فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Behdin Nowrouzi Kia*, Emily Chai, Koyo Usuba, Behnam Nowrouzi Kia, Jennifer Casole Pages 99-110
    Background
    Workplace violence (WPV) in the health care sector remains a prominent, under-reported global occupational hazard and public health issue.
    Objective
    To determine the types and prevalence of WPV among doctors.
    Methods
    Primary papers on WPV in medicine were identified through a literature search in 4 health databases (Ovid Medline, EMBASE, PsychoINFO and CINAHL). The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the mapping and identification of records. To assess the studies included in our review, we used the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort review checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment.
    Results
    13 out of 2154 articles retrieved were reviewed. Factors outlining physician WPV included (1) working in remote health care areas, (2) understaffing, (3) mental/emotional stress of patients/visitors, (4) insufficient security, and (5) lacking preventative measures. The results of 6 studies were combined in a meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of WPV was 69% (95% CI 58% to 78%).
    Conclusion
    The impact of WPV on health care institutions is profound and far-reaching; it is quite common among physicians. Therefore, steps must be taken to promote an organizational culture where there are measures to protect and promote the well-being of doctors.
    Keywords: Physicians, Workplace violence, Systematic review [publication type], Meta-analysis [publication type], Occupational medicine
  • Behnam Honarvar, Nima Ghazanfari*, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Sara Rostami, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Pages 111-123
    Background
    Nurses are more likely to be exposed to violence at their workplace in comparison with other employees.
    Objective
    To determine various aspects of violence against nurses in Shiraz public hospitals.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2018, using a multistage random sampling method. Violence including verbal threats, verbal abuse, physical and sexual abuse as well as ethnical types, violence from patients, patients' companions and coworkers, and causes of violence were investigated using a checklist.
    Results
    405 nurses with a mean age of 30.2 (SD 7.1) years and female to male ratio of 4.2 were interviewed. 363 (89.6%) nurses had experienced at least one kind of violence; 68.4% suffered from more than one type of violence. Verbal abuse (83.9%), verbal threats (27.6%), physical violence (21.4%), sexual abuse (10.8%), and ethnical harassment (6.1%) were the most common types of violence experienced by the nurses. Patients' companions, patients, and physicians were reported as the sources of violence in 70.6%, 43.1%, and 4.1% of cases, respectively. Nurses with non-official employment status and non-Farsi ethnicity, having a disease, with non-evening shift work, and those with short or long employment period were more affected. Unrealistic expectations by patients' companions and long working hours were the most common attributing factors.
    Conclusion
    Violence against nurses, as a strenuous and health-threatening crisis, has become epidemic in public hospitals in our region. Effective interventions are warranted to sort out these problems.
    Keywords: Violence, Nurses, Hospitals, Patients, Physicians
  • Aisha Mohamed Samir, Dalia Abdel, Hamid Shaker*, Mona Mohamed Fathy, Salwa Farouk Hafez, Mona Mohsen Abdullatif, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Hany Ahmed Fouad Alghobary Pages 124-136
    Background
    Coke oven workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with possible genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Metabolizing enzymes genes and DNA repair genes are suspected to be correlated with the level of DNA damage. They may contribute to variable individual sensitivity to DNA damage induced by PAHs exposure at workplace.
    Objective
    To investigate the relationship between biomarkers of PAHs: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), DNA adducts, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in coke oven workers, and to assess the role of cytochrome P2E1 (CYP2E1) gene expression and DNA repairing gene (XRCC1) polymorphism in detecting workers at risk.
    Methods
    85 exposed workers and 85 unexposed controls were enrolled into this study. Urinary 1-OHP, 8-OHdG, and BPDE-DNA adduct were measured. CYP2E1 gene expression and genotyping of XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln were evaluated by real-time PCR.
