فهرست مطالب

Health Scope - Volume:8 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Abbas Rezaianzadeh , Masoume Mousave , Soheil Hassanipour , Ahmad Maghsoudi , Ali Mohammad Mokhtari , Seyedeh Leila Dehghani * Page 1
    Context
    Depression is common among breast cancer (BC) patients. Several studies have evaluated the prevalence of depression among BC patients in Iran. Hence, in order to have more in-depth knowledge regarding its prevalence, all available studies were systematically reviewed and their data were analyzed using a meta-analysis.
    Evidence Acquisition
    A systematic search was conducted to find all published studies on the prevalence of depression in BC patients in the international databases (Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Sciences), and Iranian databases (Scientific Information Database, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc) until February 2016. This systematic review was done according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.
    Results
    In total, nine eligible papers (out of 240) were entered into the analysis. The overall prevalence of depression in BC patients was 44% (95% CI: 35% - 52%). The results of Cochran’s test showed the heterogeneity of the studies (Q = 1678.2, df = 8, I2 = 89.4%, P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    BC patients are at risk of depression; hence, its detection is of utmost importance in clinical practice.
    Keywords: Depression, Breast Cancer, Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, Iran
  • Mosharafeh Chaleshgar Kordasiabi *, Behnaz Enjezab , Maassoumeh Akhlaghi , Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam , Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad Page 2
    Background
    Self-management behaviors (SMB) play a significant role in controlling the adverse effects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a chronic disease.
    Objectives
    The main purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral determinants of SMB who suffer from RA.
    Methods
    This is a qualitative study with directed approach to content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews. A total of 30 RA patients (15 in good and 15 in worst SMB) were recruited in this study based on the PRECEDE model (predisposing factor). The participants were recruited using a purposeful sampling to reach the maximum variation sampling. This sampling took over 6 months in 2015 at the Rheumatology Clinic in the Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
    Results
    Five main theme and 14 sub-categories came out from the interviews. The main themes include: perceived benefit, perceived severity, perceived barrier, attitude, and self-efficacy. Most of the participants considered self-efficacy and perceived barrier as the most significant determinants of SMB in RA patients.
    Conclusions
    The study provided better understanding of behavioral determinants of SMB in RA patients, the finding suggested that improving self-efficacy and eliminating barriers in RA patients can help researcher, physician, health worker, and planner design proper program and strategy in order to improve SMB and their health.
    Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Self-Management Behavior, PRECEDE Model
  • Diana Dolores Rodriguez, Mendivil , Enrique Garcia, Flores , Juan Temores, Pena , Fernando Toyohiko Wakida * Page 3
    Background
    A main route of heavy metal exposure is the consumption of contaminated food or water, resulting in negative health effects.
    Objectives
    The objective of this study was to assess the health risk related to consumption of canned tuna and fresh fish by evaluating chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations.
    Methods
    Forty-eight samples of tuna canned in water and 20 samples of different fish species sold in the city of Tijuana were used. Samples were digested by microwave-assisted digestion. Mercury was measured using the cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) method (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method 7419b) and Pb, Cd, and Cr were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) (USEPA method 7010). Health risk assessment was conducted calculating the total hazard quotients (THQs) using the USEPA region III risk-based concentration table for adults.
    Results
    The wet weight heavy metal concentrations in the canned tuna for Hg were 0.005 to 1.17 mg/kg, for Pb were 0.07 to 0.32 mg/kg, for Cd were from not detected (ND) to 0.007 mg/kg, and for Cr were 0.02 to 0.65 mg/kg. In the fresh fish samples, concentrations of Hg were 0.14 to 2.14 mg/kg, for Pb were 0.04 to 0.32 mg/kg, for Cd were 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and for Cr were 0.07 to 0.38 mg/kg. The highest Hg concentrations were found in species of mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and soupfin shark (Galeorhinus galeus). THQ values calculated were below one for all the samples.
