فهرست مطالب

محیط شناسی - سال چهل و پنجم شماره 2 (پیاپی 90، تابستان 1398)
  • سال چهل و پنجم شماره 2 (پیاپی 90، تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • محمد هادی ابوالحسنی*، نیلوفر پیرستانی، علی اسلامی صفحات 193-207
    این پژوهش، ابتدا برخی از خصوصیات پسماند پشم سنگ مانند pH، EC، pHZPC، ترکیب شیمیایی با استفاده از آنالیز های XRD و XRF و همین طور ساختار و ریخت شناسی جاذب ها با استفاده از میکروسکوپ الکترونی رویشی(SEM) تعیین شد. آزمایشات جذب به صورت ناپیوسته با استفاده از محلول های آزمایشگاهی حاوی فلز سنگین کادمیوم انجام گرفت و شرایط بهینه جذب در اثر فاکتورهای مختلف pH(3، 5، 7 و 9)، غلظت اولیه یون های فلزی(1، 5، 10، 20، 50 و 100 میلی-گرم در لیتر)، زمان تماس(5، 15، 30، 60، 90 و 120 دقیقه) و مقدار جاذب(1، 2، 5، 10 و 20 گرم در لیتر) بر میزان جذب در سطوح مختلف مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بیشترین میزان جذب با اختلاف معنی داری نسبت به سایر pHها، در 9=pH بود(میزان 50/83 درصد، 05/0˂P) و کمترین مقدار آن بدون اختلاف معنی داری با سایر pHها، در 3=pH دیده شد(میزان 50/60 درصد، 05/0˂P). میزان جذب در غلظت 5 میلی گرم در لیتر با اختلاف معنی داری بیشتر از سایر غلظت ها بود(میزان 00/75 درصد، 05/0˂P) و کمترین میزان جذب با اختلاف معنی داری نسبت به سایر غلظت ها در غلظت 100 میلی گرم در لیتر مشاهده شد(میزان 00/13 درصد، 05/0˂P). کمترین میزان جذب کادمیوم با اختلاف معنی داری نسبت به سایر زمان های تماس در زمان 5 دقیقه مشاهده شد
    کلیدواژگان: پسماند پشم سنگ، کادمیوم(II)، ایزوترم
  • سید حسام علی حسینی، علی ترابیان*، فرزام بابایی سمیرمی صفحات 209-221
    کاربرد پساب شهری در مصارف کشاورزی یکی از گزینه های حل بحران آب است. این در حالیست که عدم قطعیت، ارزیابی کیفیت پساب را به امری چالش برانگیز تبدیل نموده است. سیستم استنتاج فازی یکی از راه های مواجهه با عدم قطعیت در ارزیابی کیفی پساب سیستم های پیچیده است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، ارزیابی سریع و مطمئن کیفیت پساب تصفیه خانه شهری صاحبقرانیه بر پایه سیستم استنتاج فازی به منظور استفاده مجدد در مصارف کشاورزی است. در ابتدا، با استفاده از روش دلفی 8 پارامتر کیفی پساب شامل کلی فرم مدفوعی، نماتد، pH، TDS، TSS، COD، BOD5 و نیترات انتخاب شدند. داده های کیفی 60 نمونه پساب تصفیه خانه شهری صابحقرانیه که به صورت ماهانه از سال های 1391 تا 1396 نمونه برداری شده اند؛ براساس سیستم استنتاج فازی ممدانی مورد ارزیابی قرارگرفتند. نتایج سیستم فازی نشان داد که تعداد نمونه هایی که به ترتیب در رده عالی، خوب و بد قرار گرفته اند برابر 39، 20 و 1 هستند. به طور کلی می توان نتیجه گرفت که استفاده از سیستم استنتاج فازی ممدانی در ارزیابی کیفیت پساب شهری مفید بوده و می توان آن را به عنوان ابزار اولویت بندی در مدیریت پساب به کار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: &quot، پساب شهری&quot، &quot، سیستم استنتاج فازی&quot، &quot، استفاده مجدد&quot، &quot، مصارف کشاورزی&quot
  • علی جعفری*، مرضیه علیپور، مژگان عباسی، علی سلطانی صفحات 223-235
    به دلیل محدویت زمان و بودجه قابل دسترس مطالعه گونه ای در مقیاس وسیع، دشوار است. لذا در این زمینه از روش های مدلسازی استفاده میشود. مدلسازی پراکنش گونه های گیاهی با هدف شناسایی مناطق مستعد جهت اولویت بندی حفاظتی حائز اهمیت است. این مطالعه با هدف مدلسازی پراکنش گونه زالزالک با استفاده از مکسنت در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری صورت گرفت. بدین منظور نقاط حضور گونه از 37 سایت در سراسر استان با استفاده از نمونه برداری تصادفی طبقه بندی شده جمع آوری و مختصات جغرافیایی آنها وارد مکسنت شد. نقشه عوامل محیطی شامل 3 متغیر توپوگرافی، 7 متغیر اقلیمی و خاک و کاربری اراضی تهیه شدند. ارتباط بین داده های حضور با نقشه های 12 متغیر محیطی با استفاده از نرم افزارMaxent به صورت مدل ریاضی تعریف شد. سپس نقشه های پیش بینی پراکنش گونه تهیه شدند. نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی مدل نشان داد که مدل با ROC برابر با 95 % توان پیش بینی عالی را دارد. آزمون جک نایف نیز نشان داد که بیشینه دمای سالانه، ارتفاع، میانگین دمای سالانه و میانگین حداقل رطوبت نسبی به ترتیب بیشترین تاثیر را بر حضور این گونه در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل سازی، آنتروپی بیشینه، زالزالک، چهارمحال و بختیاری، آزمون جک نایف
  • افشین یوسف گمرکچی، مهدی اکبری*، مهدی یونسی صفحات 237-252
    باغستان سنتی شهر قزوین از نظر زیست محیطی، فضای سبز شهری، تولید محصولات باغی و میراث فرهنگی بیش از یک هزار ساله آن دارای اهمیت بسزایی هستند. با توجه به اهمیت تاریخی باغات سنتی، تامین حقابه زیستی آن از مهم رین موارد در خصوص حفظ و نگهداری باغات محسوب می شود. در حالی که به دلیل واقع شدن باغات در حاشیه شهر و تغییرات آبدهی در رودخانه های تغذیه کننده باغات و انحراف جریان سیلاب به خارج از شهر در طی سالیان اخیر بحث تامین نیاز آبی باغات سنتی از منابع جایگزین مطرح بوده است. در این تحقیق از قابلیت های سنجش از دور به منظور برآورد حقابه زیستی باغات سنتی شهر قزوین استفاده شده است. نتایج تحلیل تراکم پوشش گیاهی بر اساس شاخص پوشش گیاهی نشان داد تراکم پوشش گیاهی در مناطق مختلف باغات سنتی یکسان نبوده و اختلاف قابل توجهی بین مناطق مختلف باغستان وجود داشته است. برآورد تبخیر و تعرق روزانه با استفاده از الگوریتم SEBAL نشان داد بیشترین مقادیر تبخیر و تعرق در مناطق جنوبی باغستان، در بازه 8 تا 10 میلی متر در روز بوده و بر اساس نقشه توزیع مکانی تبخیر و تعرق روزانه حداکثر حقابه ماهانه به منظور حفظ وضعیت موجود باغات سنتی، 7/7 میلیون متر مکعب می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوریتم سبال، سنجش از دور، شاخص پوشش گیاهی، نیاز آبی
  • لیلا مختاری، محمدجواد مهدوی نژاد*، شهاب کریمی نیا، منصوره کیان ارثی صفحات 253-268
    مصرف انواع سوخت های فسیلی باعث افزایش آلاینده هایی چون CO2 شده است. حدود یک سوم انرژی ملی توسط ساختمان های بخش خانگی مصرف می شوند. معماری سنتی ایران شیوه های منطقی جهت فراهم نمودن شرایط آسایش ارائه نموده است. از آنجایی که بازگشت به شیوه های ساختمانی گذشته میسر نیست و جوابگوی زندگی امروز نخواهد بود، تحقیق در زمینه طراحی همساز با اقلیم به شیوه غیرفعال ضروری می یاشد. بیشترین اتلاف انرژی از پوسته های خارجی ساختمان رخ می دهد. برای کاهش مصرف انرژی می توان از انرژی تابشی خورشید از طریق سطح نورگذر پوسته خارجی در فصل سرد بهره برد. در این پژوهش، ضرورت شناخت تاثیر گونه های مختلف ساختمان های مسکونی و تراکم نسبی آن ها در تهران بر میزان آلودگی هوا مورد توجه بوده و نسبت بازشو به دیوار آن ها مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. این تحقیق بر اساس مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی انجام شده و از نرم افزارهای انرژی و شبیه سازی استفاده شده است. در مطالعات انجام شده در تهران، 10 گونه مسکن به رسمیت شناخته شده است. در نمودارهای حاصل از شبیه سازی انرژی با WWRهای 10%، 25% و 40%، گونه 4، با RC=0.90 کمترین میزان بار گرمایی و کمترین میزان انتشار CO2 و در نتیجه کمترین آلودگی ناشی از گرمایش زمستان را داراست.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، تراکم نسبی، نسبت بازشو به دیوار، بار گرمایش زمستان، آلودگی هوا
  • شاهین وهابی راد، محمد خداوردیزاده*، صدیقه هاشمی بناب صفحات 269-286
    هوا یکی از مهم ترین ارکان محیط زیست می باشد. گرد و غبار فصلی و ترافیک زیاد در منطقه جنوب غرب تهران موجب آلودگی هوا می گردد. در صورت تعلل در اعمال راهکارهای مربوط به کاهش آلودگی هوا ممکن است این آثار آلودگی وخیم تر گردد. یکی از مهم ترین این راهکارها لزوم آگاه سازی و مشارکت مردم در کاهش آلودگی هوا بوده است. جامعه هنگامی درک درستی از منافع هوای سالم خواهد داشت که بداند با آلودگی آن چه منافعی را از دست می دهد؛ و این منافع زمانی بهتر درک می شوند که مبالغ ریالی آنها مشخص شوند. بدین منظور جهت برآورد ارزش بهبود کیفیت هوای جنوب غرب تهران از روش آزمون انتخاب و مدل لاجیت متداخل استفاده شد. نتایج تمایل به پرداخت برای هریک از آثار آلودگی هوا نشان داد که متوسط تمایل به پرداخت برای سطوح بهبود مطلق و نسبی مرگ و میر به ترتیب 102406 و 85359 ریال، برای سطوح بهبود مطلق و نسبی دید افقی به ترتیب 72202 و 24162 ریال و برای بهبود مطلق هزینه های شستشو 35011 ریال بدست آمد. متوسط تمایل به پرداخت سالانه هر خانوار 319140 ریال و ارزش بهبود کیفیت هوای جنوب غرب تهران 118705 میلیارد ریال بدست آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمون انتخاب، آلودگی هوا، لاجیت آشیانه ای، تهران، تمایل به پرداخت
  • سنجش کیفیت منظر خیابان های شهری در کلانشهر تهران
    شبنم شاملو* صفحات 276-290
    با ظهور مفاهیم نو در شهرسازی کلان هزاره جدید، همچون کیفیت زندگی، شهرسازی سبز و شهرهای پیاده مدار و به دنبال رقابت شهرهای مختلف جهان جهت ارتقای زیست پذیری شهری؛ یکی از مفاهیم مورد توجه در این میان، کیفیت بخشی به منظر شهر از طریق ساماندهی، هویت بخشی و سرزنده سازی منظر خیابان است. ضرورت این موضوع در شهرسازی ایرانی به دلیل ظهور مدرنیته در دهه های پیشین و به دنبال فقدان رویکرد جامع بهسازی منظر تاریخی خیابان بیش از پیش احساس می گردد. بر این اساس هدف این مقاله در گام نخست، تدوین شاخص های جامع منظر خیابان و ارائه چارچوبی استاندارد برای ارزیابی و سنجش منظر خیابان با استفاده از روش تحقیق «فرا تحلیل» می باشد. در رهیافت بعدی نیز به سنجش کیفیت منظر خیابان در کلانشهر تهران با تاکید بر رویکرد ذهنی شهروندان که مبتنی بر اندازه گیری و سنجش مقادیر شاخص های 60گانه منظر خیابان در محدوده های هدف مطالعه است، پرداخته می شود. بررسی شرایط اجتماعی، کالبدی و محیطی خیابان های سه گانه نشان می دهد که خیابان ناصرخسرو با امتیاز 2.7 در بالاترین جایگاه، خیابان ولیعصر با امتیاز 2.6 در جایگاه بعدی و در نهایت خیابان انقلاب با امتیاز 2.2 در جایگاه آخر قرار دارد. با این وجود همچنان هیچ یک از خیابان ها حد متوسط رضایتمندی مردم را کسب نکرده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: منظر خیابان، شاخص، رویکرد ذهنی، سنجش، کلانشهر تهران
  • محمدرضا حقی*، مسعود پورعلیخانی صفحات 287-300
    محیط شهری به عنوان بستر حضور افراد و شکل گیری کنش های اجتماعی از جایگاه ویژه ای در تامین نیازها و رضایتمندی افراد برخوردار است و لذا تحلیل کیفیت محیط می تواند زمینه را برای دستیابی به راهکارهای بهبود شرایط فراهم سازد. از همین رو، پژوهش حاضر با روش تحلیلی-تفسیری و مبتنی بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای و بررسی های میدانی به ارزیابی این موضوع پرداخته است. لذا در آغاز شاخص های سنجش کیفیت محیط شهری از منابع داخلی و خارجی استخراج و سپس به کمک پرسشنامه در نمونه مورد مطالعه - نواحی 12گانه شهر همدان- مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. با توجه به هدف پژوهش، از مدل های تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره خطی برای ارزیابی وضعیت کیفیت محیطی نواحی و شهر همدان بهره گرفته است. در این میان، از نرم افزار SPSS برای انجام تحلیل های آماری و از نرم افزار ArcGIS برای ترسیم نقشه های تحلیلی استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد شش عامل «امنیت محیطی»، «پیاده مداری»، «خدمات شهری»، «محیط زیست»، «ساخت و ساز» و «حمل و نقل» بیشترین نقش را در تبیین کیفیت محیطی محلات شهری ایفا می کنند. همچنین در بررسی وضعیت شهر همدان، وجود اختلاف آشکار در سطح رضایتمندی ساکنین محلات مختلف از کیفیت محیطی مشاهده شد که دوقطبی شدن شهر را در پی داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت محیطی، کیفیت زندگی، رضایتمندی شهروندان، شاخص ذهنی، همدان
  • ارزیابی آسیب پذیری آب زیرزمینی دشت میاندوآب به نیترات با استفاده از الگوریتم ژنتیک
    حسین نوروزی قوشبلاغ*، اصغر اصغری مقدم، سمیه هاتف تبار صفحات 291-305
