فهرست مطالب

علوم اجتماعی - سال پانزدهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • سال پانزدهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • سهیلا صادقی فسایی، مریم ایثاری* صفحات 1-32
    طلاق روندی رو به رشد در سال های اخیر داشته است که نتیجه آن، افزایش شمار زنان و مردان درگیر با پیامدهای پس از طلاق است. در این میان، بررسی نحوه مواجه سوژه های طلاق گرفته با پیامدهای طلاق و چگونگی بازسازی زندگی پس از طلاق، از حوزه های عموما مغفول مانده در جامعه شناسی ایرانی است. از این رو، پژوهش حاضر با هدف سنخ شناسی الگوهای بازسازی زندگی پس از طلاق انجام شده است و با اتخاذ رویکرد کیفی و تکنیک مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختاریافته به مطالعه نحوه بازسازی زندگی پس از طلاق سوژه های طلاق گرفته پرداخته است. نتایج حاصل از مصاحبه های عمیق با 36 زن و مرد طلاق گرفته در تهران، چهار الگوی بازسازی پس از طلاق را براساس مختصات ذهنی و عینی پاسخ گویان شناسایی کرد. این الگوها شامل بازسازی پیش روانه، دو الگوی بازسازی دوگانه یا انتقالی و بازسازی واپس گرایانه است. بر این مبنا، سوژه های حاضر در دسته نخست از شرایط ذهنی و عینی مساعدی پس از طلاق برخوردار بوده و طلاق را واقعه ای در جهت بهبود کیفیت زندگی خود می دانند و با اتخاذ رویکردی فعالانه و پیش روانه به بازسازی موفقیت آمیز زندگی خود می پردازند. اما افرادی که در الگوهای بازسازی دوگانه قرار دارند عموما از ناسازی میان ذهنیت و عینیت بیرونی رنج می برند و در صورت رفع این ناسازگاری، در آینده امکان حرکت به سوی هر یک از الگوهای بازسازی اول و چهارم را خواهند داشت و در نهایت برای سوژه های حاضر در دسته بازسازی واپس گرایانه، به دلیل ذهنیت و عینیت نامساعد آنان در مواجه با زندگی پس از طلاق، واقعه طلاق منجر به حرکتی رو به عقب و پس روانه گردیده است. این پژوهش لزوم توانمندسازی سوژه های درگیر با الگوی بازسازی واپس گرایانه را در برنامه های مداخلاتی متذکر می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بازسازی، طلاق، عینیت، ذهنیت، ناسازی
  • محمد چقلوند، نسرین امیدوار، ابوعلی ودادهیر*، جلال الدین رفیع فر صفحات 33-71
    غذا و تغذیه نقش پررنگی در حیات و شکل گیری خصیصه های فرهنگی انسان دارد. شرایط اقتصادی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی می تواند دسترسی و کنترل مواد غذایی و برآورده شدن امیال و ذائقه ها در این رابطه را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. به علاوه غذا و عمل خوردن به مانند یک نشانه معانی فرهنگی و چیزهای بسیاری را در مورد ما بازنمایی می کنند. جنسیت و قدرت در کنار مولفه های یاد شده از عوامل یا قیدوبندهای تاثیرگذار در نحوه تولید، توزیع و مصرف غذا است. این پژوهش به دنبال فهم چیستی و سهم جنسیت و قدرت در نظام غذایی عشایر است و اینکه چگونه از طریق نظام غذایی جنسیت و قدرت تکمیل و اعمال می گردد. جامعه مورد مطالعه این پژوهش، عشایر لک در استان لرستان هستند. بیان چیستی جنسیت و مراتب قدرت از طریق نظام غذایی برای زنان و مردان در زندگی عشایر و این که چگونه این دو مولفه مناسبات متفاوتی را با غذا و یکدیگر به دنبال دارد، هدف اصلی این مطالعه است. استراتژی پژوهشی مردم نگاری به عنوان شیوه