فهرست مطالب

Behavioral Sciences - Volume:12 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:12 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Georgekutty Kochuchakkalackal *, Marc Eric S. Reyes Pages 141-145
    Introduction
    The internet has become an integral part of people’s daily life. However, empirical studies indicate that its prevalent use among adolescents has negatively influenced them and, in some cases, resulted to Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). The World Health Organization has recently recognized individuals with gaming disorder as having a mental health condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility and efficacy of an intervention program that would reduce the level of IGD, and improve the psychological well-being of the adolescents.
    Method
    The development of the program involved the use of sequential exploratory design, pre and post test pilot intervention design, Wilcoxon signed rank test, IGD and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being (PWB) scales. Focus group discussions and interviews were held to acquire in-depth understanding of the key issues, and the cognitive theoretical models of Pathologic Internet Use and Mindfulness were integrated.
    Results
    The eight module intervention program integrating the theories of Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Pathologic Internet Use and Mindfulness was administered in four weeks on a 3-hour session per module and was validated by experts in various disciplines. Statistical analyses showed significant difference in the post-test scores of the participants after the administration of the intervention program.  
    Conclusion
    The pilot study using the Acceptance and Cognitive Restructuring Intervention Program (ACRIP) resulted in reduced levels of IGD and improved the psychological well-being from the selected adolescents. The study confirmed that the concepts and the structure of the program are reliable, feasible, and efficacious for testing on a larger base of adolescents who are at risk of IGD.
    Keywords: Internet Gaming Disorder, Compulsive Internet Gaming, Psychological Well-Being, acceptance, Cognitive Restructuring
  • Alireza Sangani *, Paria Jangi Pages 146-153
    Introduction
    Anxiety disorders can affect all attitudes, behaviors and even individuals’ state, and these effects in adolescent girls is considered to be far broader than adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the girls' anxiety with their parental parenting styles mediated by the traits of extroversion and introversion.
    Methods
    The research method was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of the study included all the 15,872 adolescent girls in Qom city in 2017-2018. The sample size according to the Cochran Formula consisted of 375 girls who were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. The data collection tool was the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Baumrind Parenting Questionnaire, and Spielberger Anxiety Inventory.
    Results
    The results showed that the traits of extroversion, introversion and parental parenting styles have a direct and significant effect on the anxiety in girls at the level of 0.05. In an indirect way, traits of extroversion and introversion in junior girls show a mediating role in the relationship between parental parenting styles and anxiety, and in general, the conceptual model was approved. Also, 27% of girls' anxiety variance was explained by the variables of extroversion, introversion and parental parenting styles.
    Conclusion
    These findings are based on the family systematic theory on psychological intercourse of adolescent girls with the parents’ behavior patterns in the family environment and on expressing the effects of personality traits on promoting parent-child relationship health and the girl’s anxiety.
    Keywords: Extroversion, introversion, parenting, Anxiety
  • Soheila Ghomian, Mohammad Reza Shaeiri *, Hojjatollah Farahani Pages 154-161
    Introduction
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric features of the Relationship Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (ROCI) with a sample of the students of the universities in Tehran
    Methods
    The present study included 459 married students who were selected through available sampling method from universities in Tehran. This research was conducted in two steps. Firstly, after completing the translation steps, the final questionnaire was prepared.  In the second stage, the ROCI was implemented on students and its reliability was calculated; in addition, in order to examine convergent and divergent validities, ROCI was administered together with Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory- Revised (OCI-R) scales.
    Results
    The internal consistency of ROCI was in the range of 0.66 to 0.89, which is significant at the level of p
    Conclusion
    The ROCI demonstrated a good validity and reliability for being applied to Iranian couples. Abstract
    Introduction
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric features of the Relationship Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (ROCI) with a sample of the students of the universities in Tehran
    Methods
    The present study included 459 married students who were selected through available sampling method from universities in Tehran. This research was conducted in two steps. Firstly, after completing the translation steps, the final questionnaire was prepared.  In the second stage, the ROCI was implemented on students and its reliability was calculated; in addition, in order to examine convergent and divergent validities, ROCI was administered together with Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory- Revised (OCI-R) scales.
    Results
    The internal consistency of ROCI was in the range of 0.66 to 0.89, which is significant at the level of p
    Conclusion
    The ROCI demonstrated a good validity and reliability for being applied to Iranian couples.
    Keywords: ROCI, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Related to Spouse, Validity, Reliability
  • Masomeh Rahimi, Alireza Heidari *, Farah Naderi, Behnam Makvandi, Saeed Bakhtiyarpour Pages 162-168
    Introduction
    Learning disabilities creates long-lasting damages to any individual in the activities dependent on academic skills. The present study was aimed to assess and compare the cognitive training method and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on the visual attention processes in the students with special learning disorders.
    Methods
    Forty-five students were selected based on a purposive sampling method and assigned to three groups: the control group and two experimental groups. (Each containing 15 individuals) based on a simple randomized method. The study has been conducted based on a semi-experimental design of pretest-posttest type with control group. One of the experimental groups received cognitive training for a period of 20 to 30 sessions, each lasting for 45 minutes (twice a week) and the other group was subjected to transcranial direct current stimulation for 20 minutes during ten consecutive days. The statistical method of choice was Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA).