    برای پاک سازی آب های زیرزمینی آلوده و مصرف مجدد آن، اغلب باید وقت و هزینه زیادی صرف شود و یافتن منبع آبی جایگزین همیشه امکان پذیر نیست. محدوده مطالعاتی میاندوآب به عنوان مهم ترین دشت حوضه دریاچه ارومیه یکی از مناطق مهم کشاورزی کشور، در معرض خطر آلودگی به نیترات قرار گرفته است. لذا بررسی مناطق آسیب پذیر آبخوان این منطقه با روش مناسب از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. در این تحقیق ابتدا از روش دراستیک معمولی، آسیب پذیری دشت میاندوآب برای بررسی مناطق در معرض آلودگی استفاده شد. سپس برای بهینه سازی روش دراستیک با استفاده از الگوریتم ژنتیک، تابع هدفی به الگوریتم ژنتیک تعریف شد و وزن های بهینه پارامترهای دراستیک با بیشینه کردن تابع هدف بدست آمد. داده های غلظت نیترات و شاخص همبستگی آن با آسیب پذیری برای بررسی صحت سنجی روش های ارائه شده به کار برده شد. شاخص همبستگی نشان داد که دراستیک بهینه شده با استفاده از الگوریتم ژنتیک، شاخص همبستگی بالاتری با نیترات داشته و نتیجه بهتری نسبت به دراستیک معمولی برای منطقه ارائه داده است. نقشه بهینه شده با استفاده از روش الگوریتم ژنتیک نشان می دهد که حدود 18، 11، 28، 26 و 17 درصد از دشت به ترتیب در مناطق با آسیب پذیری خیلی کم، کم، متوسط، زیاد و خیلی زیاد واقع شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: آبخوان، آلودگی، الگوریتم ژنتیک، دشت میاندوآب، دراستیک
  • نقش مدیریت منابع آب در کنترل تغییرات کمی و کیفی منابع آب ناشی از تغییرات اقلیمی حوضه آبریز تالاب زریوار
    سید محمد حسینی*، سمیرا جاویدی دلجوان صفحات 305-305
    تالاب ها دارای خاک های اشباع از آب، شرایط بی هوازی و گیاهان و حیوانات آدابته شده با محیط های مرطوب هستند. در سال های اخیر، رشد بیش ازحد شهرنشینی موجب نزول وضعیت کیفی و کمی تالاب ها شده است. تنزل عملکرد تالاب منجر به تخریب زیستگاه ها، کاهش تنوع زیستی و خشکی اقلیم می گردد. هدف این پژوهش بررسی نقش مدیریت منابع آب در کنترل تغییرات کمی و کیفی منابع آب ناشی از تغییرات اقلیمی در حوضه ی آبریز تالاب زریوار می باشد. بررسی های انجام شده، نشان دهنده ی کاهش معنادار میزان بارندگی ها، کاهش رطوبت نسبی و افزایش دمای هوا در حوضه ی آبریز تالاب زریوار می باشد؛ بنابراین زریوار به سمت تغییر اقلیم پیش می رود. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که میزان تاثیر مدیریت منابع آب در حفظ و احیای کیفیت منابع آب این حوضه در پی تغییرات اقلیمی، 401/0 و میزان تاثیر مدیریت منابع آب در حفظ و احیای کمیت منابع آب این حوضه در پی تغییرات اقلیمی، 413/0 است. در هر دو مورد، شدت رابطه، متوسط رو به پایین است که نشان دهنده ی عملکرد ضعیف مدیریت منابع آب می باشد و علی رغم وضعیت نامناسب منابع آب حوضه ی آبریز زریوار، مدیریت منابع آب در این حوضه نتوانسته است تاثیر چشم گیری بر حفظ و احیای کمیت و کیفیت منابع آب در پی تغییرات اقلیمی داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت منابع آب، تغییرات اقلیمی، تالاب زریوار
  • ارزیابی تنوع و گروه گونه های کارکردی به عنوان یکی از شاخص های تنوع زیستی در پاسخ به گرادیان ارتفاعی
    زینب جعفریان*، مژده دهقان، فرهاد برجسته، منصوره کارگر صفحات 305-310
    هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی گروه گونه ها و تنوع کارکردی گیاهان در طول گرادیان ارتفاعی به منظور اعمال مدیریت منطبق با شرایط اکولوژیک مرتع چشمه سرخو شهرستان راور است. برای این منظور، 12 نقطه ارتفاعی به فاصله 100 متر از هم در نظر گرفته شد و در هر نقطه، در راستای ترانسکتی عمود بر جهت شیب، 5 پلات نمونه برداری مستقر شد. در مجموع 60 پلات برداشت شد. 2 صفت کار کردی شامل ارتفاع گیاه، فرم رویشی به طور مستقیم در پلات ها اندازه گیری شد و 4 صفت دیگر شامل نوع تکثیر، طول عمر، فرم زندگی و نوع تثبیت نیتروژن از منابع گردآوری شد. سپس شاخص های تنوع کارکردی با کمک نرم افزار FDiversity تجزیه و تحلیل شدند و گروه گونه های کارکردی نیز استخراج شدند. برای بررسی روابط شاخص های کارکرد با عامل ارتفاع از سطح دریا از آزمون ANOVA و رگرسیون های غیرخطی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین شاخص های یکنواختی کارکرد، غنای کارکردی و یکنواختی گونه ای با ارتفاع رابطه معنی داری وجود نداشت و پنج شاخص دیگر رابطه معنی داری با ارتفاع نشان دادند. شش گروه گونه کارکردی در منطقه شناسایی شدند. ارتفاع گیاهان بین گروه-های کارکردی دارای اختلاف معنی داری با یکدیگر بودند، اما فراوانی گیاهان اختلاف معنی داری با یکدیگر نداشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: گروه گونه های کارکردی، صفات کارکردی، ارتفاع گیاهان، مرتع چشمه سرخو
  • بررسی ترجیحات کشاورزان جهت مشارکت در برنامه پرداخت برای خدمات اکوسیستم (PES) حوزه آبخیز دشت قزوین
    سارا عطایی، سید ابوالقاسم مرتضوی*، صادق خلیلیان، نغمه مبرقعی دینان صفحات 310-315
    پرداخت برای خدمات اکوسیستم (PES) از ابزارهای اقتصادی مدیریت منابع طبیعی و حفاظت از محیط زیست می باشد. هدف این برنامه از طریق ارائه مشوق های مستقیم به کشاورزان، جهت بهبود نتایج زیست محیطی اکوسیستم حاصل می شود. مشارکت در برنامه های PES داوطلبانه است، بطوریکه طراحی برنامه ی موثر نیاز به بررسی دقیق ترجیحات کشاورزان دارد. دشت قزوین از نظر تولید محصولات کشاورزی و درآمدزایی از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. اما متاسفانه در سال ها اخیر با مشکلات جدی به ویژه در حوزه آبخیز مواجه گردیده، بطوری که توجه به مسئله حفاظت و پایداری منابع آب در این منطقه ضروری بنظر می رسد. این مطالعه به بررسی ترجیحات کشاورزان جهت طراحی برنامه PES در راستای بهبود حوزه آبخیز دشت قزوین می پردازد و با استفاده از روش آزمون انتخاب و مدل لاجیت شرطی ترجیحات کشاورزان را کمی می کند. براساس نتایج، کشاورزان مشارکت در برنامه PES فرضی را به وضعیت موجود ترجیح می دهند. روش های پرداخت نقدی سالانه ثابت به کشاورزان منفرد و پرداخت غیرنقدی (تجهیز زمین ها به روش های نوین آبیاری)، در ایجاد انگیزه مشارکت در کشاورزان معنی دار بوده و ضرایب مثبت آن ها با نظریه های اقتصاد همخوانی دارد. کشاورزان ترجیح بیشتری نسبت به تغییر الگوی کشت نسبت به اصلاح روش آبیاری دارند. همچنین، با افزایش سطح مشروطیت، احتمال مشارکت کشاورزان کاهش می یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمون انتخاب، پرداخت برای خدمات اکوسیستم، تمایل به دریافت، دشت قزوین، مدل لاجیت شرطی
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  • Mohammad Hadi Abolhasani *, Niloofar Pirestani, Ali Eslami Pages 193-207
  • Seyed Hesam Alihosseini, Ali Torabian *, Farzam Babaei Semiromi Pages 209-221
    Expanded Abstract Introduction There is an increasing global trend in using effluent as a non-conventional water resource for a wide range of applications. effluent can be used in a number of applications, including Makeup water in cooling towers and boilers, Equipment cleaning, Vehicle washing, Agricultural irrigation, Landscaping and lawn maintenance, Urban reuse (air conditioning, toilet flushing, etc.), and Fire protection. The scarcity of freshwater resources is a serious problem in arid and semi-arid regions, such as Iran. Effluent can have different advantages including being a constant, reliable water resource and reduces the amount of water extracted from the environment. Wastewater can be a vast resource if reclaimed properly to become effluent. The right on-site treatment system can transform treated wastewater into a reliable alternative water resource. In a case of inappropriate treatment, wastewater is discharged untreated into rivers, lakes and oceans which is a global problem. Today, around 80% of all wastewater is discharged untreated into rivers, lakes and oceans. It poses health and environmental problems. Recovering water, energy, nutrients and other precious materials embedded in wastewater is an opportunity to cover water demand and contribute to improved water security. To handle increased water demand, effluent is offered to be used for agricultural irrigation. The use of effluent for agricultural irrigation is viewed as a positive means of recycling water due to the potential large volumes of water that can be reused. The availability of nutrients such as N, P or K is a necessity for plant growth. One of the advantages of using effluent for irrigation is supplying nutrients and reducing use of synthetic fertilizers. Effluent can provide the soils with micronutrients and organic matter. There are concerns, however, about the impact of the quality of the effluent, both on the crop itself and on the consumers of the crops. Quality issues of the effluent can cause problems in agriculture incluing nutrient concentrations, heavy metals, and the presence of contaminants such as human and animal pathogens, pharmaceuticals and etc. There are international guidelines and national regulatory standards for quality control of effluent in agriculture. Department of environment in Iran issued the standard for effluent quality used in agricultural irrigation. EPA and WHO have also guidelines for the safe use of effluent. Using effluent for various applications including agriculture irrigation has been examined in many studies. These studies focus on comparing quality parameters of the effluent with the standards without concerning uncertainty in a framework for overall suitability of the effluent quality. This study aims to present a framework of effluent quality assessment for using in agriculture. We perform such an assessment by considering related uncertainty via Fuzzy Inference System and integrating it with Delphi method. The proposed framework can be used for wide range of applications in which effluent can be reused as a source of water. Material & Methods Tehran city involves 7 operating wastewater treatment plants. Sahebgharanieh wastewater treatment plant is the oldest wastewater treatment plant in Iran which is located in Pasdaran Street (North Tehran). Its executive operations started in 1960 which was designed with the capacity of 2000 people as the covered population. The material of collecting network with the length of 5.3km is asbestos cement. Its average input flow is 25m3/h and the network’s diameters are 150 to 200 mm. In the first step, the most effective quality parameters of municipal effluent were identified through questionnaires. The questionnaires were given to the expert panel to be answered. The members were drawn from the university professors and industry sector research organizations. After aggregation of expert's opinion, 28 parameters were identified to assess municipal quality for reusing in agricultural irrigation. Delphi method was used to select the most important parameters from the total of 28 identified parameters. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. The experts were selected based on their educational level and work experience. The experts answered questionnaires in two or more rounds. Each member of the panel was sent a questionnaire with instructions to comment on each parameter by considering their importance in overall quality of the effluent for reusing in agricultural irrigation based on Likert scale (1= least important to 5=most important). In the second round, experts were asked to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. Finally, the process was stopped since there was low difference between scores of the first and second round. A predefined stop criterion and the mean scores of the final rounds determine the 8 parameters (i.e. Fecal Coliform, pH, TDS, TSS, COD, BOD5, NO3). In the second step, Mamdani fuzzy inference system was used to assess the overall quality of the effluent. The most commonly used fuzzy inference technique is Mamdani method. It is performed in four steps of: 1- Fuzzification of the input variables. 