ای برای درک معانی و جهان زندگی از نقطه نظر کنشگران برای نفوذ به تجربه زیسته عشایر و دستیابی به معانی مورد نظر به کار گرفته شده است. مصاحبه های مردم نگارانه و مشاهده مشارکتی تکنیک های به کار گرفته شده برای گردآوری داده های مورد نیاز است. نتایج نشان می دهد که جنسیت در تولید، توزیع و مصرف خوراک مولفه ای مهم است و به واسطه آن قدرت متفاوتی برای زنان در دسترسی و مصرف مواد غذایی به دنبال داشته است. غذا برای زنان به واسطه نزدیکی با مواد و منابع غذایی نماد مهمی است. به علاوه نظام غذایی در مراحل تولید، توزیع و مصرف عنصری مهم برای بیان ویژگی هایی که در فرهنگ به جنسیت اختصاص دارند، است. مردان و زنان هریک به طریقی از غذا برای به دست آوردن پایگاه اجتماعی، روابط دوستانه، قدرت و اعمال آن استفاده می کنند. غذا شیوه ای کارساز برای برساخت هویتی متمایز برای زن و مرد است. این هویت های متمایز جنسیتی دسترسی ها و روابط متفاوتی برای زن و مرد در ارتباط با غذا ایجاد نموده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نظام غذایی، جنسیت، زنانگی و مردانگی، قدرت، قوم لک
  • فردین محمدی*، کمال خالق پناه صفحات 73-103
    گفتمان ها با بهره گیری از ابزارهای گفتمانی (مانند رسانه ها) و متون گفتمانی مختلف از جمله سریال های تلویزیونی، به بازنمایی نهادهای مختلف به ویژه نهاد خانواده می پردازند. دقت به این مهم که در سریال های تلویزیونی، نهاد خانواده چگونه بازنمایی می شود، چه گفتمان هایی در آن نمود می یابند، روابط بین گفتمان ها چگونه اند و این گفتمان ها به کدام فرایندهای نهادی و به کدام فرایندهای اجتماعی تعلق دارند، مساله ای است که تحقیق حاضر سعی دارد با بررسی یکی از سریالی های محبوب ایرانی (سریال ستایش) به آن پاسخ دهد. در راستای پاسخ به این مسئله از نظریات نورمن فرکلاف به عنوان چارچوب مفهومی استفاده شد و برای گردآوری و تحلیل داده ها نیز از روش تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی استفاده گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که این مجموعه سریال بیانگر تقابل گفتمانی بین دو گفتمان مذهبی و دنیاگرایی است که محور اصلی این تقابل گفتمانی، تربیت فرزندان است. این سریال با نشان دادن پیروزی گفتمان مذهبی، گفتمان بهتر و برتر در راستای شیوه تربیت نسل جدید را معرفی می کند. دیگر نتیجه تحقیق بیانگر آن بود که سریال «ستایش» تصویری از فرایندهای اجتماعی در جامعه ایران است، زیرا در جامعه ایران نیز تقابل گفتمانی بین گفتمان دنیاگرایی و مذهبی وجود دارد و هر گفتمانی بر آن است که معنای مورد نظرش را تثبیت کند. فرایند اجتماعی حاکی از تقابل طبقاتی است که حامل این گفتمان هاست. بر این اساس در این سریال شاهد تقابل دو طبقه متوسط سنتی و طبقه بورژوازی بازاری هستیم. برای رفع این نزاع اجتماعی، گفتمان مذهبی (به مثابه گفتمان حاکم) از طریق متون گفتمانی (سریال ستایش) برتری گفتمان خود را به اثبات رسانده و سوژه ها (والدین و جوانان) را به گفتمان خود فرا می خواند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، سریال ستایش، گفتمان مذهبی، گفتمان دنیاگرایی
  • حسین اکبری*، سعید صفری صفحات 105-132