    Results
    The results of data analysis using analysis of covariance indicated that both of the cognitive training method and the transcranial tDCS are effective in the visual attention processes (P<0.01).
    Conclusion
    Cognitive training and the transcranial tDCS methods can be applied for improving the visual attention processes in students with special learning disabilities.
    Keywords: Visual Attraction Processes, Cognitive training, learning disabilities, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)
  • Asieh Amini * Pages 169-175
    Introduction
    The quality of teacher-learner relationship plays such an important role in learners’ academic lives that finding the factors helping teacher effectiveness seems to be investigated worthwhile. Stroke, as a relatively new concept in education, is one of these factors helping teacher effectiveness. This paper, thus, aimed to find whether the amount and the kind of stroke learners receive in their class might have any role in how they perceive their teachers to be effective.
    Method
    Through convenience sampling, 400 male and female English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners from both formal and informal educational settings of the Khorasan Razavi province were selected to whom two sets of questionnaires, Characteristics of Effective English Language Teachers Scale and Student Stroke Scale were administrated. In this survey study, structural equation modeling and multiple regression analysis were then used to examine the possible relationships among the study variables.
    Results
    The regression analyses of the results revealed a positive relationship between stroke and teacher effectiveness. In addition, among the four subscales of stroke, valuing and verbal stroke were found to be the significant predictors of teacher effectiveness. These findings were then discussed in the light of previous research.
    Conclusion
    Due to the newness of the research in this area and the limitations as discussed for the current study, future researchers were invited to study the interrelationships of stroke and some other variables in teacher effectiveness since such studies could better reveal the nature of stroking behaviors in producing healthy teacher-learner bonds in educational settings.
    Keywords: Teacher Effectiveness, Stroke, Valuing, EFL learners, EFL teachers
  • Emmanuel Biracyaza *, Jean Mutabaruka, Samuel Habimana Pages 176-182
    Introduction
    Globally, anxiety diseases are considered as mental health concerns which increase mortality and morbidity. Anxiety sensitivity refers to the tendency of individuals to fear from anxiety-related symptoms due to the belief that these symptoms may have destructive consequences. 
    Method
    This cross-sectional study was conducted to validate Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-16) on a non-psychiatric sample of 90 recruited students from the University of Rwanda. The recruited participants were aged 19 to 37 years [(Mean age (M=23.9, SD = 3.69)]. Both descriptive and analytical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 22). Alpha of Cronbach was used to assess the ASI-16 reliability. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI) was used to assess the criterion related concurrent validity. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure the criterion related divergent validity. Factor Analysis was used to assess the ASI-16 the construct validity.
    Results
    The findings confirmed a good internal consistence (Cronbach’s Alpha, α= 0.83). The results revealed the ASI-16 criterion related convergent validity of ASI-16 (r=.59; p=.000; ASI and STAI) and criterion related concurrent validity (r=.069; p=.51; ASI and BDI). The factor analyses indicated an overlapping of physical, psychological and social aspects attesting that ASI is one-dimensional tool assessing anxiety symptoms. More than a quarter of items seemed to assess all three factors of ASI; this attested that there were interconnections between physical, psychological or cognitive and social aspects. The participants who scored highly were considered to have the anxiety symptoms.  In this sample, the t-test was computed to compare males and females on the ASI-16 total scores and showed that there was no significant difference at 5% level [(Mean of males=29.3, Mean of females=29.57), t (26.176) at p=.000].
    Conclusion
    The results confirmed that ASI-16 seems to be valid and reliable to screen anxiety symptoms in a Rwandan sample. The norms of ASI should be constructed on the Rwandan population.
    Keywords: Sensitivity, Anxiety Sensitivity, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Factor Structure, Reliability, Validity
  • Atena Ehsan, Niarmi, Hasan Heydari *, Mehdi Zare, Bahramabadi, Hossein Davoudi Pages 183-192
    Introduction
    This study aimed to develop a structural model for marital commitment based on personality traits according to the mediating role of attachment styles and self-differentiation.
    Method
    In a correlational research method, 409 volunteers (204 women and 205 men) were selected by convenience sampling method among the married students of the Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch in 2017. They answered to the following questionnaires: Neo-FFI, Adult Attachment Style, self-differentiation and Marital Commitment. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling by SPSS and LISREL software packages.
    Results
    Findings showed that in overall, a prediction model of marital commitment based on personality traits, attachment styles, and self-differentiation was confirmed and its fit goodness was approved. In regards to the RMSEA index, the fit goodness of the model was approved, as well. Regarding direct ways, all were confirmed except the effect of attachment styles on marital commitment. Besides, regarding indirect ways, the effect of attachment styles on the marital commitment was confirmed through the mediating role of self-differentiation.
    Conclusion
    This study shows that focusing on personality traits, attachment styles, and self-differentiation can cause considerable effects on increasing marital commitment.
    Keywords: personality traits, Attachment Styles, Self-differentiation, Marital Commitment