2- Rule evaluation. 3- Aggregation of the rule outputs. 4- Defuzzification. After fuzzification, 99 rules were used. After defuzzification, the results were compared with the results of crisp method. Results Based on fuzzy results, 39 samples were categorized as "excellent, 20 samples as "good", and 1 sample as "poor". According to crisp method, pH, BOD5, COD, TSS, and NO3 in the first sample were categorized as "low", Fecal Coliform and TDS were categorized as "medium" and "high" respectively. Based on fuzzy results, the sample was categorized as "excellent". The fifth sample was categorized as "poor" according to fuzzy results. In this sample pH and NO3 were categorized as "low". BOD5, COD, and fecal coliform were categorized as "medium" and Nematodes, TDS, TSS were categorized as "high". The ninth sample was categorized as "good". Fecal Coliform, nematodes, BOD5, COD, pH, and NO3 were categorized as "low". TSS and TDS were categorized as "medium" and "high" respectively. The last sample was categorized as "excellent" and all the parameters were "low". Fuzzy method results showed that samples No. 58, 59, and 60 were categorized as good and according to crisp method all the parameters except nematodes and TDS categorized as "high". Discussion & Conclusion Uncertainty as a result of data unavailability and incompleteness is a challenge in effluent quality assessment. In the present study, Mamdani fuzzy inference system was used to deal with uncertainty. Its ability to reflect the human thoughts and expertise in the assessment make it possible to deal with non-linear, uncertain, ambiguous and subjective information. In order to select the most important quality parameters considering agricultural irrigation, Delphi method was combined with Mamdani fuzzy inference system. Expert knowledge and standards were simultaneously used to determine membership functions. 8 parameters including Fecal Coliform, nematodes, pH, TDS, TSS, COD, BOD5, and NO3 were selected to assess the overall effluent quality for reusing in agricultural irrigation. The results showed the suitability of the selected 8 parameters in effluent quality assessment. Reviewing other studies showed that they just make a comparison between calculated quality parameters and standards. But, the present study presented a framework for overall effluent quality assessment. The proposed framework was demonstrated via the case study of a Sahebgharanieh wastewater treatment plant in Tehran. In order to indicate the model validity, the results of fuzzy model were compared with the results of crisp method. The comparison showed the same results. It can be concluded that Fuzzy model capability in considering thresholds in input and output values enables dealing with uncertainty. The proposed framework can be further used for other applications of effluent reuse such as industrial, aquaculture, environment, etc . Key words: Municipal effluent, Fuzzy inference system, Reuse, Agricultural uses.
    Keywords: Municipal effluent, Fuzzy inference system, Reuse, Agricultural uses
  • Ali Jafari *, Marzieh Alipour, Mozhgan Abbasi, Ali Soltani Pages 223-235
    Introduction Awareness of the distribution of plant species and their influencing factors has an important role in management, sustainable use and conservation. In particular, habitats and population of species due to increased human degradation, Climate changes and pests and diseases are limited. However, because of the time and budget constraints available to study, there is not enough information available on the distribution of species. Therefore, species distribution modeling (SDM) techniques are an appropriate tool for overcoming these constraints. In these methods, prediction of species distribution from spatial distribution of environmental variables controlling this distribution is possible. Today, using these powerful statistical methods and the GIS, these models are rapidly developing in the field of ecology. Although a species distribution is influenced by factors such as its ecological niche, its movement ability and inter-species competition, species distribution models focus on environmental factors and ignore the effects of such ecological processes. So far, various methods and models for modeling the distribution of species have been introduced. Most of these methods depend on the presence and absence of species and habitat variables that are related to the ecological niches. One of the strongest and well known models in the distribution of species is the maximum entropy. Many studies have been carried out using SDMs for animal species by maximum entropy in Iran, but there are fewer studies on plant species and in the case of hawthorn species (Crataegus azarolus L.), any habitat modeling has been done especially with this method as authors investigated. The aim of this study was to fill the gap of the above studies in order to identifying the ecological parameters affecting the spatial distribution of hawthorn species in order to prioritize and provide a map of conservation areas as well as to study the possibility of planting this species in similar areas with the actual site in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari and better management of existing habitats using maximum entropy analysis method. Material and methods Study area Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari province with an area of 16532 square kilometers located in southwestern of Iran as parts of Zagros Mountain. The absolute maximum temperature is 47.5 °C in Lordegan and the minimum absolute temperature of -34.5 ° C is recorded in Dezak station. The highest precipitation is belonging to the northern highlands with 1600 mm in a year. However, the minimum precipitation is recorded in northeastern parts of the province with an average annual rainfall of 250 to 300 mm, and the average annual precipitation in the province is about 560 mm. Methods Species presence data The criterion for the selection of species occurrence points was the presence of forest stands in which the species had a high density. The initial results from forest survey showed that a large part of the forest areas of the province have Crataegus genus in their composition. Finally, 37 species points were recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Environmental parameters (variables) The environmental variables used for the model include 7 climatic variables, 3 topographic variables, and land use and soil variables as in Table 1. The meteorological data of 9 synoptic stations with a period of 15 years (1995-1995) were collected and used. Topographic variables were extracted from digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area with a resolution of 30 m, as well as land use map and soil texture map in a scale of 150,000. Spatial resolution of all layers was changed to 30 m for use in the model and further analysis. After preparing the layers, Maxent 3.3.3e was used for modeling. Results The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiving operation factor (ROC) derived from the maximum entropy model was 95%, indicating an excellent prediction of the model versus 5% in the sense of random prediction. The most important variables that have the highest contribution in the model development were height, mean relative humidity and average annual rainfall, respectively. Jackknife test also showed that the most important variables that have the most contribution in predicting the model are the maximum annual temperature, height, mean annual temperature and mean relative humidity, respectively. Overall, according to the final map, the distribution of Hawthorn species is the best predicted site for the presence of this species located in Ardal, Koohrang and Kayar towns. Conclusion The Maxent has proven to be very effective in predicting habitat quantification and distribution of species, since it relies only on species presence data and lacks many of the complications associated with the presence-absence analytical methods. The results obtained from the evaluation of the performance of the Maxent in current study through the AUC of about 95% indicate that the model has excellent predictive capability. The results of the current study showed that even whit the small number of samples (occurrence points), the predictive function of the Maxent can compete with methods that have the highest predictive accuracy and provide acceptable results. In the process of modeling, it is important to know which variables and to what extent they have played a role in modeling. The results of species performance along the slope of environmental changes through the response curves are obtained and based on the analysis that in relation to the factors influencing the distribution of hawthorn species in this study, height, mean relative humidity and average annual sum of rainfall were the most important factors influencing the distribution of hawthorn species in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari province. According to the response curve of hawthorn in relation to height, the most probable presence of species in areas with a height of 1000 to 2000 meters is predicted, so that with the increasing of height the likelihood of presence of the species is reduced, which is consistent with the results of the research in the forests of Abdanan, Ilam Province. The response curve of hawthorn in relation to soil type also showed that the most probable presence of hawthorn is in the loam and silty soils. The highest presence of hawthorn species based on the response curve in the slope is about 0-2% and with increasing slope, the probability of prediction of species distribution decreases. Also, the results of hawthorn response curve to the land use indicated that the probability of species presence in areas with arable land, pasture and forest use is more than other uses. Finally, the results of this research provided important information about the range of tolerance of Hawthorn species to the influential environmental variables. This information is effective in making management decisions to prioritize conservation areas and to improve conservational measures, particularly in areas where vegetation is degrading, and increases the chance of success in planting and restoration projects.