    امروزه شاهد تغییر وضعیت اچ آی وی/ایدز در ایران از شرایط پنهان به همه گیری متمرکز هستیم. به نظر می رسد رشد همه گیری اچ آی وی/ایدز تحت تاثیر تغییر شرایط اجتماعی در سال های اخیر در ایران باشد. لذا در این مقاله بر آن شدیم تا شناخت بیشتری از دلایل، زمینه ها و فرآیندهای اجتماعی موثر بر بروز رفتار پرخطر دارای پتانسیل انتقال اچ آی وی/ایدز به دست آوریم. از این رو با استفاده از تکنیک مصاحبه عمیق و آزاد در چارچوب روش نظریه زمینه ای و با استفاده از نمونه گیری نظری از 19 بیمار مبتلا به اچ آی وی/ایدز داده های لازم گردآوری و تنظیم شد. پس از تحلیل یافته های پژوهش، مقوله های: «تکوین نا به هنجار شخصیت در دوران نوجوانی» به عنوان شرایط زمینه ای، «بی سازمانی خانوادگی» به عنوان شرایط علی، «سطح پایین سواد سلامتی» به عنوان شرایط مداخله گر، «تعاملات جبری سوق دهنده فرد به رفتارهای مستعد ابتلا»، «سبک زندگی مستعد ابتلا» و «شرایط محیطی و تعاملات مستعد رفتار هنجارشکنانه در بزرگ سالی» به عنوان تعاملات، «ابتلای منفعلانه»، «ابتلای با درجه آزادی کم» و «ابتلای آزادانه» به عنوان پیامدها تعیین شدند. سرانجام مفهوم «اچ آی وی/ایدز بیماری برخاسته از بی سازمانی اجتماعی توام با سهل انگاری های بهداشتی» به عنوان مقوله هسته برگزیده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: چ آی وی، ایدز، نظریه زمینه ای، بسترهای اجتماعی، رفتار پرخطر
  • محمد اسماعیل ریاحی*، رحمت الله معمار، مهدی رحیمی راد صفحات 133-172
    متخصصان علوم پزشکی و رفتاری دیر زمانی است که به نقش دینداری در سلامت توجه داشته اند، با این حال رابطه دینداری و سلامت در جامعه شناسی کمتر مورد توجه بوده است. پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا به مطالعه اثرات دینداری بر سلامت روان بپردازد. در همین راستا، با به کارگیری مدل فرایند استرس پیرلین، اثرات دینداری متاثر از نقش اجتماعی (دانشجویی/طلبگی) و با میانجی گری استرس و حمایت اجتماعی بر سلامت روان، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر به صورت پیمایشی صورت گرفته و داده های مورد نیاز با استفاده از پرسش نامه خود اجراء گردآوری شده است. نمونه آماری تحقیق شامل 400 نفر از دانشجویان و طلاب است که با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای نامتناسب، از دانشگاه ها و حوزه های علمیه شهر قم انتخاب شده اند. براساس نتایج توصیفی، 9/60 درصد از پاسخگویان مشکوک به اختلال روانی تشخیص داده شده اند (9/69 درصد دانشجویان و 6/52 درصد طلاب) و 9/59 درصد آن ها دارای سطوح بالایی از دینداری هستند (7/36 درصد دانشجویان و 8/81 درصد طلاب). نتایج تحلیل مسیر با استفاده از ضرایب رگرسیونی حاکی از آن است که به ترتیب متغیرهای استرس (ضریب بتای 643/0)، نقش اجتماعی دانشجویی/طلبگی (261/0-)، حمایت اجتماعی (146/0-) و دینداری (077/0-) بیشترین اثر کل (مجموع اثرات مستقیم و غیرمستقیم) را بر میزان سلامت روان داشته اند. بدین ترتیب می توان پیش بینی کرد که بیشترین میزان سلامت روان در پاسخگویانی مشاهده شده است که استرس کمتری داشته اند، نقش اجتماعی «طلبگی» داشته اند، حمایت اجتماعی بیشتری دریافت کرده اند و از دینداری بالاتری برخوردار بوده اند. همچنین، مشخص شد که اثرات استرس ناشی از ایفای نقش های دانشجویی/ طلبگی بر سلامت روان، از طریق متغیرهای میانجی (دینداری و حمایت اجتماعی) تعدیل شده و کاهش یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: سلامت (اختلال) روان، دین داری، حمایت اجتماعی، استرس، مدل فرایند استرس