    Conclusions
    The results suggest that the consumption of canned tuna and fish in Tijuana does not represent a health risk for the general population in terms of exposure.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal, Health Risk Assessment, Fish, Tuna
  • Mohammad Mehdi Amin , Mohammad Ghasemian *, Bijan Bina , Ensiyeh Taheri , Ali Fatehizadeh Page 4
    Background
    Biohydrogen production from organic wastes is one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable, green energy production. Dark fermentative biohydrogen production is a complicated anaerobic process in the absence of sunlight.
    Objectives
    The current study investigated the enrichment of biohydrogen-producing bacteria from anaerobic mixed culture by acid and alkaline pretreatment.
    Methods
    Anaerobic sludge was extracted from a full-scale anaerobic sludge digester. In order to remove large particles and debris, the sludge was sieved and subjected to acid and alkaline pretreatment. Four strong acids including HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and H3PO4 was used for acid pretreatment and tow mineral bases including NaOH and KOH for alkaline pretreatment. The pretreated sludge was fed to glass containers with a working volume of 400 mL and headspace of 100 mL.
    Results
    HCl and H2SO4 as acid pretreatment agents produced more biohydrogen than the other agents. In case of HCl pretreatment, the volume of H2 gas was 133.6 mL, followed by H2SO4 (80.6 mL), KOH (72.5 mL), HNO3 (70.1 mL), H3PO4 (68.7 mL), and NaOH (59.8 mL). In the pretreatment methods, the solution pH and alkalinity were in the ranges of 4.8 to 6.9 and 2,400 to 3,800 mg/L, respectively.
    Conclusions
    According to the results, pretreatment methods with acids, especially HCl, could be used for the enrichment of biohydrogen-producing bacteria from mixed cultures.
    Keywords: Acid Pretreatment, Chemical Pretreatment, Biohydrogen Production Bacteria, Mixed Culture
  • Arezoo Fallahi *, Sina Valiee , Sally Wai, Chi Chan Page 5
    Background
    Osteoporosis is a major chronic health condition that affects women more than men. A few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate what women with osteoporosis need to manage their disease.
    Objectives
    The aim of the study was to determine the needs of women with osteoporosis in disease self-management.
    Methods
    This qualitative study was conducted at the osteoporosis screening units of three private and governmental centers in Sanandaj, the West of Iran. A purposive sample was recruited from among all eligible women who attended the osteoporosis screening units from November 2015 to June 2016. The inclusion criteria were osteoporosis diagnosis by the woman’s attending physician for at least six months and prescribed osteoporosis medication. The exclusion criterion was a T-score of above -2.5. Data were collected by individual semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion, and drawings. The data were analyzed by conventional content analysis. To confirm the accuracy and strength of the data, credibility, confirmability, and transferability components were taken into account.
    Results
    Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including “social support”, “cultural-economic factors”, “improved implementation of health education”, and “having a normal living”.
    Conclusions
    The results of the study showed that women with osteoporosis are in need of engagement and active participation of primary care physicians, regular review of patient’s care plan, planned care visits, improving the quality of care and patient outcomes, patient education and self-management education, the cooperation of the public media and relevant organizations, and emotional and informational support to improve their osteoporosis self-management.
    Keywords: Osteoporosis, Women, Self-Management, Qualitative Research
  • Mina Mahmoodi Meimand , Neda Javid , Mohammad Malakootian * Page 6
    Background
    Sulfur dioxide gas is known to include pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, due to the increase of industrial activities, SO2 gas pollution control is very important.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of sulfur dioxide removal by iron oxide nanoparticles deposited on clinoptilolite zeolite.
    Methods
    Two materials, natural clinoptilolite and clinoptilolite containing iron oxide nanoparticles, were used as adsorbents of SO2. Both materials were characterized via scanning electron microscopy imaging, infrared spectroscopy, and N2 porosimetry, along with the determination of the thermodynamic properties and kinetics of SO2 adsorption. Therefore, breakthrough experiments were carried out at different temperatures and with different contact times. Sulfur dioxide adsorption of a real sample was considered for both adsorbents.
    Results
    The adsorption efficiency of SO2 in the synthetic and actual sample was obtained at 80.3% and 66.7%, respectively, under optimum conditions (temperature of 25°C and duration of 28.5 minutes) by modified zeolite with iron oxide nanoparticles. The removal percentage average of SO2 was also obtained in the synthetic and actual sample at 43.8% and 31.3%, respectively, by zeolite in optimum conditions (temperature of 25°C and contact time of 20.5 minutes). The adsorption of SO2 with both adsorbents followed the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption process was an exothermic and spontaneous process.