    Keywords: Species Distribution Modeling, Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), Crataegus azarolus L, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari
  • Afshin Uossef Gomrokchi, Mehdi Akbari *, Mahdi Yunesi Pages 237-252
    Introduction Traditional orchards are the gardens that are mostly outside the city. Typically, traditional orchards surrounding the city of Qazvin can be mentioned. The traditional Qazvin orchards, known for their 1400 years of existence, are one of the examples of optimal use of nature. The construction of traditional Orchards around the city of Qazvin shows that the person considered the way of peaceful living with nature more than ever, and pursued sustainable development, albeit with a slow process (Akhavizadegan, 2002). The features of traditional orchards, mixed cultivation, customs and traditions related to the division of gardens, the division of water and property. Traditional Orchards have been designed with a few goals. The first objective of the construction of this garden has been the direct and economical use of these gardens. The second cause has been the creation of green spaces around cities. This greenery encompassed the cities and made the cities appear as good-weather islands, even in arid and semi-arid regions (such as Isfahan, Shiraz and Qazvin). The third reason for the construction of traditional Orchards was to control the upstream floods and to prevent flood damage to farms and lower villages. The results of various research studies indicate that the use of remote sensing techniques due to capabilities such as wide and integrated vision, the variety of data forms, digitally Data, providing timely and integrated data, wide and easy data availability, rapid access to remote locations and their high accuracy, can be used in large-scale planning in the water and environment study. (Aynew, 2003; Timmermans et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2011; Giorgos et al, 2017). Considering the historical importance of traditional orchards, providing and identifying its water needs is one of the most important issues regarding the maintenance of gardens. However, due to the presence of traditional orchards on the outskirts of the city and the deviation of the outflow of flood during recent years, the debate has focused on the need to supply traditional alternative gardens to the traditional orchards. Hence, the first step in preserving and reviving these gardens is to estimate its water requirement. In this regard, due to the irregular cropping pattern of the mentioned gardens, estimating the need for traditional orchards using remote sensing facilities is considered. Materials & Methods The traditional orchards in Qazvin great importance due to historical dates and habitat of drought resistant species, frostbite, pests and diseases. On the other hand, such as seasonal flood management in these gardens, the importance of preserving these gardens has been doubled. The traditional orchards of Qazvin have spread in three directions in the east, south and west of this city, which in the past few days (less than half a century) has an area of more than 3,000 hectares of productive gardens (Akhavizadegan, 2002). Providing water for gardens has been one of the most important issues for gardeners since the past. Water scarcity has been indicative of the central role of water in the sustainability of gardens since the past and has been mentioned in historical records. The traditional orchards in Qazvin are irrigated from four rivers called Arenjak, Bazar, Zoyar, Dalichay and a flood river called Weshteh in winter and spring. The waters of these rivers are mostly covered by melting of winter snow and spring rains from the northern mountains of Qazvin. The irrigation of traditional orchards mostly occurs twice a year, one in winter and one in spring. Due to the development of the city of Qazvin and the problems of exploitation and lack of attention to them, the area of traditional orchards around the city of Qazvin has declined in recent years. In this research, ecological law is estimated in traditional orchards of Qazvin using remote sensing techniques and SEBAL algorithm, because SEBAL is an intermediate method that uses both empirical and physical parameters simultaneously (Terreza, 2006). The components of the SEBAL algorithm are more empirical and require less grounding information. The model includes a number of computational steps for image processing, the final calculation of evapotranspiration and energy exchange between the earth and the atmosphere (Kinoti et al, 2010). In the SEBAL algorithm, by using solar radiation reflections recorded by satellite sensors and using aerodynamic relationships, the amount of energy remaining is calculated as the energy necessary for the occurrence of the evapotranspiration process, followed by the amount of evapotranspiration at the moment Satellite passes will be obtained. Landsat 8 satellite imagery is used in this research. Landsat satellite images are Path= 165 and Row= 35 are the main input data. The spatial resolution of the Landsat images is 30 meters and the width of the cover strip is 185 kilometers per image. The reason for the selection of the satellite images mentioned above was the high precision of the location and the availability of the images. The images were selected on days without clouds and dust. However, the important feature of the images used is that at the time of maximum water supply needs of the garden has been to provide water. Satellite imagery used to estimate the vegetation index of traditional orchards on dates 2013/06/19, 2013/7/21, 2014/7/21, 2014/7/24, 2015/06/25 and 2015/07/27 for the region studied. Since remote-sensing raw images always have errors in geometry (geometric errors) as well as values recorded for pixels (radiometric errors). Operations related to pre-processing, processing, performing corrections and calculations of image bands using ENVI software. To carry out the SEBAL algorithm, we need air humidity to obtain the temperature of the dew point and wind speed in the study area, which is also provided by Qazvin Synoptic Station. Discussion of Results & Conclusions The study of the level and density of vegetation index in traditional orchards around the city of Qazvin showed that despite the fact the area of green and semi-green gardens (in terms of the threshold of vegetation density) has been greatly reduced. The spatial distribution map of the vegetation index in the traditional orchards area showed that vegetation density index variations are very variable in the study area. In other words, on the basis of the vegetation map of the southern region of Baghestan, it is in a juicy situation. In the western and eastern parts of Qazvin, about 800 hectares of traditional gardening, despite the maintenance of land use, have very poor vegetation, thinness and in some cases it does not have vegetation. The results of this research and the researches have shown that remote sensing technologies can play an effective role in determining the maps of urban and suburban green spaces, vegetation density analysis, estimating the water requirement and providing an optimal model of water resources utilization. Make Estimated initial water requirement using remote sensing capabilities in traditional orchards that have ancient trees, different vegetation densities, varieties of crops and orchards and irregular crop types are important and effective in managing water resources and comprehensive management of green spaces. The results of satellite data show that if the accuracy of the images used is accurate when selecting the time, using the remote sensing data, factors such as classification and vegetation density and the amount of water requirement can be analyzed. Several studies have confirmed this (Jiang et al, 2010; James et al, 2009 Kundu et al, 2018; Grosso et al, 2018).
    Keywords: Remote Sensing, sebal algorithm, Vegetation index, Water requirements
  • Leila Mokhtari, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad *, Shahab Kariminia, Mansoureh Kianersi Pages 253-268
    1.Introduction consumption of several fossil fuels lead to increased pollutants like CO2. House buildings are high consuming subscribers and around one third of national energy is consumed by them. The Iranian architecture with several territorial areas in different seasons has invented and offered rational ways to provide welfare condition of human being. Since regress to the past building methods is not easy and certainly is not accountable for our present life condition, research on the field of designing according to territory by inactive method seems necessary. The main purpose and trend of in designing compatible to territory is the least use of mechanical systems and decrease energy consumption for heating, chilling and the most use of radiation energy. One of the ways of decreasing energy use in this climate condition is to increase absorption of radiation energy through the transparent level of the external cover in the south façade in the cold season. The windows provide the facility of receiving free solar energy and improve the condition of heat and visual welfare for the habitants of the building. Regarding the common technologies in country building industry there is need to understand optimal ratio of window to the wall. In this study considering the existing statistics about the residential units and rate of population, the necessity of identifying several types of residential common buildings and their relative aggregate have been considered and will be examined. Computer simulation and field survey have been the main trend of this study. The software of Design Builder calculates the energy consumption rate using the calculation motor Energy Plus. 2. Methodology This research has been carried out based on library and field studies and from the commercial software of radiant energy have been used to obtain the result. Case study is Tehran residential common buildings that according to the descriptive design of 2012 is considered as 5floor buildings. To calculate the types, field observations and air maps of google earth have been used and by applying the theory of theoretical saturation and comparative adaptation it has been developed. The residential width that is the problem of the present research includes the main application in Tehran. In field calculation of descriptive design of Tehran in 2012, of 997 residential application, the average aggregate with 403 number has allocated the most number to itself. Based on this modeling of the research with 5 floor aggregate has been considered. Also in this research to recognize compactness of building volume, relative aggregate index has been used. The studies carried out in the field of identifying lack of knowledge shows that the rate of RC is optimal and morphology based on it is a basic step in guiding general form especially guiding architecture design based on it. The most compactness of volumes is the geometric shape of sphere with RC equals to 1. As most of the buildings are orthogonal polyhedral, square shape has been the work base which relative aggregate of the established morphologies is calculated with the following formula. The geometry compactness and relative compactness has come to this conclusion that RC is the most influential concept on energy efficacy. In this regard, energy efficacy will be interpretable that the equation 1 for this
    purpose
    RC:6.V0.66.A-1 3. Modeling As the maximum height of residential buildings in Tehran is usually up to 5 floors, the height is divided into 5 parts and in proportion to Tehran lands, the length 6 parts and width 4 parts are also selected. In this article, in order to calculate heat load the software of design builder has been used that by inputting climate data in each hour for every territory, the needed heating load is estimated. In order to estimate the effect of architecture design and the elements used in the building on the demand rate to heating energy, an apartment with 5 one unit floors in Tehran has been selected and the rate of needed heating energy has been calculated through modeling in software of design builder. the ratio of window to the wall introduced in 10 types in 3 different states of 10, 25, 40 percent has been modeled in software of design builder. In the following, the optimal states of heating load regarding the ratio of opining to the wall in different types will be calculated and analyzed. 4. Discussion and result analysis One of the influential factors in the building sector in increasing pollutant Co2 is increasing energy consumption and as the most energy loss in the building occurs through external facades, the necessity of considering to this façade makes sense. As in climate condition of Tehran in cold months of the year, the rate of energy consumption in order to supply the temperature of heating welfare increases, so the necessity of considering heat load in these months increases. Modeling in 10 types and three states of window to wall ratio leaded to the analysis of 30 types ,and for heating load and Co2 emission characters in the software of design builder, that were evaluated in 6 cold months in Tehran. heating Figure 2 shows the graph of 10 building types and the rate of heat load and Figure 3 shows the graph of 10 building types and the rate of Co2 emission in 6 cold months of the year by the ratio of 10%, 25%, 40% window to the wall. (figure2,3). In all the graphs, in the months January and February the most heating load and Co2 emission and in the months of November and April the least heating load and Co2 emission are observed. In the graph of heating load and Co2 emission with WWR=10,25,40 the type of 4 has the least heating load and Co2 emission in average of cold months in Tehran. The type of 7 with WWR=10 and the types of 6 and 10 with WWR=25,40 have the most heating load and Co2 emission in average of cold months in Tehran. 5. Conclusion Regarding that the increase of heating load leads to increase of energy consumption and the increase of energy consumption leads to more pollution, in the present study that has been carried out on 10fold types for Tehran residential buildings, the following results have been obtained: 1. By focusing on the graphs of heating load and Co2 emission, altogether more heating load increase Co2 emission increase more and more heating load decrease Co2 emission decrease more. 2. As increasing wondow to wall ratio (from 10 to 40%), heating load and Co2 emission decrease. 3. In general, as the relative compactness of building increases, its heating load and Co2 emission decrease. Finally, it was observed that though in general the rate of WWR 40%, the best result is obtained in the rate of heating load and as a result the rate of pollution caused from heating in cold season, but to reach to more exact result it could consider the factors like orientation and self-shadowing in order to decrease heating load and as a result lowering the rate of pollution caused from heating in winter season.