  • سید محمد باوندی ثانی، غلام رضا ملک زاده*، علیرضا پویا صفحات 173-212
    امروزه سازمان ها به منظور حفظ و بقای خود باید از مزایای رقابتی نظیر نوآوری و توجه به مشتری با ارائه محصولات و خدمات جدید و نوآورانه برخوردار باشند. این امر برای بانک ها، ماندگاری بیشتر مشتریان، جذب مشتریان جدید و بهبود عملکرد مالی و سودآوری را به دنبال خواهد داشت. کیفیت و تازگی خدمات ارائه شده توسط بانک در نگرش مشتریان نسبت به میزان برتری خدماتی سازمان نسبت به رقبا موثر است. به همین دلیل در پژوهش حاضر، تاثیر هوش معنوی بر عملکرد شغلی کارکنان با نقش واسط نوآوری فردی در بانک به عنوان محیطی با ویژگی های خاص پرداخته شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش 398 نفر از کارکنان بانک مهر اقتصاد استان خراسان رضوی است که از این تعداد، 182 نفر به عنوان نمونه با روش تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد که هوش معنوی و نوآوری فردی بر عملکرد شغلی کارکنان اثر مثبت دارند و نوآوری فردی در این رابطه نقش واسط دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: هوش معنوی، نوآوری فردی، عملکرد شغلی
  • کوروش غلامی *، مریم نباتی صفحات 213-235
    دانشجویان پرستاری بعد از دانش آموختگی و در حین پذیرش نقش حرفه ای خود، به محیطی وارد می شوند که از شرایط و ارزش های به نسبت متفاوتی نسبت به محیط دانشجویی برخوردار است و احساس می کنند فاصله زیادی در این خصوص وجود دارد. این مسائل سبب می شود که پرستار تازه کار، در نتیجه تعارضات موجود بین انتظارات و واقعیت های محیط کار، نتواند به شکل مناسبی خود را با شرایط مذکور سازگار نماید. این پژوهش به منظور تبیین فرایند پذیرش نقش پرستاری و عوامل تسهیل گر و ممانعت کننده از پذیرش آن از دیدگاه پرستاران انجام شده است. این پژوهش با روش کیفی و با استفاده از روش گراندد تئوری با رویکرد تجارب زیسته و دیدگاه های 15 پرستار به وسیله مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختاریافته مورد بررسی قرار داده است. داده ها به طور همزمان از طریق مقایسه مداوم با روش اشتراوس و کوربین مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته اند. در این پژوهش، برای کسب اعتبار، از روش های مرور و کنترل و بازبینی مشارکت کنندگان (داده های به دست آمده از مشارکت کنندگان به آنان بازگردانده و صحت کدهای استخراجی، مورد بازنگری قرار گرفت) و برای قابلیت اعتماد داده ها از حسابرسی پژوهش (از نظرات تکمیلی همکاران برای تطبیق و اطمینان از هم خوانی مراحل مختلف کدگذاری، مفهوم سازی، استخراج مقولات و طبقات با اظهارات شرکت کنندگان) استفاده شد. تحلیل یافته ها نشان داد پذیرش نقش پرستاری فرایندی پیچیده است که با 4 ویژگی و مرحله انگیزش، انسداد، بازاندیشی و اصلاح نقش و سازگاری مشخص می شود. همچنین تحلیل یافته ها، پنج درون مایه؛ عوامل فردی، عوامل خانوادگی، عوامل شغلی و سازمانی را به عنوان عوامل بازدارنده و هفت درون مایه؛ عوامل فردی، عوامل خانوادگی، عوامل شغلی، عوامل اجتماعی، عوامل اقتصادی، عوامل معنوی و سازمانی را به عنوان عوامل تسهیل گر پذیرش نقش پرستاری روشن ساخت.
