فهرست مطالب

Basic Medical Sciences - Volume:22 Issue:9, 2019
  • Volume:22 Issue:9, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Vahid Akbari, Korhkheyli, Kazem Abbaszadeh, Goudarzi, Mohaddeseh Nejati, Laskokalayeh, Setareh Zarpou, Abbas Khonakdar, Tarsi * Pages 968-976
    Ischemia-reperfusion injuries (IRI) occur in different clinical conditions such as stroke, trauma, organ transplantation, and so on. Ischemia damages mainly arise from oxygen depletion in tissues. The lack of oxygen as the last acceptor of electron in the respiratory chain causes a decrease in ATP production and eventually leads to disruption of membrane transport, acidosis, cellular edema and membrane distortion of organelles, and cells. Reperfusion can intensify ischemic injuries by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and also oxygen and calcium overloading. Since the tissue antioxidant contents decreased due to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during IRI, the application of antioxidants is considered an appropriate strategy to ameliorate IRI. Silymarin constitutes about 70–80% of silybum marianum dry extract and is known as a strong free radical scavenger with anti-inflammatory properties. In several studies, silibinin as a major component of Silymarin could provide protective effects in various tissue IRI by different mechanisms such as scavenging free radicals, decreasing inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting cellular death, and increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes. To clarify functional mechanisms, the present article evaluates studies about silymarin effects in different tissues IRI.
    Keywords: Inflammation, Ischemia, Oxidative stress, Reperfusion, Silymarin
  • Naghmeh Ahmadiankia * Pages 977-988
    Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity among cancer patients and accounts for about 90% of cancer deaths. The most common types of treatment for cancer metastasis are chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, such therapy has many serious side effects that could diminish the quality of life in patients. There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that natural compounds can be potential weapons in fighting against cancer. Interestingly, much evidence shows that pomegranate (Punica granatum) has great potential to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we discussed the molecular targets of pomegranate, specifically, those that are prerequisite for cancer metastasis. The search was performed in Google Scholar, Medline, Scopus, and PubMed using keywords such as metastasis, pomegranate, and signaling pathways. Some of the most important papers from the search results were included. Based on recent studies, some molecules, including those involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesions, are affected by pomegranate. The other targets of pomegranate are modulators of cytoskeleton dynamics and regulators of cancer cell anoikis and chemotaxis. Furthermore, the antimetastatic effect of pomegranate may be attributed to molecular changes of the extracellular matrix. Pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic molecules are the other targets of pomegranate regarding cancer metastasis. A wide variety of molecules can be targeted by pomegranate to suppress tumor metastasis. A better understanding of the molecules regulated by pomegranate is needed to provide a rational basis for its clinical application.
    Keywords: Anoikis, Cell adhesion, Chemotaxis, Cytoskeleton dynamics, Extracellular matrix, Metastasis, Phytochemicals, Pomegranate
  • Amirabbas Salmani, Mojgan Mohammadi, Reza Faridhosseini, Jalil Tavakol Afshari, Ali Fouladvand, Sajad Dehnavi, Maryam Khoshkhui, Farahzad Jabbari Azad * Pages 989-996
    Objective(s)
    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common hypersensitivity disease worldwide. Immunotherapy has been performed as the best treatment for years. This study aimed to study the gene expression pattern of immune system cells following an accelerated rush immunotherapy protocol (ARIT) in patients with AR.
    Materials and Methods
    Fifteen patients with AR (15–55 years old) resident in Mashhad, Iran, with positive prick test to regional aeroallergens (weed mix, grass mix, tree mix, and Salsola) enrolled in this study. All patients were treated for three months with 3-day ARIT protocol between July 2015 and August 2016. Clinical symptoms and quality of life were recorded by two questioners. The expression levels of FOXP3, TGF-β, IL-10, IL-17, IL-4, and IFN-γ genes in patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR technique.
    Results
    The severity of disease and quality of life showed significant improvement following ARIT (P-value<0.05). Gene expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 was increased whereas TGF-β and IL-4 down-regulated, following ARIT, but these changes were not significant. However, gene expression of FOXP3 and IL-17 was significantly increased after intervention when compared with the baseline (P-value< 0.002).
    Conclusion
    Significant up-regulation of FOXP3 and IL-17 genes, additionally, a significant improvement in the clinical signs following ARIT might be related to increases in HLA-DR- and FOXP3+ Treg population at the initiation phase of ARIT. Employing the flow cytometry technique to study the phenotype of these cells is suggested for future studies.