    Keywords: Typology, relative compactness, window to wall ratio, winter heating load, Air Pollution
  • Shahin Vahhabi Rad, Mohammad Khodaverdizadeh *, Sedigeh Hashemibonab Pages 269-286
    Estimate Value Improve Air Quality in the Tehran City: Application Choice Experiment Method Introduction Air is one of the most important parts of the environment that its Pollution has destructive role in human life. Air pollution in Iran, is one of the biggest environmental problems which faces different regions of the country, especially Tehran. Tehran is very crowded and very busy, which also exacerbates the air pollution of this great city. Studies show that air pollution in Tehran has various effects, including The presence of airborne diseases, increased mortality and reduced horizontal visibility. According to studies by Tehran's Environmental Protection Agency, 70 percent of deaths in Tehran are due to respiratory and cardiac problems, which are directly or indirectly related to Tehran's air pollution. According to the World Bank, illnesses caused by air pollution annually as much as 0.02 percent of gross domestic product damage to the Iran's economy. The condition of air pollution in Tehran is acute. Effects of air pollution in the event of delay in implementing strategies to reduce this type of pollution may be worse. One of the most important strategies is necessary awareness and public participation in reducing air pollution. When the community will have an understanding of the benefits of clean air that knows with pollution what benefits loses. Benefits when better understood that monetary amounts are determined. Therefore, estimating the economic value of different effects of air pollution and estimating the willingness to pay individuals to improve these characteristics is necessary. In recent years, the focus on ecosystem services valuation is rising. In Iran, estimating the economic value of natural resources and estimating the cost of pollution and environmental degradation in the development process and computing it in national accounts is obligatory. In national accounts only consideration is given to the costs and benefits exchanged in the market. The cases where that are not tradable on the market are not considered, which will lead to market failure. Environmental resource valuation is a tool that determines the value of non-tradable goods and services in the market. Studies show that so far no study on the value of air quality improvement in Tehran has been conducted using the choice experiment. Therefore, this study is the first study to estimate the value of improving the quality of air in the southwest of Tehran using a choice experiment method. Method List of properties of that commodity is selected to determine the value of each goods in the choice experiment. Price variable are added to the feature set for simplify of proposed choice set for respondents. In choice experiment method, there are several main options in each selection set, fixed option that shows the status of the current scenario and other options that show scenarios for improving the current status of that product or service. In a choice experiment, respondents are given a series of options with different levels of features and they are asked to choose the preferred option. The choice experiment is based on the theory of Lancaster microeconomic economics and the random utility theory(RUT). The conditional logit model is estimated using the maximum likelihood method according to the equation below: (1) is an index variable that if the answer i chooses the option g, is equal to one and otherwise equal to zero. In other words, the dependent variable in this model is multiplicative (one, zero and zero), unlike the simple Logit model, which is dual (zero and one). The results of the conditional logit model are reliable f the options in the choice sets are independent. Otherwise, the nested logit model is estimated. In nested logit model, assumption of homogeneity variance is observed within each of these subgroups and the assumption of Independence‏ ‏Irrelevant Alternatives(IIA) is preserved within each subgroup. However, variances between different subgroups will be different. After estimating the parameters, WTP is obtained according to the following equation for all properties of the choice set: (2) In this equation, is the coefficient of the price property or marginal utility of income and is the coefficient of other characteristics within the choice sets. The model used in this study is expressed as follows: (3) In the above model , and is the coefficients of the alternatives characteristics (X), the coefficient of interaction effects of socio-economic characteristics with price and coefficient of interaction effects of socio-economic characteristics with Alternative Speficed Constant(ASC) respectively. In the above model, Y is dependent variable that Indicates the choice of the optimal option among the three possible options in each choice set. Data and statistics were obtained by completing questionnaires from households in south west of Tehran with simple random sampling method. each questionnaire includes the social, economic, health characteristics of the respondents and the choice sets (characteristics studied) and other sub-questions. Findings and Discussion The purpose of this study is to estimate the willingness to pay households to reduce each of the effects of air pollution in the southwest of Tehran include increased mortality, reduced horizontal visibility and increased washing costs. Choice experiment method was used to estimate the willingness to pay for each of effects of air pollution. The conditional logit model was estimated to examine the factors affecting the willingness to pay of households to reduce the air pollution. Results of Hausman McFaden's showed that the results of the conditional logit model are not reliable, so the nested logit model was estimated. Results of this model showed that the variables such as age, gender, number of children, educational level, income, awareness of air pollution in South West of Tehran and having a history of heart and respiratory disease are factors affecting the willingness to pay households. Results showed that average willingness to pay for improved levels of absolute and relative of mortality, respectively 102406 and 85359 Rials, for improved levels of absolute and relative of Horizontal viewing respectively 72202 and 24162 Rials, for absolute improved level of cleaning costs 35011 Rials. The average annual willingness to pay per household 319,140 Rials and value improve air quality in the South West of Tehran was obtained 118,705 billion Rials. About 64.8% of the households tended to pay for decreasing air pollution. 35.2% of people were not willing to pay for improving air quality due to reasons (government and polluters must pay, uncertainty of spend cost, low income). According to opinion households, the most common cause of air pollution in the southwest of Tehran is, respectively, timeworn and one-seat vehicles and factories in urban areas and traffic. Households suggested ways to reduce air pollution, including expanding subway lines, public transport and increasing the production of hybrid vehicles.