    کلیدواژگان: پذیرش نقش پرستاری، پژوهش کیفی، عوامل تسهیل گر، عوامل بازدارنده، نظریه زمینه ای
  • محسن نیازی، سید رضا اسلامی *، حسن منتظری، ایوب سخایی صفحات 237-267
    تحقیقات متعددی درباره رابطه سبک زندگی و هویت اجتماعی در بین گروه های گوناگون و براساس روش های متفاوت انجام شده است از این رو هدف پژوهش حاضر به کارگیری روش فراتحلیل به منظور تحلیل و ترکیب نتایج مطالعات صورت گرفته پیرامون ارتباط میان سبک زندگی و هویت است. برای انجام فراتحلیل، از میان پژوهش های مرتبط با، رابطه سبک زندگی و هویت اجتماعی که در نشریات علمی پژوهشی فارسی بین سال های 1385-1395 چاپ شده اند، بیست پژوهش که به روش پیمایشی انجام گرفته است، انتخاب نموده و در مرحله بعد ضریب اندازه اثر و نقش تعدیل کنندگی متغیر جنسیت با استفاده از نرم افزار CMA ارزیابی شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد، اندازه اثر یا ضریب تاثیر سبک زندگی بر هویت اجتماعی معادل 0/420 است که برحسب نظام تفسیری کوهن این میزان تاثیر در حد متوسط ارزیابی می شود. همچنین با در نظرگرفتن جنسیت، تحصیلات و حجم نمونه به عنوان متغیرهای تعدیل کننده مشخص می شود ضریب اندازه اثر ترکیبی برای مردان (0/567) بالاتر از زنان (0/486) و در بین تحصیلات  غیردانشگاهی (0/620) بالاتر تحصیلات دانشگاهی (0/411) می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: فراتحلیل، سبک زندگی، هویت اجتماعی، اندازه اثر
  • سوسن باستانی*، سارا شریعتی، بهناز خسروی صفحات 269-303
    بحث از معنویت های جدید و رواج آن ها در جامعه ایران چند سالی است که تا حدی توجه ها را به خود جلب کرده است. در این مقاله، با رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی به مطالعه موقعیت فرهنگی، اجتماعی، طبقاتی و سبک زندگی اعضای دو جمع مروج معنویت های جدید در تهران پرداخته ایم؛ یکی با رویکرد عرفانی و دیگری نوعی روان شناسی. براساس یافته های این پژوهش، به نظر می رسد بتوان معنویت های جدید را به مثابه نوعی مصرف فرهنگی و در ارتباط با دیگر انتخاب های افراد در سبک زندگی شان مورد مطالعه قرار داد. از این منظر، گرایش به این معنویت ها، لااقل در یک دوره زمانی مشخص و در میان طبقه متوسط تهرانی، راهی متمایز برای افزایش سرمایه فرهنگی و ابزاری برای کسب مشروعیت بیشتر تلقی می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: معنویت های جدید، سرمایه فرهنگی، سبک زندگی، مصرف، تمایز
  • عقیله سادات موسوی، زهرا طبیبی*، بهروز مهرام، مرتضی مدرس صفحات 305-343
    هویت زنانه به معنای بایسته هایی است که در نقش های جنسیتی فرد به اجرا در می آید. ادبیات تحقیق نقش های زنانه را در دو عرصه خصوصی یعنی خانه و عرصه عمومی یعنی جامعه همواره موردبررسی قرار داده است. اتخاذ رویکرد کیفی و گفت وگو با کودکان برای بررسی مفهوم زنانگی در این دو عرصه از جمله حوزه های مورد نیاز برای گسترش در ادبیات پژوهش است. از آنجایی که هر فرهنگی الزامات هویتی خاص خود و اشکال مختلف بروز این هویت جنسیتی را دارد، در این پژوهش، گستره فرهنگی شهر مشهد مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. هشتاد و سه کودک سه تا شش ساله در نواحی پنج گانه طبقه بندی منزلت اجتماعی شهر مشهد در این پژوهش شرکت داشتند. در پژوهش کیفی حاضر با روش پدیدارشناسی