    Results
    The median urinary 1-OHP levels (6.3 μmol/mol creatinine), urinary 8-OHdG (7.9 ng/mg creatinine), DNA adducts (6.7 ng/μg DNA) in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the unexposed group. Carriers of the variant allele (Gln) of XRCC1 had the highest levels of 1-OHP, DNA adducts and 8-OHdG, and the lowest level of CYP2E1 gene expression. In exposed workers, significant positive correlations were found between 1-OHP level and each of the work duration, 8-OHdG, and DNA adducts levels. There was a significant negative correlation between 1-OHP level and CYP2E1 gene expression. Work duration and CYP2E1 gene expression were predictors of DNA adducts level; 1-OHP level and work duration were predictors of urinary 8-OHdG level.
    Conclusion
    Workers with higher exposure to PAH were more prone to oxidative DNA damage and cancer development. DNA adducts level reflects the balance between their production by CYP2E1 and elimination by XRCC1 gene.
    Keywords: Bay-Region, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide [Supplementary concept], DNA adducts, 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine [Supplementary concept], Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1, X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1, Polymorphism, genetic
  • Mahmood Reza Azghani, Jalil Nazari*, Nader Sozapoor, Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi, Ali E Oskouei Pages 137-144
    Background
    The chair influences the position of the user in relation to his or her devices. Prolonged static sitting is a frequently mentioned risk factor for low back pain. Seat design, thus, plays an important role in the study of human sitting. Quantitative information is needed on what happens to body when one sits in chairs with different seat depth.
    Objective
    To determine the myoelectric activity (EMG) of individual lumbar erector spinae muscles after sitting in chairs with different seat pan depth.
    Methods
    EMG recordings were taken using surface electrodes placed on the lumbar erector spine muscles of 25 normal, volunteer subjects. EMG recordings for muscle activity were made while the study participants were in a comfortable position and performed the required tasks. The experiments investigated with 3 seat depths according to the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of the buttock popliteal length. The recorded EMG data were normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction. The mean EMG recording was calculated for each of the 3 chairs tested. A mixed model was used to assess the differences among the situations.
    Results
    A significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between the mean EMG recordings for the 3 tested seat pan depths. EMG activity was higher in seats with the 5th and 95th percentiles compared with that for the seat with 50th percentile of buttock popliteal length depth.
    Conclusion
    The seat pan depth used during a comfortable position has a significant effect on the level of myoelectric activity in the lumbar erector spinal muscles. The finding of this study may contribute to our understanding of the biomechanics of sitting.
    Keywords: Ergonomics, Anthropometry, Fatigue, Muscles, Electromyography
  • Marguerite C Sendall*, Laura K McCosker, Rahma Ahmed, Phil Crane Pages 145-150
    Truck drivers are at increased risk of diet- and physical activity-related chronic diseases. Despite this, there is a paucity of data about Australian truck drivers' diet and physical activity behaviors. A multiple choice and short response survey was distributed to truck drivers attending an Australian Truck Show. The survey asked about self-reported health, source of health information, number of serves of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy food, and sugary drink consumed per day, and frequency of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. The survey was completed by 231 truck drivers—almost all were male, with a mean age of 46 (range 20 to 71) years. Over 85% of survey respondents worked more than 9 hrs per day. Nearly 75% acknowledged the need to make changes to improve their health. Half consumed fewer serves of fruit and 88% consumed fewer serves of vegetables than national recommendations. Over 63% consumed at least one serve of unhealthy foods per day, and 65% drank at least one can of sugary drink per day. Most (80%) undertook less than moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity levels provided in national recommendations. Of concern, almost 90% of drivers had above the recommended body mass index—approximately 60% were obese. This is almost double the proportion found in the general population. These findings highlight the importance of health promotion to help drivers make better choices about their health behaviors, which are often underpinned by the limitations of their work environment. Health promotion in transport industry workplaces should be an important topic for future research.
    Keywords: Motor Vehicles, Obesity, Health behavior, Risk factors, Nutritional status, Exercise, Health promotion
  • Hamed Jalilian*, Younes Mehrifar, Zahra Zamanian, Hamideh Pirami Pages 151-154
  • The IJOEM Pages 155-156