    Keywords: Choice experiment, Air Pollution, Nested logit, TEHRAN, Willingness to Pay
  • Urban Streetscape Quality in Tehran Metropolis
    Shabnam Shamlou * Pages 276-290
    Introduction With the emergence of new concepts in massive urbanism and architecture of new millennium, such as quality of urban life, green urbanism, healthy and walkable cities, and with the competition of different cities around the world in order to enhance urban livability, one of the issues addressed in the meantime is improving urbanscape by organizing and identifying urban streetscape and providing vitality of urban streetscape. Necessity of incorporating this issue into Iranian Urbanism is due to the rise of modernity, modernization and modernism over the past decades as well as because of the lack of any comprehensive approach of improving historical streetscape felt more than ever before. Accordingly, this paper is aimed to first develop comprehensive streetscape indicators and present standard framework of streetscape assessing and measuring using "Meta-Analysis" research method based on explaining and analyzing of Iranian and international researchers’ theories and domestic and international experiences. Next step in this research is measurement of urban streetscape quality in Tehran Metropolis with a focus on the subjective approach of citizens based on measurement of 60 streetscape indicators in target streets. Thus in this paper, the comprehensive streetscape indicators has been developed and standard framework for assessing streetscape and measuring quality of urban streetscape in Tehran Metropolis has been presented. Selected approach for selection of measurable indicators is subjective approach. For this purpose, at first, basic definitions and concepts of streetscape have been reviewed and after that, theories of streetscape researchers have been discussed in two sections of Iranian and International theories. Then, in next section of this paper, most important experience of urban streetscape in different cities has been reviewed, streetscape indicators from scientific and professional points of views are extracted and, finally, theoretical formulation and specific streetscape planning and design indicators are discussed. Then, based on relevant indicators, three streets have been tested using purposive sampling. Accordingly, streetscape quality from residents’ point of view is evaluated based on average satisfaction with indicators in each of target street and, finally, last section of this paper discusses the measurement of streetscape indicators in three target streets and then final conclusion of this study is attempted. Materials & Methods Due to the mismatch between formation roots and western concepts, when it comes to the study of streets in Iranian urbanism, it is essential to consider Iranian researchers’ ideas in this field in addition to world researchers’ viewpoints on streetscape. Therefore, in this paper, we have tried to exploit theories of Iranian researchers worked in this field whom are mentioned in references and throughout research process in order to comply with Iranian culture and environment. Besides, western researchers are cited for extraction and documentation of common indicators existing in international research literature. It is worth noting here that in addition to the roadway surfaces, street scale and its functional realm are also meant within pedestrian space included in this urban space. Accordingly, street in this paper means urban space where cars move easily and, at the same time, appropriate space for movement and other civic activities by pedestrians is provided. In this way, first, once streetscape and basic concepts are brought up and theories and viewpoints of Iranian and international researchers and major domestic and international experiences on streetscape are considered, using “Meta-Analysis” research method, comprehensive streetscape indicators are developed and a standard framework is provided for streetscape evaluation. Following this, streetscape indicators in three streets are measured. Weighing criteria of relevant indicators is arithmetic mean of relevant indicators considered by citizens which include 300 people according to Neiman sampling. Discussion of Results In this paper, in order to identify and document streetscape dimensions, criteria and indicators, first, definitions and concepts of urban streetscape is considered and then theories and thoughts on streetscape in 30 Iranian and international studies are refined, authors of which were selected considering citing frequency of their studies in related major scientific papers. In the following section, the most important domestic and international experiences on urban streetscape are discussed. The aim of this section is to find a theoretical framework to extract streetscape dimensions and indicators by reviewing experiences of major streets in the world. The difference between this section and last one is that it tries to extract streetscape indicators from scientific and professional experiences viewpoint in a sample of most important cities of the world. In order for this, 18 successful domestic and international experiences are reviewed and relevant studies are analyzed focusing on dimensions and indicators of streetscape. In the next section of the paper, general streetscape indicators are summed into 706. Following this, common indicators provided by Iranian and international researchers and also domestic and international experiences of streetscape were omitted and then, final indicators of streetscape in particular and in accordance with Iran conditions were extracted considering 4 following requirements: frequency of each indicator, selecting subjective indicators based on study’s objectives (focused on subjective indicators), selecting measurable indicators (measurability through questionnaire), and urbanism and worldview conditions of Iran. Regarding this, 60 streetscape indicators in particular and according to Iran’s conditions based on these requirements are extracted from general indicators and are provided as supermatrix of specific streetscape planning and design indicators in Table 1. This supermatrix has been formulated in two parts including: Iranian and international theories and domestic and international experiences. Iranian and international researchers and domestic and international experiences are placed in 48 columns and streetscape indicators are placed in 60 rows. Conclusions In this paper, comprehensive streetscape indicators were formulated and a standard framework was provided to evaluate streetscape and measure urban streetscape quality which has been a major urban planning and design priority during recent years. Besides, streetscape quality from citizen’ point of view was evaluated based on average satisfaction with indicators. As research literature review in developed countries shows, improving streetscape results in better environmental quality and desirability of streetscape and image of city and eventually, urban competitiveness. Therefore, street planning and design guidelines in Iran focus on traffic and geometric conditions of streets. They considered objective indicators where less attention was paid to specific streetscape indicators from urbanism and subjective indicators point of view. On the other hand, in Iran, there is no comprehensive framework of streetscape to be taken as manifesto or guideline of action. In this regard, there is no criterion and indicator for evaluation of desirability or undesirability of streetscape as the most important component of urban form. This paper, first, formulated comprehensive streetscape indicators and then provided a standard framework for evaluation of streetscape. This step was carried out in two parts including refining the theories of important researchers on streetscape considering domestic and international opinions and refining the most important and successful international experiences. Eventually, 60 main measurable streetscape indicators were documented focusing on subjective approach and based on particular urbanism conditions in Iran and they were provided considering researchers and relevant indicators in the form of supermatrices of indicators and theories. In the following section of this research, first, a questionnaire was formulated based on indicators extracted from former step and then purposive sampling and determination of sample numbers were carried out, based on which three target streets were selected and in the next step, based on the questionnaire, data was collected in target streets, which was tested and refined according to research topic. Finally, each indicator in each street was studied and the existing situations of target streetscapes were compared. By reviewing general condition of target streets which include their social, physical and environmental conditions, it was found out that Naser Khosrow street with 2.7 scores, stands in top, Valiasr Street with 2.6 scores stands next and eventually, Enghelab Street with 2.2 scores is the last in rank. Social, physical and environmental condition of none of the streets was considered by local pedestrians and residents in average level of satisfaction.
    Keywords: Streetscape, Indicator, Subjective Approach, Measurement, Tehran Metropolis
  • Mohammadreza Haghi *, Masoud Pouralikhani Pages 287-300
    Introduction Urban development has been so rapid in the present century that many countries, especially developing countries and the Third World, are witnessing the emergence of many problems in urban societies. These problems that appear in various social, cultural, economic and environmental fields have led to citizens' dissatisfaction with the urban planning and management system. Meanwhile, inequalities in the quality of the environment and access to services in different parts of the city have increased the dissatisfaction of citizens, especially in poor neighborhoods. Therefore, in recent decades, urban planners have focused on issues such as quality of life, bioavailability, environmental quality and, finally, sustainable urban development, seeking to explain ways to improve the quality of citizens' lives. Considering that the quality of the environment affects the quality of life and the level of satisfaction of individuals, and on the other hand, different social groups have different expectations of the quality of the environment. Therefore, it seems that the opinion of the people in this regard is Acceptable state of the environment. Therefore, the present study has been developed using a questionnaire on the level of satisfaction of inhabitants of the 12th district of Hamedan in terms of environmental quality indices and analyzed. Materials & Methods The present study was conducted using descriptive-analytical method based on documentary studies as well as field observation. Theoretical foundations of the research are derived from library studies and the indexes of subject matter are extracted in a table in a documentary form. In the next step, extractive indicators were extracted in the sample and, using factor analysis, the importance of the main factors affecting its environmental quality has been identified. Considering that residents' perceptions about environmental quality are among the most important factors in assessing the quality and performance of neighborhoods, so in this research, based on extractive indexes, a questionnaire based on the five spectrum Likert has been questioned by residents. The number of questionnaires was valid for SPSS software analysis based on Cochran's sampling test, number 420, each of which was 35 questionnaires. By completing the questionnaires and entering them in SPSS software, the main factors affecting the quality of the environment were extracted using exploratory factor analysis method. Then, using linear multiple regression analysis method, the relationship between extraction factors and the overall quality of the environment is measured. Finally, by combining the coefficients obtained for factors and variables and considering the average dissatisfaction of people from each variable, the priorities of improving the quality of the environment in the neighborhoods of Hamadan city are determined. Discussion of Results After collecting information from the questionnaires and entering them into SPSS software, an initial matrix was compiled. This matrix consists of 420 rows (each row per questionnaire) and 24 columns (23 columns per 23 variables and one column for the general question). According to the obtained model, the numerical value of all variables in the share table was more than 0.4, which indicates the appropriateness of the model's explanatory power and the amount of KMO statistics. Finally, six factors were identified as the determinants of environmental quality in urban neighborhoods. The specific value of all these extractives is greater than 1. Also, the percentage of variance for the first factor is 16.31, for the second factor is 15.05 and for the third factor is 14.31%. Finally, the aggregate variance of these six extraction factors is 76.44. That is, in total, more than 75% of the environmental quality of Hamadan urban neighborhoods is explained, which is an acceptable statistic. The first factor explains about 16.31% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "Lighting of passages in the night", "abandoned lands", "disturbing and inappropriate workshops", "Security of women and children" and "nightlife". So, this factor be named "Environmental Security". The second factor explains about 15.05% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "attention to the disabled needs", "urban furniture", "quality and safety of sidewalks", "cultural and religious centers" and "monuments Indicators and Indications". So, this factor be named "Walkability". The third factor explains about 14.31% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "health services", "public spaces", "local service and business users" and "educational services". So, this factor be named "Urban Services". The fourth factor explains about 11.88% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "environmental cleanliness and sanitation", "local green spaces" and "disaster risk and lack of safety". So, this factor be named "Natural Environment". The fifth factor explains about 10.48% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "ruined buildings", "defenseless areas" and "inaccessible areas", "the quality of building facades and wall painting," and "access to water, electricity and gas". So, this factor be named "Dwelling & Construction". The sixth factor explains about 8.41% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "road quality and access network" and "traffic cabin and parking". So, this factor be named "Transportation". After naming the factors, it is time to calculate the score of each of the 12 districts of Hamadan by the factor of 6 factors of environmental quality. Also, in order to calculate the overall score of areas, linear regression analysis (and step-by-step method) has been used. Based on the regression equation for the six factors of the beta coefficient, it determines the weight of the factors in explaining the environmental quality. In the following, multiplied by the "score of each area per agent" in the "relative weight of the factor", the final score of the areas will be obtained from the total environmental factors. In order to more clearly demonstrate the advantages of environmental quality factors in the urban areas of Hamedan, relevant maps have been developed in the ArcGIS software environment as outlined below. Conclusion The research findings indicate that the six main factors affect the quality of the environment. These factors and their impact on the level of satisfaction of people from their neighborhood include environmental security (28%), urban services (23%), dwelling & construction (16%), walkability (14%), Transportation (12%) and natural environment (7%). Also, the study of factors in Hamedan indicates average satisfaction of inhabitants from the environmental quality of their neighborhood, which is noticeably different in different regions of the city, which could have a negative impact on the social, cultural and economic fabrication of neighborhoods. In the following, some generalized generalizable outcomes for improving the quality of the urban environment are mentioned: - Environmental quality is a multifaceted feature that involves various factors. Therefore, it can not be expected that by upgrading a parameter, there is a significant change in the quality of the environment. Prioritizing interventions is, of course, essential to be achieved through initial assessment of the conditions of each neighborhood. - Promoting environmental quality is ultimately for the satisfaction of residents. Therefore, the use of resident participation is considered as a capacity that should be considered from the beginning of the decision to the time of implementation and maintenance of the project. - In order to achieve operational and realistic strategies, it is better to consider the scale of small studies. The smaller the study area, the greater the consistency and uniformity of the physical, economic, and social structure, and therefore more accurate results are obtained. - Promoting environmental quality does not necessarily require much investment. Improving pedestrian safety and environmental security are measures that can be implemented at low cost and with the support of residents.
    Keywords: environmental quality, quality of life, Citizens’ Satisfaction, Mental Index, Hamedan
  • Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability of Miandoab plain to nitrate using genetic algorithm
    Hossein Norouzi Ghoshbelag *, Asghar Asghari Moghaddam, Somayyeh Hateftabar Pages 291-305
    Introduction
    Limitation of surface water resources and excessive water utilization from aquifers, as well as the pollutants intrusion through the agricultural, urban and industrial activities, cause irreparable damage to groundwater. Groundwater system doesn’t respond quickly to contaminants and contaminants reaching time to the groundwater and its release into the aquifer is usually long. Remediation of contaminated groundwater and re-use often takes a lot of time and money and sometimes finding an alternative source of water is not possible. Therefore, the best and most effective solution is preventing the contamination entry to this valuable source. Determining the groundwater contamination level is one of the most important hydrogeological studies, which in this regard, the identification of susceptible areas and aquifer vulnerability assessment has great importance. Determining groundwater contamination is one of the most important hydrogeological studies. In this regard, identification of the contamination risk areas the aquifer vulnerability assessment has great importance. The Miandoab study area as a most important plain of the Urmia lake basin is one of the agricultural areas in Iran, especially in grape production, therefore, because of overuse of various chemical and animal fertilizers, it can be a nitrate-contaminated plain. Therefore, considering the importance of groundwater in the Miandoab region, which is also used for drinking, the vulnerability assessment of this plain is necessary. In the present study, the study of contaminant risk areas using DRASTIC vulnerability method has been investigated and the vulnerability map has been optimized using a genetic algorithm. 2. Materials and Methods The Miandoab Plain with an area of approximately 1150 Km2 is located in the south of Urmia Lake and is a part of the Alborz-Azarbayjan structural zone from the geological viewpoint. The average annual rainfall, based on the thirty years (1989-2018) data from Malekan and Miandoab synoptic stations is about 284 mm per year. This region, based on empirical Emberger method (1952) and using the statistics meteorology data, has a cold and semi-arid climate. Figure 1 shows the location of the study area. Fig 1. Geographic location of the study area The DRASTIC model has been used to mapping the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in many areas. Since this method is used in different places without any changes, it cannot consider the effects of pollution type and characteristics. Therefore, the method needs to be calibrated and corrected for specific aquifer and pollution. The DRASTIC model was improved with several methods such as the artificial neural network. In this study, the genetic algorithm is proposed for groundwater vulnerability.