تفسیری، از طریق بازی با اسباب بازی ها و کارت ها، نقاشی، داستان دیجیتال و گفت وگو با کودکان، مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته انجام شد. نتایج پژوهش کیفی حاضر نشان داد که در نگاه کودکان، عرصه خصوصی قلمروی خاص زنان محسوب می شود. در این عرصه زنان مسئولیت رسیدگی به امور خانه را بر عهده دارند که شامل آشپزی، نظافت و مراقبت از کودکان است. در عرصه اجتماعی، زنان حضور خیلی کم رنگ تری نسبت به مردان دارند و بیشتر در شغل هایی چون معلمی، پزشکی یا پرستاری شاغل اند. در نگاه کودکان زنان با مفهوم مراقبت و توانمندی در خانه و ترس و ناتوانی مالی، شناختی، جسمی و عملکردی در بیرون از محیط خانه شناخته می شوند. دوگانه های مشخصی در هویت جنسیتی زنانه به چشم می خورد که می تواند موضوع تفکرو پژوهش راجع به مفهوم زنانگی و به طور کلی، جنسیت باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: زنانگی، کودک، پژوهش کیفی، عرصه خصوصی و عمومی
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  • Maryam Isari* Pages 1-32
    1. Introduction
     Divorce rate has been growing in recent years in Iran, resulting in an increase in the number of women and men involved with the post-divorce consequences. In the last five years, more than 800,000 divorces have taken place in Iran, meaning more than one and a half million men and women underwent divorce.A brief look at the literature of this field shows that despite the importance of the family system and the damage caused by divorce, there has been little sociological research in Iran on this issue with the adoption of qualitative approaches, and the few existing researches, all of which have used quantitative approaches, generally focus on negative effects of divorce on children, and little research has been conducted on the effects of divorce on the life of divorced men and women. Thus, the study of how divorced subjects encounter the consequences of divorce and the ways in which they rebuild their lives after divorce is a commonly neglected domain in Iranian sociology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the typology of life reconstruction patterns of post-divorce life.
    2. Theoretical framework
    The present research is devoid of a predetermined theoretical framework and subsequent hypotheses. But the sensitive theoretical concepts of this research are largely influenced by Bourdieu's theories on the different types of capital, habitus, and hysteresis.
    3. Method
    The present study is based on qualitative methodology and case study method. As such, by adopting a qualitative approach and semi-structured in-depth interview technique, we study the ways in which divorced subjects go through post-divorce reconstruction of their lives. This research also seeks the typology of a variety of patterns of reconstructing life after divorce. A type is a set of states or individuals that share at least one feature of the study.
