فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Maryam Izadi, Pavaneh Mohammadkhani, Hamidreza Hassanabadi, Hamid Yaghubi* Pages 184-191
    Objective
    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the factor analysis of Functional Assessment of Self- Mutilation (FASM) among Iranian adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury.
    Method
    In this study, 646 high school students, with the mean age of 16.55 ± 0.7, were selected using a multistage  cluster sampling method; they completed FASM and the demographic form. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ2), independent sample t test, MANOVA, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA).
    Results
    Of the participants, 178 reported at least 1 episode of NSSI during the previous year. The mean age of the participants when they first harmed themselves was 14.64 (±1.71). Most of them reported to engage in NSSI impulsively (39.32%) and experienced little (31.5%) or moderate physical pain (31.5%) There were no significant differences between males and females in severity of NSSI, frequency of NSSI, thinking about NSSI prior to engaging in the act, and age of onset. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the 4-factor model of NSSI functions suggested by Nock and Prinstine [Χ2/df = 1.84; RMSEA = 0.07; GFI = 0.82; AGFI = 0.77]. The most frequent function for engaging in NSSI was Automatic Negative Reinforcement .
    Conclusion
    Findings of this study supported the structural validity of the FASM; thus, this tool can be useful in treatment and research contexts as a measure of NSSI functions. Moreover, this study found that adolescents engage in non-suicidal self-injury because of 4 distinct reinforcement processes. The study findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of NSSI.
    Keywords: Adolescent, Assessment, Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), Non Suicidal Self-Injury
  • Nahid Mahjabin Morshed, Wasima Rahman, Mohammad S.I. Mullick, Mohammad Shibli, Nafia Farzana, S M Arafat* Pages 192-197
    Objective
    Medical training has been reported as being stressful, and postgraduate medical training environment has always been regarded as highly stressful, which may lead to different psychiatric disorders. In this study, it was aimed to determine the extent of depression, anxiety, and stress among the postgraduate medical residents of Bangladesh.
    Method
    This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected from 200 residents through face to face interview which was conducted by a psychiatrist using research instruments. Initially, respondents were approached by cluster sampling. Then, they were selected from each cluster using simple random sampling method (lottery method). Sample size was calculated by considering the prevalence of 50%; however, 200 residents were interviewed due to time constraints. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: (1) demographic variable, (2) the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders, and (3) Bangla Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Data were analyzed using software Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0.
    Results
    Distribution of depression, anxiety, and stress revealed that 11.5% of the residents had depressive disorders, 11% anxiety disorders, and 10.5% stress disorders. Also, it was found that 14.5% of the respondents were found to have at least one of three disorders. The DASS-21 score revealed that 6% of the residents had severe to extremely severe depression, 3.5% severe to extremely severe anxiety, and 6.5% severe to extremely severe stress disorder.
    Conclusion
    The study revealed that one in every seven residents has been suffering from at least one disorder from depression, anxiety, and stress related disorders. A large-scale multicenter study is recommended to validate the findings of the present study.
    Keywords: Anxiety, Bangladesh, Depression, Residents, Stress
  • Gelareh Biazar, Kourosh Delpasand, Farnoush Farzi, Abbas Sedighinejad, Ali Mirmansouri, Zahra Atrkarroushan* Pages 198-202
    Objective
    Delivering bad news is the duty of specialist physicians. However, they find it very difficult due to insufficient experience. In this study, the way faculty and residents of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) delivered bad news to the patients was investigated.
    Method
    This study was conducted at hospitals affiliated to GUMS during 2017. A questionnaire containing 18 items on environmental and psychical support was filled through a face to face interview. The first 10 questions evaluated psychical support and the next eight environmental supports. The scoring of each question ranged from 10 to 50, with 10 indicating “never” and 50 “always”.
    Results
    According to the analysis of 235 questionnaires, only 32 (13.6%) of the participants had been taught to deliver bad news and 195(83%) felt they need educational courses. Also, 40 (17%) believed that they had enough ability to deliver these massages. No significant differences were observed among physicians who had taken teaching courses in breaking bad news to patients.
    Conclusion
    This study revealed that educational courses to improve physicians’ communication skill to break bad news to patients are strongly warranted
    Keywords: Breaking Bad News, Clinicians, Guilan, Patients, Way
  • Shabnam Mousavi, Rahimeh Negarandeh, Hamid Valizadegan, Maryam Noroozian, Mehdi Tehrani, Emran M Razaghi, Emran Mohammad Razaghi*, Reza Rastgoo Pages 203-210
    Objective
    A prominent challenge in modeling choice is specification of the underlying cognitive processes. Many cognitive-based models of decision-making draw substantially on algorithmic models of artificial intelligence and thus rely on associated metaphors of this field. In contrast, the current study avoids metaphors and aims at a first-hand identification of the behavioral elements of a process of choice.