    Results and discussion
    The DRASTIC map was created by applying the weights for each parameter and integrating and overlaying the layers. According to the results of the DRASTIC model for plain, 15, 10, 17, 33 and 25 percent of the plain, respectively located in areas with very low, moderate, high and very high vulnerability. In the genetic algorithm method, the optimal weights of the parameters were obtained by maximizing the objective function. Based on the genetic algorithm method, groundwater depth, hydraulic conductivity, and unsaturated medium have the most effect on the vulnerability of groundwater in the region, respectively. Fig 2 shows the vulnerability map of Miandoab plain based on DRASTIC and optimized DRASTIC. The optimized map using the genetic algorithm method shows that about 18, 11, 28, 26 and 17 percent of the plains are located in very low, moderate, high and very vulnerable areas. According to the results of the model, the central parts of the Miandoab plain have been introduced as more vulnerable areas. A) B) Fig 2. Vulnerability map using: A) General DRASTIC, B) optimized DRASTIC using genetic algorithm
    Conclusion
    In the present study, the study of contaminating risk areas using DRASTIC vulnerability method has been investigated and the vulnerability map has been optimized using a genetic algorithm. The optimized map using the genetic algorithm method shows that about 18, 11, 28, 26 and 17 percent of the plains are located in very low, moderate, high and very vulnerable areas. According to the results of the model, the central parts of the Miandoab plain have been introduced as more vulnerable areas. Based on the results of correlation index (CI), optimized DRASTIC using genetic algorithm has the highest priority in identifying areas at high contaminate risk due to having the highest correlation coefficient (CI) with nitrate. In general, identifying the susceptible areas to contamination using appropriate methods, sources and contributing factors can be used for proper management and monitoring of groundwater.
    Conclusion
    In the present study, the study of contaminating risk areas using DRASTIC vulnerability method has been investigated and the vulnerability map has been optimized using a genetic algorithm. The optimized map using the genetic algorithm method shows that about 18, 11, 28, 26 and 17 percent of the plains are located in very low, moderate, high and very vulnerable areas. According to the results of the model, the central parts of the Miandoab plain have been introduced as more vulnerable areas. Based on the results of correlation index (CI), optimized DRASTIC using genetic algorithm has the highest priority in identifying areas at high contaminate risk due to having the highest correlation coefficient (CI) with nitrate. In general, identifying the susceptible areas to contamination using appropriate methods, sources and contributing factors can be used for proper management and monitoring of groundwater.
    Conclusion
    In the present study, the study of contaminating risk areas using DRASTIC vulnerability method has been investigated and the vulnerability map has been optimized using a genetic algorithm. The optimized map using the genetic algorithm method shows that about 18, 11, 28, 26 and 17 percent of the plains are located in very low, moderate, high and very vulnerable areas. According to the results of the model, the central parts of the Miandoab plain have been introduced as more vulnerable areas. Based on the results of correlation index (CI), optimized DRASTIC using genetic algorithm has the highest priority in identifying areas at high contaminate risk due to having the highest correlation coefficient (CI) with nitrate. In general, identifying the susceptible areas to contamination using appropriate methods, sources and contributing factors can be used for proper management and monitoring of groundwater.
    Keywords: Aquifer, Contamination, DRASTIC, Genetic Algorithm, Miandoab Plain
  • The Role of Water Resources Management in Controlling the Quantitative and Qualitative Changes of Water Resources due to Climatic Changes in the Catchment Area of ​​Zarivar Wetland
    Seyed Mohammad Hosseini *, Samira Javidi Deljavan Pages 305-305
    Introduction Today, the climate change is one of the most important environmental and urban challenges. The negative effect of the climate change could be reduced through a proper management of water resources. The objectives of this research are to investigate the role of water resources management in controlling quantitative and qualitative changes of water resources due to climate change in the catchment area of Zarivar wetland. A watershed is a natural area created during a specified period of time and under a natural environmental situation which soil is saturated by surface and groundwater and includes biotic succession. This ecosystem contains the specific plants and animals adjusted to its climate conditions. The watersheds benefits include: groundwater feeding, flood water control, providing a suitable habitat for wildlife and plants and other environmental values, sand dune stabilization and preventing desertification. The research questions are as follows: 1. What is the impact of water resources management in maintaining and restoring the quality of water resources due to climate change in the catchment area of Zarivar wetland? 2. What is the impact of water resources management in maintaining and restoring the quantity of water resources due to climate change in the catchment area of Zarivar wetland? The previous literature in this field indicated the negative impact of climate change on water resources throughout the world. They also showed an urgent need to proper and effective management of water resources to provide necessary adjustment with climate change and vulnerability reduction of such resources. There are related literatures on Zarivar Lake concerning the quantitative and qualitative change of water resources in Zarivar watershed basin indicating the lack of integrated water resource management in this region. Therefore, the quality of water resource management functioning should be assessed to discover the reason for increasing vulnerability of this basin. However there is a lack of research investigating the effectiveness rate of water resource management on restoring and maintaining the quality and quantity of water resources. Zarivar wetland with an area of 2000 acres is located in the city of Marivan, the western part of Kurdestan province. The water of Zarivar watershed is provided by spontaneous underground springs and several rivers. This wetland is internationally recognized as an important one because of its rich fauna and flora, rare species and immigrant birds. However, the excessive urban growth, human intervention and climate change are serious threats for the future of this wetland. It should be noted that because of having a dry and semi-arid climate, Iran is included in vulnerable countries in terms of climate change. So it will be a great loss to such national and international environmental treasures, if environmental issues are ignored in urban planning. According to the related studies, there is a meaningful reduction in rainfall rate and relative humidity, increase in the amount of dust, winds and temperature in watershed basin of Zarivar wetland. Hence, restoring and maintaining of the wetland is just possible through the management of its watershed basin. The conceptual model of the present research regarding the accomplished studies is represented in figure 1. Material and Method The overall method applied in the present study is quantitative. The type of research on the basis of purpose is applied research and according to the nature of research is descriptive and correlational. Data collection in theoretical foundations section is carried out through library studies and by made questionnaire in field research section, partial least squares method is utilized for data analysis of questionnaire and structural equation modeling by smart PLS software. The samples of this study are consisted of 56 specialists and experts in the field of natural resources an environment as well as managers in charge of water resource section in Marivan city. For the validity determination, the questionnaire was given to a group of expert critics and some issues were corrected by them and finally the sample size calculated 49 by applying Cochran formula. Conclusions At the first stage, by partial least squares structural equation modeling a model of measuring was determined through reliability and validity analysis. At the second phase, the structural model assessment was carried out through path analysis and measuring coefficients between latent variables as well as the model fitting. The diagram no. 2 indicates that the effectiveness rate of water resource management on restoring and maintaining the quality and quantity of water resources are 0.401 and 0.413 respectively. So, there are moderate relationships. Water resource management is also under the influence of 4 indexes including: planning (0.796), organizing (0.904), leadership (0.840), and observation and controlling (0.760). According to the results, all 4 indexes have high impact on water resource management. Discussion of Results According to the investigation, there is a meaningful reduction in rainfall rate and relative humidity and temperature increase in watershed basin of Zarivar wetland so it is gradually going towards climate change. The results analysis and interpretation of structural equation modeling repsent the rate of effectiveness of water resource management on restoring and maintaining the quality and quantity of water resources of watershed basin of Zarivar alongside of climate change are 0.401 and 0.413 respectively. These numbers indicate the negative moderate relationships showing the weak function of water resource management. Despite the inappropriate situation of water resource quality and quantity of watershed basin of Zarivar, water resource management could not be effective considerably on restoring and maintaining the quality and quantity of water resources alongside the climate change. So, there is an urgent need for a proper water resource management in this basin as Shamir et, al emphasized the importance of more efforts on water resource management role and duty when there is a climate change. Therefore it is highly recommended for managing sector of the region to be correspondent with UNFCCC for improving the situation of water resource of Zarivar lake basin. It is also suggested that the formation of a coordinating council for Zarivar watershed basin would be a great help to join and coordinate different managing sections in charge of water resource of this region. In addition, accurate research and investigation is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of water resource management in this area. The constant investigation and measurement of water resource quality and quantity would be helpful as well. Another beneficial way is providing proper training programs for people to understand the importance of maintaining water resources and preventing them from being polluted and have a volunteer partnership in water resource management programs. Last but not the least some policies should be made for confronting offenders concerning the water resource issues.