    Keywords: Accelerated rush immunotherapy, Allergic Rhinitis, FOXP3, Gene expression, IL-17
  • Amna Shahid *, Syeda Zaidi, Haroon Akbar, Sania Saeed Pages 997-1003
    Objective(s)
    Pyriproxyfen as an insect growth regulator is widely used globally for pest management. There are reports on adverse effects of insecticides such as organ toxicity, endocrine disruptions, and teratogenicity in animals and humans. We aimed to investigate reproductive toxicity of pyriproxyfen in adult male mice.
    Materials and Methods
    48 male Swiss albino mice were divided into eight groups and received the different 1200, 600, 320, 200, 100, 40, 20, 0 mg/kg/day doses orally, and body weights were accessed for 28 consecutive days. In the end, mice were sacrificed, testes were dissected and weighed. Probable testicular tissue alterations were examined by histopathological studies. In addition, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells distribution were assessed in all experimental and control groups.
    Results
    Pyriproxyfen treatment caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in body and organ weights in mice. However, the shrinkage and displacement of seminiferous tubules, reduced lumen diameter, and vacuolization occurred in seminiferous tubules in higher doses exposed animals in comparison to controls. The relative testis weights, mean diameter of seminiferous tubules, and Leydig cells distribution remained unchanged at low doses.
    Conclusion
    These findings reveal that pyriproxyfen caused reduction in body weight gain as well as damage to the testicular architecture in mice and thus may potentially interfere with spermatogenesis. Findings in an outbred strain of mice can be extrapolated fairly reliably to the human model. The chemical can thus be further exploited to study its effects on impairment of fertility and as an endocrine disruptor.
    Keywords: Endocrine disruptor, Histopathology, Leydig cells, Pyriproxyfen, Reproductive Toxicity, Seminiferous tubules
  • Abolfazl Dehkohneh, Parvaneh Jafari, Hossein Fahimi * Pages 1004-1009
    Objective(s)
    Prevalence of high-fat food consumption, such as fast foods is one of the major causes of hypercholesterolemia, which can lead to cardiovascular diseases. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) are two key genes in cholesterol metabolism. Use of probiotics in the diet is a promising approach for modulation of serum lipid. To confirm the modulation of serum lipids by probiotics, in this study, we have examined the efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei TD3 in improving blood cholesterol levels.
    Materials and Methods
    21 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups randomly (n=7). G1: negative control with normal diet, G2: positive control with high-fat diet, G3T: test group with high-fat diet plus supplementation with L. paracasei TD3 (1010 CFU). In the 21st day, the rats were anesthetized using chloroform and then sacrificed. Blood samples were collected to analyze lipid panel parameters and hepatic enzymes by the auto-analyzer system. Adipose tissue samples were analyzed using real-time PCR for HMGCR and CYP7A1 genes expression.
    Results
    Consumption of L. paracasei TD3 could reduce serum cholesterol levels significantly (P<0.05); whereas, there was no significant difference between experimental groups for triglycerides, LDL, and HDL levels. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes were significantly decreased in the probiotic group. Furthermore, expression of HMGCR and CYP7A1 genes was dramatically declined in the probiotic group. There was no significant change in either uric acid or urea between the control and treated groups.
    Conclusion
    Introduction of L. paracasei TD3 in rat’s diet can modulate serum cholesterol levels.
    Keywords: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase (HMGCR) Cholesterol Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, (CYP7A1) Lactobacillus paracasei Probiotics Rat
  • Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh, Alireza Alihemmati, Abbas Pirpour Tazehkand, Masoud Darabi *, Amir Mehdizadeh Pages 1010-1015
    Objective(s)
    Oleate can be produced through de novo synthesis, which contributes to biological processes and signaling pathways. However, the role of this non-essential fatty acid in hepatic development remains unclear. The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of early oleate deficiency induced by the inhibitor of de novo oleate synthesis MF-438 on fetal rat liver development.
    Materials and Methods
    Female Wistar rats with an average weight of 200±20 g were subjected to this study. After mating, pregnant rats were divided into three groups and gavaged with the vehicle, MF 438 or MF-438 plus oleate from day 3 of pregnancy for five days. Obtained fetuses were sacrificed and the liver tissues were retrieved. Hepatic morphological index, biochemical markers, and gene expression of hepatic development markers were analyzed using Hematoxylin-Eosine, spectrometry, and real-time PCR techniques, respectively.