    Conclusions
    The addition of these iron oxide nanoparticles had a positive impact on the surface area and on SO2 capacity.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinoptilolite, Environmental Pollution, Industry, Nanoparticles
  • Mansour Zare , Majid Faraji , Masoud Rismanchian * Page 7
    Background
    Use of air purifier masks is one of the ways to reduce exposure to harmful respiratory pollutants in the workplace. The present research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of respiratory masks used by refractory workers in controlling refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) and particles in a steel industry.
    Methods
    In this study, three types of masks, namely FFP3 (APOLO), FFP2 (3MAX), and 3M elastomeric half-face mask with P100 filter against particle pollutants and FFP3 (APOLO) masks against fibrous contaminants were evaluated. To investigate penetration percentage and efficiency of the mask, the concentrations of particles were measured outside (Cout) and inside (Cin) the masks. The number of samples for each mask was 20.
    Results
    The result showed that mean penetration of total particles in FFP3, FFP2, and 3M elastomeric half-face mask with P100 filter is 10.92, 9.4, and 4.37%, respectively. On the other hand, the mean penetration of respirable particles in FFP3, FFP2, and 3M elastomeric half-face mask with P100 filter was 40.76, 14.26, and 2.07%, respectively. The evaluation of the FFP3 (APOLO) mask against fibrous contaminants showed that this mask does not have a good efficiency against fibrous contaminants and provides a penetration of 15.1%.
    Conclusions
    The faceseal leakage due to inappropriate fitting of the mask on the face and the high surface resistance the mask against airflow can be a major cause for poor efficiency of the masks.
    Keywords: Mask Efficiency, Refractory Ceramic Fiber, Refectory Works, FFP2 Mask, FFP3 Mask, Elastomer Mask
  • Gholamreza Moradi , Parvin Nassiri , Amir Ershad, Langroudi , Mohammad Reza Monazzam * Page 8
    Background
    Polymer composites with interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) structure are widely used as sound and vibration damping materials due to their high viscoelastic properties within the glass transition temperature range. In this study, polyurethane (PU)/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based interpenetrating polymer network with different ratios of PU to PMMA (i.e. 85:15, 75:25, and 65:35) were prepared by in situ polymerization.
    Methods
    The properties of as-prepared IPN and its components were evaluated by different scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and sound absorption. Tensile properties were also determined. As indicators of effective damping capability, viscoelastic parameters including loss factor (tan δ), glass transition temperature (Tg), and effective damping interval (tan δ > 0.3) were also determined. In order to determine the sound absorption coefficient in the prepared IPNs, a two-microphone impedance tube at the frequency of one octave was used.
    Results
    The comparison of pure polymers (i.e. polyurethane and polymethyl methacrylate) and prepared IPNs indicated that the semi interpenetrated polymer network morphology was created through a broader range of tan δ in different IPNs. Incorporation of PMMA into polyurethane in the form of interpenetrating polymer networks enhanced the damping acoustic properties of the semi-IPNs due to the permeability of the two polymers. In the temperature range of -50 to 11 ˚C, both IPNs components showed high damping characteristics (tan δ ≥ 0.3).
    Conclusions
    Evaluation of the results indicated that the blends are capable of exerting viscoelastic effects for damping and sound attenuation.
    Keywords: Polyurethane, Poly (Methyl Methacrylate), Interpenetrated Polymer Networks (IPN), Damping Characteristics, Sound Absorption
  • Hossein Ansari *, Mohammad Khammarnia , Hasan Okati , Saeed Fakhrrahimi , Neda Mahdavifar , Maryam Mohammadian , Ali Yousefzadeh , Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi , Younes Mohammadi , Kourosh Tirgarfakheri Page 9
    Background
    Personality is associated with health behaviors, such as smoking and substance abuse, yet there is little information about the relationship between optimism and tobacco smoking or substance abuse among high school students.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between optimism or pessimism in predicting tobacco smoking and substance abuse among high school students in southeast of Iran.