    Keywords: water resources management, Climate change, Zarivar wetland
  • Evaluation of diversity and functional group as one of the biodiversity indices in response to elevation gradients
    Zeinab Jafarian *, Mojdeh Dehghan, Farhad Barjasteh, Mansoureh Kargar Pages 305-310
    Introduction The diversity of living organisms in natural ecosystems is reduced as a result of human intervention, climate change, and the effects of living and non-living interfering factors. In the past, to investigate the relationship between the functioning of ecological systems and the variety of classical varieties of diversity, this issue was criticized because it was unable to communicate well between diversity and function, and variety and stability. For this reason, the researchers sought to use indicators that could solve the problem. They described the best way to solve the problem using plant characteristics and their involvement in diversity indices. Accordingly, they defined concepts such as groups and functional attributes. This will have an adverse effect on the ecosystem's functioning and services. In the last decade, significant advances have been made in the use of spatial distribution of plant species in order to understand ecological mechanisms, preserve biodiversity and predict the dynamics of plant masses and the functioning of plant communities. The emergence of any plant is influenced by environmental factors and inter-species relationships that one or more environmental factors have a great influence on the establishment of a species if one can determine these factors and its behavior with the environmental variables of the species. In addition, it is possible to achieve predictive models of species distribution. However, quantitative studies have been done on functional features at the community and location level. Considering that most of the research work carried out in the country concerned the study of plant communities, richness and species diversity, so far, there has been little research on the establishment of functional species groups and functional variations of plants. From there It is necessary to know the effect of environmental factors such as elevation gradient on functional characteristics that causes the destruction of habitats, biomes and consequently the reduction of species diversity and function, such studies in the country such as Ravar rangelands It seems necessary. Materials and Methods Sarcho Fountain with an area of 5098 hectares located in the northeastern part of Ravar and north of Kerman province. Its minimum and maximum altitudes are 1880 and 3040 meters above sea level. The average annual precipitation is 140 mm. sampling in a gradient elevation was carried out from 1880 m to 2980 m above sea level. 12 altitude points were taken at a distance of 100 meters for vector sampling. In each sampling point, 5 plots were positioned 10 meters along the horizontal transect and information of all species within the plots was recorded. The plot size was 1 m2 for herbaceous plants and 4 m2 for bush plants and 25 m2 for shrubs. In each plot, data such as species names, number of species, cover percentage, plant height were measured directly. The height of herbaceous and bush plants was measured using a crop rotation and shrubs using a meter. To illustrate the use of plant species in the community, two functional traits including plant height, vegetative form were directly measured and recorded in the plot, and four other traits including reproduction, longevity, the form of life and type Nitrogen fixation from the sources was collected. Then, the collected data were analyzed using FDiversity software, which was linked with R software (R Core Team., 2014), and the functional diversity and species diversity indices for each plot were calculated. In this study, eight functional variables were comprised of Rao, Cone polyhedron (Rao), Functional richness (FRic), Functional uniformity (FEve), Functional divergence (FDiv), Functional dispersion (FDis), Functional feature diversity (FAD1) And the Modified Functional Diversity Index (MFAD). Also, the varieties of Shannon-Weiner, Simpson, Ghana and species uniformity were also included. The effect of height on functional and species diversity was analyzed by ANOVA and the mean comparison tests in SPSS version 23 software. Nonlinear regressions were also used to study the relationship between variability and height indices. FDiversity software was used to determine the functional group along the gradient elevation. For this purpose, using functional traits and input method and Euclidean distance of dendrogram groups were extracted. Then height and frequency of species were compared between functional groups. Results The results showed that the only indicators of richness, uniformity of function and species uniformity at different heights did not differ significantly, but the remaining indices were meaningful. It can be said that the height of these indices has an effect. Most indicators of functional diversity show a curved pattern. In the middle elevation, the greatest amount of these indicators is seen. Convergent multidimensional index with R2 = 0.078 and FAD1 with R2 = 0.88 have the highest R2 value. The dispersion index of the function and the divergence of function and the richness of function at all points of the altitude is interstitial and has not changed much. As the results show, there is no significant difference between the frequencies of the groups, but there is a significant difference between the heights of the species in different functional groups. According to Fig. 4, the height of the species of the functional group was the highest, so that the group was placed in a separate group alone and the height of the species of the other groups was in the same group, with the difference of group 2 had to mean. Discussion Therefore, in the low and high ranges, the rate of functional dispersion decreased, due to the decrease in the frequency of species, but in the middle elevations, with increasing frequency of species, this index also increased. The functional uniformity index shows the uniformity of a vegetative feature in a sample or a community, which is conceptually similar to the Simpson Valley uniformity index but varies in terms of its function. Functional uniformity shows how varieties are uniform in their impact on system performance. Therefore, in the present study, uniformity in vegetation characteristics is the same in all altitudes, although the variability and variation of the plants vary greatly, but the plants that were present in the area did not have significantly different characteristics and did not change dramatically. Therefore, the height of the effect It has no meaning. Functional Diversity Index Function (FAD1). The number of combinations of total plant characteristics of a sample or community equal to or less than the number of species available. The FAD1 index, which is equivalent to species richness, has the lowest performance in elevations. This confirms that, in a situation where the richness of the function is reduced, additional use of food sources occurs and the function decreases. The FAD1 index is directly related to the number of species, in other words, increasing or decreasing the number of species. As a result, the MFAD was introduced to correct the above index. The FEve index showed a poor performance value because it is ecologically complex. This indicator may be further affected by other factors such as competition between plant species and land use. The uniformity of function changes from zero to non-uniformity to one for uniformity. Indicator value when relative frequency of species with uniformity is low. The results of the comparison of the height of six functional communities showed that the height of the second community is greater than other communities because it includes shrubs and vegetative forms. All species in the region are multiplied by seed except for the Iris Sisyrichium, which is propagated through the underground gut, which is located in a separate functional community. The results of this research can be used in executive projects because functional characteristics of the ecosystem's intensity and direction are very well illustrated by environmental factors and in understanding ecological processes such as the formation of sequence and sustainability of communities they help us. Also, functional plant features can be used as a management tool for assessing the effects of degradation on natural ecosystems.
    Keywords: Functional species groups, Functional traits, plant height, Cheshme Sarkho rangelands
  • Investigation of farmers’ preferences to participation in payment for ecosystem services (PES) program of Ghazvin Plain Watershed
    Sara Ataei, Seyed Abolghasem Mortazavi *, Sadegh Khalilian, Naghme Mobarghei Dinan Pages 310-315
    Introduction
    From the beginning of 2000’s, payments for environmental services (PES) have emerged as innovative instruments for environment conservation policy. Indeed, they allow translating non market values of ecosystems into financial incentives for local stakeholders who produce these services, thus increasing the acceptability of conservation policies. PES are voluntary agreements, under which direct beneficiaries of environmental services are willing to pay (incentive) the service suppliers, under the conditionality of effective service delivery. PES have been especially implemented for watershed protection to reduce erosion, regulate water flows, enhance groundwater recharge, mitigate floods and improve water quality. The study of the world's environmental situation reflects that there is abundant evidence that many ecosystems have suffered from over-exploitation and mismanagement, to the point where their long-term viability, and thus their ability to provide services, is at risk. This is commonly explained by a lack of institutions, including markets, which could otherwise guide the supply and demand for ES. Externalities, a lack of well-defined property rights and limited information hamper efforts to optimize ES provision between those who benefit from an ES and those who affect its provision. Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one potential solution to this problem. PES programs use conditional payments to encourage individuals and communities to undertake environmentally beneficial land management actions. They help internalize the benefits associated with enhancing or maintaining ES to ensure that land managers face incentives concordant with the interests of ES users. To improve the likelihood of achieving intended environmental benefits, PES programs should be designed to suit local circumstances, both in regard to the environmental problem at hand and the social context. An important part of adapting PES to a particular circumstance is taking into account the preferences of those targeted for participation. Therefore, it seems to be possible to implement it in many plains and ecosystems of the country and minimize the problems of resource mismanagement. The increasing interest arisen by this type of instrument can be explained by the possibility to negotiate the contractual terms and the choice of conservation measures, the voluntary and free character of the subscription and the opportunity to adapt contractual terms and conservation measures to the local context (type of ecosystems and services providers). Moreover, in developing countries, PES may contribute to poverty reduction through the provision of additional income to vulnerable rural people.
    Method
    The choice experiment approach chosen for this research, is based on stated preferences, and aims at understanding the determinants of individual choices. Individuals are placed in a hypothetical choice situation, as close as possible to reality where they are asked to compare several alternatives. Each alternative is described with attributes, with varying level or intensity, which are assumed to influence individual choices and, consequently, the utility associated with the attributes by individuals. Alternatives are selected and paired according to an experimental design and utility variations are assessed using an empirical model specified according to the random utility theory. We use a choice experiment to quantify farmer preferences for PES program design. Choice experiments are often used to value environmental goods or services, but can also be used to value environmental programs represented as combinations of attributes. For instance, a PES program will combine a particular payment amount, a particular payment method and a particular set of land use requirements in order to create a functional program. Choice experiments can be used to quantify preferences for individual program attributes, as well as to quantify overall ‘willingness to accept’ (WTA) values: the amount of payment required to induce participation in the program. Valuably, choice experiments can test multiple, hypothetical versions of a program simultaneously. In a choice experiment, participants are asked to choose between competing hypothetical goods/outcomes as described in a questionnaire. The hypothetical good/outcome is a package of attributes, each of which can take on a number of levels which are varied between scenarios. It is assumed that farmers face a loss of utility due to the changes in management practice required by a PES contract, and a gain of utility from the associated payment. A farmer is assumed to choose a contract if the net utility from that choice is greater than either no contract or any competing choices. Based on random utility theory, the probability of a farmer making a particular choice is assumed to increase as the utility of that choice increases. The willingness to accept (WTA) for a marginal change of a given attribute is measured by the ratio of two parameters statistically significant. WTA confidence interval is estimated using the « Delta » method proposed by Hole, 2007. When the parameter of the attribute or of the payment is not significant, WTA measure has no sense. The estimated model is a conditional logit which represents the observed indirect utility function.
    Results
    The first step in CE consists in choosing the attributes to describe the hypothetical PES, and in defining the number and value of attributes’ levels. In our case study, the chosen attributes are related to, on one hand, different methods of serving ecosystems, and on the other hand, incentive measures aiming at encouraging farmers to join the PES program. Attributes were chosen as bellow: a) Changing the pattern of cultivation of cultivation: which have two levels as yes or no b) Improve irrigation
    methods
    which have two levels as yes or no c) Cash payments to single farmers: which have five levels as 0, 5000000, 10000000, 15000000, 20000000 IRR d) Non-payment (agricultural land utilization by new methods of irrigation): which have two levels as yes or no e) Conditionality: which have three levels as low, moderate and high To conceive the choice sets it to be submitted to interviewees, all the possible combinations of the levels of all attributes have been generated. The choice Sets selected for the experiment include two alternatives in addition to the status quo (opportunity to opt out). The selection of choice sets among all possible combinations was based on a reduced and D-Optimal approach of 16 alternatives, which have been distributed into two blocks, respecting orthogonality within and between blocks. Each respondent was faced with eight different choice sets. In this study, survey was administrated to 144 household heads randomly selected among the 3 stratified of Qazvin plain. Farmers were questioned in face-to-face interviews. Surveys were undertaken in private and took an average of 42 min each. Enumerators were experienced research assistants, who were also local community members familiar with the culture and farming practices found in the study area. Interviews were requested with the ‘head of household’. In addition to the eight choice sets, interviewees were also asked about their perception of the present state of the environment in the studied area, as well as their activities and their socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The results of this study indicate that farmers are willing to participation for ecosystem services (PES) program. In this study we assess farmers' preferences to three different levels of conditionality, two methods of payment and two methods of service delivery. Two methods of payment are as fixed annual cash payments to single farmers and non-payment (agricultural land utilization by new methods of irrigation) that are significant. So, these methods are affected on motivating farmers to participate. Two methods of service delivery are as changing the pattern of cultivation and Improve irrigation methods that are significant but farmers prefer to change the pattern of cultivation. In addition, by increasing the constitutional level, the probability of participation decreases.
    Keywords: Choice experiment, Conditional Logit, Qazvin Plain, Payment for ecosystem services, Willingness to accept