    Results
    Relatively, deficient morphological indices and hepatic maturation markers were observed in fetus livers of the inhibitor-treated group. In comparison to the other two groups, total hepatic protein and glycogen content were increased with treatment of MF-438 plus oleate. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, alpha fetoprotein, albumin, and cytochrome P450 gene expression were also significantly increased in the group treated with both MF-438 and oleate.
    Conclusion
    Our data indicate that oleate availability during early embryo development is linked with fetal rat liver development.
    Keywords: Development, Embryo, Hepatocytes, Monounsaturated fatty acids, pregnancy
  • Meilinah Hidayat *, Sijani Prahastuti, Destiya Riyani, Andreanus Soemardji, Nova Suliska, Afrilia Garmana, Bobby Assiddiq, Khomaini Hassan Pages 1016-1025
    Objective(s)
    Kidney disease is a global health problem that needs a solution to its therapy. In the previous study, we found that protein hydrolysate of green peas origin of Indonesia hydrolysed by bromelain (PHGPB) showed improve kidney function in cisplatin-induced nephropathy rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of PHGPB to obtain effective dose that exerts a therapeutic effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on reducing urea and creatinine levels and to elucidate its mechanism of action.
    Materials and Methods
    Two sets of experiments were conducted: (1) characteristics and  proteomic profile of PHGPB, (2) in vivo test of PHGPB in gentamycin-induced Wistar rats, including urea and creatinine measurements, activities of antioxidant and kidney-related peptides (ANP, COX-1, and renin).
    Results
    PHGPB showed three bands under 10 kDa using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and contained 10 identified proteins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Significant differences in urea and creatinine levels were found between all PHGPB treatments and positive controls (P<0.01). The lowest levels of urea and creatinine that were validated by high super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level were obtained in the 200 mg/day PHGPB treatment. However, the mean renin level was high and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) level did not exceed positive and negative control levels.
    Conclusion
    PHGPB at dose 200 mg/kgBW shows a potential CKD therapeutic effect that is dose-dependent. Higher PHGPB dose corresponds to better effect on kidney function by increasing antioxidant activity and ANP levels in gentamycin-induced Wistar rats.
    Keywords: ANP, Bromelain, COX-1, Protein hydrolysate green pea, Renal function, Renin, SOD
  • Fatemeh Zohrab, Ahmad Asoodeh, Amin Jalili, Majid Darroudi, Reza Kazemi Oskuee * Pages 1026-1035
    Objective(s)
    Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most widely used polymers in gene delivery. The aim of this study was to modify PEI by replacing some of its primary amines with Brevinin 2R (BR-2R) peptide in order to increase the efficiency of gene delivery.
    Materials and Methods
    Polyethylenimine was modified by BR-2R peptide by two different approaches; A) conjugation methods including (І) using succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP), (П) EDC/NHS protocol and (ПІ) EDC/NHS+6-bromohexanoic acid protocol, and B) physical interaction method. The modified polymers were characterized for their ability of plasmid condensation, number of primary amines, size and zeta potential. The transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were evaluated on HEK293, L929, WEHI164 and Neuro2A cell lines by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based plasmid (pGFP) reporter gene and viability assays, respectively. Apoptosis induction ability was also evaluated via PI/Annexin V assay.
    Results
    Polyplex had size and zeta potential between 200-270 nm and +21.5- +28.4 mV, respectively. All vectors were able to condense plasmid DNA in C/P=4 (carrier-plasmid ratio). Transfection results on the Neuro2A cell line showed that the vector containing the BR-2R peptide, which was synthesized using EDC-NHS protocol had the best transfection efficiency.
    Conclusion
    Our results showed that conjugation of Brevinin 2R as cell penetrating peptide to polyethyleneimine could enhance the transfection ability of the polymer.
    Keywords: Brevinin 2R, Cell penetrating peptide, Gene delivery Polyethyleneimine, Vector
  • Mahin Taheri Moghadam *, Yousef Asadi Fard, Ghasem Saki, Roshan Nikbakht Pages 1036-1043
    Objective(s)
    Sperm cryopreservation plays an undeniable role in assisted reproductive technology. However, this process significantly reduces the motility, viability, morphology and nuclear integrity of sperm. Reasons of these changes were oxidative stress and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin D on the survival and integrity of fertile sperm after cryopreservation.