    Method
    We designed a game in Mouselab resembling the real-world procedure of choosing a wife. 17 male subjects were exposed to cost-benefit decision criteria that closely mimic their societal respective conditions.
    Results
    The quality of choice index was measured with respect to its sensitivity to the final outcomes as well as process tracing of decisions. The correlation between this index and individual components of process tracing are discussed in detail. The choice quality index can be configured as a function of expected value and utility. In our sample the quality of choice with an average of 75.98% (SD: ±12.67) suggests that subjects obtained close to 76% of their expected gains.
    Conclusion
    The quality of choice index, therefore, may be used for comparison of different conditions where the variables of decision-making are altered. The analysis of results also reveals that the cost of incorrect choice is significantly correlated with expected value (0.596, sig = 0.012) but not with utility. This means that when sub-jects face higher costs prior to making a decision, there exists a corresponding higher expectation of gains, i.e., higher expected value.
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Calculations, Decision Process, Expected Value, Mouselab, Quality of Choice, Utility
  • Maryam Mohseny, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Mohammad, Reza Sohrabi, Ali Najafi, Jayran Zebardast, Farzad Tajdini, Zahra Zamani* Pages 211-220
    Objective
    Bullying and victimization are common and serious problems in schools resulting in development of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents. This study aimed at examining the prevalence of bullying behavior and some of its associated factors among students.
    Method
    This was a cross sectional analytic study involving junior high schoolers in grades seven, eight and nine. This study was part of an international study that used a questionnaire as a tool for data collection. The questionnaire investigated some of the characteristics and qualities possessed by most juveniles and some occasional problems which they may experience. Also, it was used to examine participants’ experiences with bullying and victimization. This questionnaire comprised of 15 sections on demographic characteristics, individual health, family status and types of bullying experiences at school and outside of school, along with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which is an instrument for screening emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents. A multistage cluster sampling from five regions, consisting of the north, south, west, east, and central regions of Tehran, was conducted and 1456 questionnaires were completed by the students.

    Results
    According to the results of this study, prevalence rate for bullying and victimization was 17.4% and 25.8%, respectively. The results indicated that gender had a significant relationship with bullying and victimization, with boys being more likely to be bullies and also more prone to victimization than girls (p < 0.001). Other parameters such as emotional, behavioral, and environmental influence also had a significant relationship with bullying and victimization.
    Conclusion
    Bullying is more prevalent in boys than in girls, and boys are more likely to be victimized as well. Emotional and behavioral problems are identified as risk factors, and future interventions should focus on these risk factors to develop preventive measures
    Keywords: Adolescent, Bullying, Prevalence, School health, Victimization
  • Masoud Nazeri, Goli Chamani, Fatemeh Abareghi, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Mohammad, Hosseyn Talebizadeh, Reza Zarei, Mohammad Shabani* Pages 221-226
    Objective
    Pain is a unique and subjective experience that has a prominent function in animals’ survival. Observation of pain in others leads to alterations in pain sensation and affection, termed “Empathy for pain”. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of empathy on sensory and affective dimensions of pain and its effect on anxiety-like behaviors.
    Method
    In this study, male Wistar rats were used. Two cage mates were selected, one of which underwent administration of a noxious stimuli for 10 days and the other observed the conspecific in pain. Hot plate, tail flick, and conditioned place aversion were used to evaluate sensory and affective dimensions of pain, respectively. Anxiety-like behavior was assayed using elevated plus maze paradigm and time spent in open and close arms and number of entrance into each arm was recorded as the anxiety indicator within a 5-minute framework.
    Results
    Rats observing the cage mate in pain had a lower threshold to noxious stimuli in comparison to controls. They also had an increased aversion from painful stimuli, demonstrating heightened affective response to pain. Anxiety-like behavior was also enhanced in the observers.
    Conclusion
    Results of this study demonstrate that both sensory and affective dimensions of pain are altered following observation of pain in a conspecific. Further studies evaluating the underlying mechanisms are encouraged to elucidate the role of different neurotransmitters in this phenomenon.
