifen was used as an antagonist of estrogen receptors to clarify the role of estrogen.
    Results
    The time spent in the open arms increased at all doses of V. agnus-castus, while entries to closed arms reduced than the controls. Groups which received tamoxifen or a combination of tamoxifen with a high dose of V. angus-castus did not show any anti-anxiety effects.
    Conclusions
    V. agnus-castus extract exhibited anti-anxiety effects and can be used in the treatment of the anxiety behaviors. Phytoestrogens from V. agnus-castus interact with estrogen receptors, which may be the underlying mechanism of its anxiolytic activity.
    Keywords: Vitex agnus-castus, Elevated Plus-Maze, Anxiety, Tamoxifen, Phytoestrogen
  • Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Farideh Vaziri *, Fatemeh Najib, Samira Nasiri, Saeedeh Pourahmad Page 11
    Background
    Beyond the vital function of vitamin D in the homeostasis of calcium balance, possible widespread effects of vitamin D are shown in numerous studies.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at evaluating the effects of vitamin D supplement on thyroid function and postnatal depression.
    Methods
    In the current randomized experimental study, the vitamin D group presented with two 1000 IU vitamin D3 pills (2000 IU) daily from 26th to 28th week of gestation until birth; however, the control group received placebo. Inter- and intra-group comparisons were performed in terms of maternal serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and 4th week postnatal depression score.
    Results
    At birth, changes in maternal serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.004). The two study groups were not different significantly in terms of TSH, FT4, and TPO levels at birth (P > 0.05). While, at 4th week postnatal, depression score was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.002).
    Conclusions
    Vitamin D, 2000 IU /day in late pregnancy could induce a significant difference in the 4th week postnatal depression score independent of thyroid function.
    Keywords: Thyroid Function, Postnatal Depression, Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3