    Materials and Methods
    Semen sample of 18 males with normal parameters was used. After swimming up, each sample was divided into two parts. 20 µmol vitamin D was added to one part as experimental group and the other part was left untreated as control group. The samples in all groups were frozen for 14 days. Post-thawing, the groups were evaluated for sperm motility, and viability using eosin staining, morphology using the Diff-Quick staining and apoptosis by TUNEL, Annexin-V and caspase-3 activity assay. By using nitrobluetetraxolium test and thiobarbituric acid, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation of sperms were measured, respectively.
    Results
    In comparison with control groups, motile and viable sperm concentration was substantially higher in treated groups (P-value<0.05); however, morphological analysis did not show any remarkable changes. Also, ROS and lipid peroxidation values were dramatically reduced by vitamin D (P-value<0.05). TUNEL and Annexin assay for apoptosis were considerably lower in treated groups (P-value<0.05), but caspase activity assay revealed no significant difference between groups.
    Conclusion
    The results have shown that the addition of vitamin D to a freezing medium leads to higher quality and function of human sperm.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Human sperm freezing, Infertility, Oxidative stress, Vitamin D
  • Kambiz Gilany, Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Saeed Chashmniam, Parisa Shahnazari, Mehdi Amini, Babak Arjmand, Reza Malekzadeh, Bibi Fatemeh Nobakht Motlagh Ghoochani * Pages 1044-1049
    Objective(s)
    Hepatitis B virus infection causes chronic disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The metabolomics investigations have been demonstrated to be related to pathophysiologic mechanisms in many disorders such as hepatitis B infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the saliva metabolic profile of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and to identify underlying mechanisms as well as potential biomarkers associated with the disease.
    Materials and Methods
    Saliva from 16 healthy subjects and 20 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Then, multivariate statistical analysis was performed to identify discriminative metabolites between two groups.
    Results
    A set of metabolites were detected, including propionic acid, putrescine, acetic acid, succinic acid, tyrosine, lactic acid, butyric acid, pyruvic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which in combination with one another could accurately distinguish patients from healthy controls. Our results clearly demonstrated altered metabolites are involved in nine metabolic pathways.
    Conclusion
    Metabolomics has the potential to be considered as a novel clinical tool for hepatitis B diagnosis while contributing to a comprehensive understanding of disease mechanisms.
    Keywords: Diagnostic biomarkers, Hepatitis B virus, Metabolomics, NMR, Saliva
  • Jian, Guo Chen, Xiao, Ming Xu, Hui Ji, Bo Sun * Pages 1050-1058
    Objective(s)
    The aim of this study was to identify the role of miR-155 in the myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α).
    Materials and Methods
    We constructed rat models with myocardial I/R injury and H9C2 cell models with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) damage. Anti-miR-155 and HIF-1α short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to treat rats and H9C2 cells to measure infarct area (IA) by TTC staining, determine creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities by automatic biochemical analyzer, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels by ELISA, and detect apoptosis-related proteins by Western blotting. TUNEL staining and flowcytometry were employed to evaluate the apoptosis, JC-1 staining to detect mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and MTT assay to determine H9C2 cell viability.
    Results
    After I/R and H/R, significant elevations were observed in IA, apoptosis, CK, LDH, cTnT, cTnI, and miR-155 levels with reduced HIF-1α. Besides, H/R-induced H9C2 cells presented decreases in MMP and Bcl-2/Bax, but increases in cytosolic/mitochondrial ratio of cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. However, both rats and H9C2 cells showed an opposite tendency concerning the above after anti-miR-155 treatment. Nevertheless, HIF-1α shRNA effectively reversed protective effects of anti-miR-155 on alleviating I/R- and H/R- induced injury.
    Conclusion
    Inhibiting miR-155 could reduce myocardial infarct size, suppress I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and maintain the MMP to alleviate I/R-induced injury via specific regulation of HIF-1α.
    Keywords: Alpha subunit Apoptosis Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 Ischemia MIRN155 microRNA, human Reperfusion
  • Fatemeh Aghighi, Mojgan Mohammadifar, Hamidreza Banafshe, Mahmoud Salami, Sayyed Alireza Talaei * Pages 1059-1064
    Objective(s)
    In addition to genetic factors, environmental phenomena during postnatal age highly affect development and, in turn, function of the brain. The present work evaluates if morphine consumption during lactation period influences the spatial performances and synaptic plasticity in rats at neonatal period of age.
