فهرست مطالب

  • سال پنجم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Mina Zafarpiran, Zeinab Shirvani Farsani* Pages 1-12

    Until recently, it was believed that only a small fraction of the genome contains protein-coding sequences and the rest of the DNA which considered as junk DNA has no specific function in life. Todays, there are plenty evidences that the human genome is widely transcribed and generates tens of thousands of noncoding RNAs. These ncRNAs have an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes. Non coding RNAs contain small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (18-25 nucleotides long) and long ncRNAs with more than 200 nucleotides, both of them have important functions in different aspects of cell biology. LncRNAs have been studied much less than miRNAs, but comprise a large proportion of noncoding transcripts. They can suppress or increase the expression of proteins and many of them are associated with various diseases in humans.
    Biomarkers are measurable indicators of diseases. They should be highly sensitive, specific, predictive and easily accessible. The diagnostic ability of lncRNAs in biological fluids explains their advantages as non-invasive markers for lung diseases. Accordingly, this review study highlights some key aspects of lncRNAs in pulmonary diseases as diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic biomarkers.

    Keywords: Long noncoding RNAs, Diagnostic Biomarkers, Pulmonary Diseases, Lung Cancer
  • Payam Mehrian, Saina Etemad*, Abtin Doroudinia, Sara Mahmoudi Niri Pages 14-19
    Understanding lymphadenopathy pattern in breast cancer is essential for precise and timely diagnosis and treatment. In this article we study the anatomic distribution and morphologic characteristics of lymphadenopathy in breast cancer using spiral computed tomography scan.
    The spiral computed tomography images of 100 consecutive patients with diagnosis of breast cancer; admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran Iran over a 2-year period; were assessed.
    Mediastinal (39%), axillary (22%) and internal mammary lymph nodes (7%) were most frequently involved. In all these regions, lymphadenopathy was more common in mastectomy/lumpectomy group compared to non- mastectomy/lumpectomy group. In both groups, mediastinal lymph nodes were most commonly involved. Within the mediastinum, pulmonary hilar (27%) and paratracheal (22%) regions were most frequently involved. Cavitation and irregular margins were only noted in axillary lymph nodes .Calcification without history of previous radiation therapy was noted only in mediastinal (pulmonary hilar and lower paratracheal) lymph nodes. Lymph node involvement was most frequently noted in subcarinal and right lower paratracheal lymph nodes. In all patients, internal mammary lymphadenopathy was noted in the absence of axillary lymphadenopathy. Concurrent internal mammary and other mediastinal lymphadenopathy was observed in 3% of patients.
    The study showed mediastinal, axillary and internal mammary lymph nodes are most commonly affected in breast cancer. So, lymphadenopathy in these regions in breast cancer patients requires further evaluation; including biopsy; to exclude metastasis.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Spiral Computed Tomography, Lymph Node, Lymph Node Map