فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue:5, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/08/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
|
  • Rasoul Azimi, Ali Reza Vatankhah*, Salah Kouchakzadeh Pages 145-156
    Some statistical models have been studied to predict peak discharge and average breach width from a breached embankment dam based on past dam failure data. The suggested models peak discharge Qp, has related to average width of the embankment Wavg, water volume above the breach bottom at the time of failure Vw, height of water above the breach bottom at the time of failure Hw, height of the embankment above the breach bottom Hb. Our models are presented with different independent variables for peak outflow prediction. In addition, average breach width Bavg, has related to Vw and Hb besides failure mode for empirical model. A comparison between the estimated with actual data shows reasonable agreement to proposed models.
    Keywords: Average breach width, Dam failure, Embankment, Peak discharge
  • Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Shahram Mahoud Soltani*, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Jalal Karbalaei Aghamolki, Mohamed Hanafi Musa Pages 157-168
    Increased evidences have shown that agricultural crop production to be constrained by heat stress that can significantly reduce crop growth and development as well as nutrients uptake. Nitrogen and potassium are two macro-essential nutrients that influence a number of biochemical and physiological processes that involve in crop production, and also contribute to the survival of crop exposed to high temperature tension. Therefore, the current glasshouse experiment was conducted to explore the effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers application on the resistance of rice against heat stress. The highest decrease in morphological and physiological characteristics were observed in aborted spikelets per panicle about 2 time, chlorophyll content by 4.23% and plant height by 2.43% over control, meanwhile the fertile spikelets per panicle by 38.5%, grain yield by 25.25%, the numbers of tillers per hill by 10.76% and effective tillers per hill by 9.1% decreased in heat stress pots. In case of macronutrients uptake, the highest decreased in N uptake was observed in straw by 12.45% and followed by total (12.21%) and grain (11.68%), meanwhile K uptake was decrease in order of grain(28.96%)> total (18.26%)>straw (13.43%) (P<0.05). The highest rate of single N application in both sources remediated the morphological characters between 15 to 63%, meanwhile the single K application increased them about 2%. Also, the fertilizers management remediated the negative effect of heat stress in order of: yield (<2 times), fertile spikelets (< 2 times), effective tillers (57.6%) and 1000 grains weight (about 4%) compare to control in applied heat treatments. With respect to single application of N and K that increased the N and K uptake (grain, total and straw) averagely about 2.2 and 1.2 times more than control at heat stress pots, respectively, the highest levels of urea and applied K, increased all uptake parameters averagely about 2-3 times.
    Keywords: Rice, heat stress, fertilizers management, uptake
  • Mohammad Momeni, Ebrahim Ganji, Moghadam*, Ahmad Asgharzadeh, Hashem Kazemzadeh Beneh Pages 169-175
    The juniper (Juniperus polycarpos) is enable to growth at the extremist of the geology, climatology and hydrology condition. The emptiness seed, embryo degeneration and seed dormancy are problems which necessitate the application of biotechnological technique to propagate mentioned juniper plant in vitro. Obtaining high efficiency of surface sterilization in order to prevent explants contamination and browning is necessary to success at initiate stage of juniper micropropagation. So, the effects of formulated of hypochlorite sodium, mercury chloride and ethanol as surface sterilization treatments on shoot tip explants of juniper were investigated. Optimized surface sterilization had a significantly effect on decrease contamination and browning in shoot tip explants (P<0.01). The results showed that surface sterilization treatments inhibited microbial or fungal contamination and browning of explants which can be minimized by optimizing mercuric chloride pretreatments. The formulated duration and concentration of hypochlorite sodium not only had no appreciable suppression effect on the contamination and browning in explants but also the browning extension in culture medium like same control was accelerated. It was found that mercuric chloride sterilization had distinguish or effective more than hypochlorite sodium on decrease contamination or browning. In contrast, lowest contamination or browning in culture medium and explants was displayed by formulated mercuric chloride. Therefore, the results suggested that in tissue plants if the aim is micropropagation of Juniperus polycarpos, elimination browning or having contaminated-free plants could be get in initiate state by using optimized mercuric chloride (Ethanol 70% at 1 min- sterile distilled water (SWD)- HgCl2 0.1% at 3 min-SDW) as surface sterilization.
    Keywords: Juniper, Surface sterilization, Browning, Hypochlorite sodium, Mercuric chloride
  • Vahid Roumi*, Mohammad Reza Azamparsa Pages 176-184
    Typical rust symptoms were observed on leaves of Gajea lutea plants collected from wheat fields in Maragheh, Northwest of Iran, in May 2017. Black, circular to elongated or diamond-shaped telial pustules 1-3 mm long were found on both sides of the leaves. Under light microscope, stalked, one- celled teliospores 22.5-37.5×17.5-22.5 μm were observed. The ITS region of DNA was amplified from teliospores and sequenced. Based on classical and molecular analyses, we report Uromyces Gagea from Iran.
    Keywords: Gajea lutea, ITS, rust, Teliospore, Recombination
  • Shahram Mahmoud Soltani*, Mohamed Musa Hanafi, Abdul Wahid Samsuri, Sharifah Kharidah Pages 185-192
    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the lime and Zn application and interactions on rice, yield and yield components, and rice quality in various Zn deficit tropical paddy soil types. The tiller number, plant height and straw dry matter at maximum tillering and flowering stages significantly increased by the application of lime and both at 5 and 10 kg ha-1 Zn levels in Kundur (KUR) (pH= 5.2) and Telemong (TLM) (pH=7) soil series, whereas in Tepus (TEP) acid sulphate soil (pH=4), they increased in 5 kg ha-1 Zn and decrease at 10 kg ha-1. The grain per panicle(GPP), grain yield(GY), 1000grain weight(1000GW) and straw dry matter(SDW) significantly increased by application of Zn and increasing its levels. The highest increasing pattern were showed in Kundur (pH= 5.2) and Telemong (pH=7) soil series were recorded at 10 kg ha-1, whereas the highest and lowest values were obtained at 5 kg ha-1 and at 10 kg ha-1 in Tepus acid sulphate soil (pH=4). The highest grain and straw yield were obtained in TEP at 5 kg ha-1Zn level, which were 56 and 23% more than untreated Zn pots. The highest crude protein (CP) and grain Zn (GZn) were observed by 10 kg ha-1 applied Zn, 44% and 60% more than control, respectively. However, by lime addition CP and GZn decreased about 16 and 22% over the non-treated plots. The agronomic biofortification strategies such as Zn fertilization application and soil amendment addition improved rice MR219grain productivity and biofortification an average of 60%.
    Keywords: Rice, Zinc, Lime, Tropical paddy soil, Biofortification