    Materials and Methods
    Three groups of mothers were subcutaneously administered by 5 (M5), 10 (M10) or 20 (M20) mg/kg morphine every 12 hours during the lactation period. At 45 days old, their offspring were introduced to Morris water maze for assessment of spatial learning and memory. Basic field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 area of hippocampus and, then, long term potentiation (LTP) was induced by tetanic stimulation.
    Results
    We found that the M10 and M20 rats spent more time and traveled longer distance to find the hidden platform of maze when compared to the control animals (P
    Conclusion
    The present study provides behavioral and electrophysiological proofs for negative effect of morphine on the hippocampal-related function in the neonatally morphine-exposed rats.
    Keywords: Hippocampus, Lactation, Maze learning, Morphine, Rats, Spatial Memory, Synaptic plasticity
  • Mohammad Saied Salehi, Homayoun Khazali *, Fariba Mahmoudi, Mahyar Janahmadi Pages 1065-1072
    Objective(s)
    Several pathological conditions are associated with hyper-production of testosterone; however, its impacts are not well understood. Hence, we evaluated the effects of supraphysiological levels of testosterone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in the hypothalamus of male rats. Also, we assessed the expression of two excitatory (kisspeptin and neurokinin-B) and two inhibitory (dynorphin and RFamide-related-peptide) neuropeptides upstream of GnRH neurons as possible routes to relay androgen information.
    Materials and Methods
    Gonadectomized (GDX) male rats received single injection of 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg testosterone undecanoate and three weeks later, posterior (PH) and anterior (AH) hypothalamus was dissected for evaluation of target genes using quantitative RT-PCR.
    Results
    We found that GnRH mRNA in the PH was high in GDX rats and 500 mg/kg testosterone reduced GnRH level expression. Finding revealed extremely high level of Kiss1 mRNA in the PH of GDX rats. However, in GDX rats treated with different levels of testosterone, Kiss1 expression was not significantly different than control. We also found that testosterone replacement increased the Kiss1 mRNA level in the AH. Moreover, neurokinin-B mRNA level in PH of GDX rats was similar to control. However, excess testosterone levels were effective in significantly inducing the down-regulation of neurokinin-B expression. The basal level of dynorphin mRNA was increased following testosterone treatments in the AH, where we found no significant difference in the level of RFamide-related-peptide mRNA between the experimental groups.
    Conclusion
    Excess levels of testosterone could act differently from its physiological concentration to regulate hypothalamic androgen sensitive neurons to control GnRH cell.
    Keywords: GnRH, Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, RFRP, Testosterone
  • Hamed Norouzi, Mohamad Rabbani Khorasgani, Abolghasem Danesh * Pages 1073-1084
    Objective(s)
    To address the alarming problem of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), herein, a marine Streptomyces capable of producing an anti-MRSA compound has been studied.
    Materials and Methods
    Strain MN41 was morphologically and physiologically characterized and then, molecularly identified using 16SrRNA analysis. To produce the bioactive compound in large scale, a kind of submerged liquid fermentation was adopted. The antibacterial agent was purified using a silica gel column followed by a semi-preparative HPLC and the isolated metabolite was identified using mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR).  Finally, the production process was subjected to a two steps optimization using Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Response Surface Method (RSM), respectively. In addition, the antitumor activity of the active agent was studied.
    Results
    The purified compound with a molecular weight of 421.2 was identified as a natural pyrrole-derivative. The optimization revealed a significant effect for starch, pH, calcium carbonate and peptone on the production of this anti-MRSA compound and resulted in a 218% increase in the production yield.
    Conclusion
    The isolated pyrrole-derivative showed a remarkable activity against MRSA and also showed some promising anti-tumor activity.
    Keywords: Experimental designs, Marine microbiology, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Natural products, Fermentation
  • Chao, Tsung Chen, Jaung, Geng Lin, Chun, Ping Huang, Yi, Wen Lin * Pages 1085-1090
    Objective(s)
    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a central nervous system disorder characterized by widespread mechanical hyperalgesia due to unknown mechanisms. Several inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor, are increased in the serum of FM patients. Although medications including pregabalin, duloxetine, and milnacipran are used to treat FM, the results are unsatisfying. In the present study we assessed whether electroacupuncture (EA) can reduce chronic FM pain and then proposed an underlying mechanism for this effect.