    Keywords: Anxiety, Conditioned Place Aversion (CPA), Empathy, Pain
  • Majdedin Fathi, Maryam Kazemi, Elham Bahadori, Fahimeh Rahmani* Pages 227-235
    Objective
    Memory assessment for the early diagnosis of cortical dementia is a complicated process which depends on important factors such as facial recognition and naming. These factors could be considered to carry a predictive power to detect neurodegenerative disorders. The present study aimed to study and compare naming or recognizing famous faces with the recognition of newly learned faces among patients with Amnesia Mild Cognitive Impairment (AMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease.
    Method
    To collect data, 60 AMCI patients, 62 patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, and 63 cognitively healthy individuals were assessed using Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test (WMS-III faces) and Famous Faces test.
    Results
    The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that the patients suffering from AMCI and Alzheimer’s disease scored significantly worse than the control group on naming (p < 0.001), recognition (p < 0.001) section of the Famous Faces test, and immediate or delayed recognition on the WMS-III Faces test (p < 0.001). Also, the obtained results showed that the patients groups received lower scores on WMS-III Faces compared to the Famous Faces test.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study suggested that the unfamiliar and Famous Faces tests allow the quantification of patients’ face recognition and name recall abilities which, in turn, makes it possible to make more accurate predictions about cases of dementia. These tests can be used for clinical and research purposes to screen those who may be prone to dementia and need further neuropsychological assessment.
    Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease, Amnesia, Face Recognition, Famous Faces
  • Shahrzad Mazhari, Alireza Ghaffari Nejad, Farzaneh Raaii, Kambiz Bahhaaddin, Omid Mofakhami* Pages 236-241
    Objective
    Despite accumulated evidence that demonstrates clinical outcome of telepsychiatry is comparable with conventional method; little research has been done on telepsychiatry in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic agreement between telepsychiatry assessment and face-to-face assessment. Moreover, patient and doctor satisfaction was assessed by self-report questionnaire.
    Method
    This study was conducted in an inpatient department of a university-affiliated hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 40 inpatients aged over 18 years who were selected from October 2016 to February 2017. All patients were visited once by face-to-face conventional method and once by interactive video teleconsultation by 2 psychiatric consultants.
    Results
    Results of this study revealed that the diagnostic agreement between the 2 interviewers was 75%. Moreover, about 85% of the patients preferred telepsychiatry for follow-up visits. Also, more than 82% of the patients would recommend telepsychiatry to others although 95% of them perceived contact via telepsychiatry as uncomfortable to some extent.
    Conclusion
    Telepsychiatry service can be used for psychiatric evaluation in Iran, and it has a desirable effect on patient and doctor satisfaction. The results of this study showed the capacity of moving towards using telepsychiatry.
    Keywords: Diagnosis Agreement, Implementation, Iran, Telepsychiatry, Telemental Health
  • Jafar Fili, Marzieh Nojomi, Katayoon Razjouyan, Mojgan Kahdemi, Rozita Davari* Pages 242-247
    Objective
    The present study aimed to examine the association between ADHD and suicide attempts among adolescents with bipolar disorder.
    Method
    Participants were 168 adolescents who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar disorder. They were divided into 2 groups: The first group of patients with bipolar disorder with a history of suicide attempts (n = 84) and the second group without a history of suicide attempts (n = 84). ADHD and other variables were analyzed using a chi-squared test and logistic regression model.
    Results
    No significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in comorbidity of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders (P value > 0/05). In the logistic regression model, and after controlling for other factors, gender (OR = 3.9, CI 95%: 1.5-9.6) and history of sexual abuse (OR = 3.4; CI 95%: 1.06-11.3) were the only 2 factors associated with a history of suicide attempts.
    Conclusion
    No significant association was found between ADHD and suicide attempts in adolescents with bipolar disorder.
    Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, SuicideThe prevalence
  • Effat Davoudi, Mojan Radmehr, Padideh Ghaeli, Maryam MousavI* Pages 248-252
    Valproate-induced hyperammonemia is a common side effect of valproate, which may occur either without any symptoms or may rarely cause symptoms of encephalopathy. Different risk factors have been defined for this side effect, including some nutritional deficiencies and polypharmacy (eg, other anticonvulsants). Three cases with psychiatric disorder who showed symptoms of severe hyperammonemia encephalopathy and had taken valproate with antipsychotics, especially risperidone, are presented here. In all cases, the symptoms were improved by discontinuation of valproate. Administration of antipsychotic may be considered as a risk factor for hyperammonemic encephalopathy related to valproate, specifically in some prone populations.
    Keywords: Antipsychotic, Encephalopathy, Hyperammonemia, Valproate Derivatives