    Methods
    In this study, 1094 students of high schools in Zahedan city, southeast of Iran, were selected using proportionally multi-stage sampling. Cigarette and hookah smoking status, substance abuse, optimism, and other potential confounders were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests and ordinal logistic regression in Stata.14 software.
    Results
    According to the results of present study, the prevalence of cigarette smoking and ever hookah smoking was 32.7% and 36.1%, respectively. About 11.2% of students had used at least one illicit drug. After controlling potential confounders, optimism score was negatively related to cigarette smoking stages (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.97) and illicit drugs use (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70 to 0.96) yet was not associated with hookah smoking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.31).
    Conclusions
    Optimism and pessimism have an important role in tendency of students to tobacco smoking and substance abuse. On the other hand, the co-occurrence of smoking and substance abuse is high among students with low optimism scores. Therefore, educating and consulting students regarding positivism and promising could prevent from smoking and substance abuse and probably transition to higher stages.
    Keywords: Smoking, Optimism, High School Students
  • Hassan Taghipour *, Reza Taghizadeh Jazadani , Reza Dehghanzadeh , Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi , Mohsen Mir Mohammadi , Mehdi Ghayebzadeh Page 10
    Background
    The management of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is among the fastest-growing concerns in Iran. Moreover, the basic prerequisites for the effective performance of every waste management program are the accessibility of adequate and precise data on characteristics and its current management condition.
    Objectives
    Estimating the amount of C&D waste in Tabriz metropolitan city (Iran) was one of the key aims of the current study. Another objective of this study was to evaluate of C&D waste handling and their final disposal.
    Methods
    The C&D waste generation rate was estimated according to the waste weight per area of construction and demolition in Tabriz. Then the C&D waste management condition was assessed using a checklist, visiting the disposal site, intervening authorities, and analyzing scientific databases.
    Results
    The amount of C&D waste generation rate in the Tabriz city was estimated to be in the range of 167034 to 848480 ton/year or 0.114 to 0.534 ton/year per capita and 2.267 ton/m2 of demolition. In this area, like most other parts of the country, no scientific and systematic program was observed for source reduction (reduce, reuse, and recycle of the C&D waste). Due to the non-availability of any standard disposal site, all the C&D waste (except for some recycled items such as metals) were deposited at the nearest distance from the city in public lands, waterways, valleys, roadsides and so on.
    Conclusions
    According to the findings there is a great urgent need for applying specific practical policies, rules, and regulations for source reduction (reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R)) of C&D waste. Moreover, a central disposal site should be allocated to dispose of the remaining C&D waste according to the environmental and health considerations.
    Keywords: Waste, Management, Environment, Iran
  • Eshagh Barfar , Abolghasem Pourreza *, Vandad Sharifi , Seyed Mohammad Hadi Sobhanian , Ali Akbari Sari Page 11
    Background
    The high cost of mental health services can be a great barrier to accessing healthcare for patients with mental disorders.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to measure the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) for households with severe mental disorders (SMDs) patients.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 households with SMDs patients who referred to four psychiatric university centers located in Tehran for outpatient services from July 2017 to March 2018. We consecutively selected 100 participants from each hospital. Data were collected using the World Health Survey questionnaire through interviews. The method considered by the WHO was used to measure the CHE and a forced-entry logistic regression technique was applied to assess factors affecting the CHE using STATA version 14.0 software.
    Results
    The results showed that 25.75% of the households with SMDs patients faced CHE. There was also a significant relationship between households facing CHE and variables including the age of the household head (40 - 59 years; OR: 0.283, P value = 0.049), education status of the household head (university; OR: 0.075, P value = 0.002), utilization of dental (OR: 12.38, P value = 0.000), rehabilitation (OR: 6.99, P value = 0.012), and medication (OR: 3.17, P value = 0.049) services, and the household expenditures quintile (the fifth quintile; OR: 0.111 P value = 0.000).
    Conclusions
    It is suggested that the Health Transformation Plan financially covers outpatient healthcare services more sufficiently, especially for mental disorders.
    Keywords: Catastrophic Health Expenditure, Cost, Mental Disorders