    Materials and Methods
    Chronic FM pain was induced in mice by dual acid saline injection lasting up to 4 weeks.
    Results
    Chronic FM pain was treated by EA manipulation, but not in the sham operated group. Phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K), protein kinase B, mechanistic target of rapamycin, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells were unaltered in the mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after inducing FM and administering EA treatment. The pPI3K-associated nociceptive signaling pathway was increased in the thalamus of FM mice, but reversed by EA. Similar results were observed in the mouse somatosensory cortex.
    Conclusion
    These data suggest that EA has a significant effect on a signaling pathway in brain areas of FM mice. These findings suggest the value of EA for clinical practice.
    Keywords: Dorsal root ganglion, Electroacupuncture, Fibromyalgia, Phosphatidylinositol, Somatosensory cortex, Thalamus, 3-kinase
  • Zahra Shahedi, Masoumeh Varedi *, Zohreh Bagheri, Afagh Moatari, Hengameh Sharafpour Pages 1091-1096
    Objective(s)
    Severe injuries are often associated with tissue hypothyroidism, elevated damaging mediators in circulation, and broken gut epithelial barrier.  However, the relationships between the hypothyroid state and gut epithelial damage are largely unknown.  Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of L-thyroxine (T4) on in vitro models of intact and compromised gut epithelium.
    Materials and Methods
    Gut epithelium equivalent was generated by cultivation of IEC-18 rat intestinal epithelial cells into transwell inserts. Confluent cultures were then compromised by scratching or H2O2 and traumatized rat sera (TUR sera) treatments.  Macromolecules permeation and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were evaluated by conventional methods. Morphology and scratch wound closure were assessed microscopically. Cell viability/proliferation was assessed by MTT assay.
    Results
    Both H2O2 and TUR sera induced marked yet different types of epithelial disintegration.  While H2O2 significantly increased and decreased probe permeation and TEER, respectively, TUR sera was ineffective.  Cultures treated with normal rat sera (sham sera) exhibited morphology, probe permeation, and TEER comparable to those of control cultures.  Presence of T4 attenuated the H2O2-induced but not TUR sera-induced damages. T4 treatment accelerated, albeit marginally, wound closure but had virtually no effects on cell viability/proliferation.  
    Conclusion
    These data suggest that different mechanisms are involved in oxidant- and trauma-induced gut epithelial barrier breakdown.  Besides, they show that T4 markedly attenuates oxidant-induced gut epithelial damage.  Accordingly, one may also conclude that tissue hypothyroidism does not contribute to trauma-induced gut barrier breakdown.
    Keywords: Epithelial barriers, Gut, Oxidative stress, Thyroid hormones, Trauma
  • Raheleh Alimohamadi, Iman Fatemi, Soudabeh Naderi, Elham Hakimizadeh, Mohammad, Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Allahtavakoli * Pages 1097-1101
    Objective(s)
    Previous studies have indicated that phytoestrogens induce estrogenic as well as anti-inflammatory effects, and they are found in high abundance in the extracts of some herbs such as Vitex Agnus Castus (VAC). Therefore, we investigated the effect of VAC extract on ovariectomized mice after the induction of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) model.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, 50 mice ranging from 25 to 35 g were divided into five experimental groups as follows: Control, VAC, Estrogen, Tamoxifen, and Tamoxifen-VAC.  Animals were ovariectomized, and after 30 days of treatment, they were given PMCAO induction. Behavioral assessment (adhesive removal and wire hanging tests) was evaluated 24 hr, 48 hr, and one week after induction of stroke. The infarct volume, as well as serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were measured one week after stroke.
    Results
    One week after stroke, in both VAC and estrogen groups, the infarct size reduced in comparison with the control group. Estrogen and VAC extract improved adhesive removal and wire hanging test, increased the level of IL-10, and decreased the level of MMP-9 compared with the control group. In addition, co-administration of tamoxifen and VCA extract had no significant effect on measured indices compared with control and tamoxifen groups.
    Conclusion
    Based on our findings, VAC extract has neuroprotective properties and can reduce stroke injuries in PMCAO-induced ovariectomized mice via anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties.
    Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, Mice, Ovariectomy, Stroke, Vitex agnus-castus