    4. Results and Discussion
    The results of in-depth interviews with 36 divorced women and men in Tehran revealed four patterns of post-divorce reconstruction based on the subjective and objective specifications of respondents.These patterns include progressive reconstruction, two patterns of dual and transitional reconstruction, and retrograde reconstruction.Based on this, the individuals in the first category have favourable subjective and objective conditions after divorce and consider divorce as an act to improve their quality of life, and by taking an active and progressive approach ahead, they rebuild their lives successfully.But those who manifest the dual rebuilding patterns generally suffer from the hysteresis between the subjective and the external object, and if this incompatibility is resolved, they will be able to move towards either the first or the fourth reconstruction pattern in the future.Eventually, for subjects in the retrograde reconstruction category, the divorce event led to a backward and retrogressive motion due to their disadvantaged mentality and objectivity in dealing with post-divorce life.The findings also show that the subjective barriers to reconstructing life after divorce include: lack of psychological and emotional detachment from the ex-spouse, negative emotions and orientations towards divorce, traditional habitus, being non-religious, negative feedback of divorce among "significant others”.On the other hand, objective obstacles to the reconstruction of life after divorce include: old age at the time of divorce, unemployment, the lack of access to economic, social, and cultural capitals, having a child, long length of the marriage and short length of the post-divorce period.In addition, the subjective facilitators of post-divorce reconstruction include: psychological and emotional detachment from the ex-spouse, positive emotions and orientations towards divorce, modern habitus, being religious, positive feedback of divorce among "significant others”, and objective facilitators of post-divorce reconstruction include: young age at the time of divorce, employment, having access to a variety of economic, social, and cultural capitals, not having a child, short length of the marriage and long length of the post-divorce period.The findings of this study revealed that divorce causes many changes and challenges in various aspects of the life of the actors. Divorce requires emotional, sexual, psychological, economic, and social detachment. Compatibility with such detachments and efforts to create new connections leads to the success of actors in the process of reconstructing life after divorce.
    5. Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that divorce can be considered both a threat and an opportunity for the lives of actors, and it depends on the subjective and objective factors that play the role of barriers and facilitating conditions in the process of reconstructing life after divorce.Hence, the actors who have more facilitating conditions are more likely to be in the category of progressive reconstruction than others, and subjects that have barriers and disadvantaged mental and objective conditions generally undergo a passive and retrograde reconstruction.Based on the findings of the present research, it seems that to reduce the divorce traumas and facilitate the reconstruction of post-divorce life, one can use three categories of solutions, including economic, cultural, and social solutions, as well as educational and supportive strategies.It is also important to consider the individual backgrounds of the actants in allocating strategies. For instance, Supportive and educational solutions are more vital for the actors who have divorced recently, or economic strategies are more essential for women and especially those who do not have sufficient economic, social, and cultural capital or have custody of their children. Identification of different types of exposure of the actants during reconstruction, demonstrates the amount and the type of the required support to reduce their trauma. Therefore, this research emphasizes the need for doubled support and empowerment of the individuals involved with the retrograde reconstruction pattern in intervention programs.
    Keywords: Reconstruction, Divorce, Objectivity, Subjectivity, Hysteresis
  • AbouAli Vedadhir* Pages 33-71
    1. Introduction
    Food and nutrition, whether before or after consumption, play a role of utmost importance in forming and maintaining cultural characteristics of humans. Economic, cultural, and social factors and conditions could affect the access and control of food products as well as meeting various tastes in this regard. Similar to signs, food and the manner of its consumption could reflect cultural implications about humans. Alongside the aforementioned components, gender and power are also considered social factors which influence populations’ foodways, i.e. the types of production, distribution, and consumption of food products. Food and the manner of consumption demonstrate one’s economic and cultural capitals; albeit they are also linked to the human physique along with cultural significance and implications on another level. As a sociocultural consideration of the human physique, gender is represented within the food system in various ways, exploiting food related capacities to show a cultural reflection of genders in such depictions. As a result, food alongside its significance and implications are constantly present and influential in the modern cultural world. As a general description, the present study seeks to provide answers to the following main questions with focus on the notions of power and gender involved within the food system: first, how do various components of power and gender influence the role of nomadic men and women, regarding the local food system of Lak nomads who live in Lorestan province, Iran, in various stages of food production, provision, and consumption? And second, what are the differences and diversities between men and women’s power with respect to controlling, providing, and consuming food products?
    2. Theoretical Framework
    Food and human nutrition have always been the focus of anthropologists. Within an evolutionist approach framework, Lewis Henry Morgan pointed out that the history of the evolution of human societies could be identified from the early phases to late stages, according to the techniques used for gaining access to food resource. In fact, humans’ skills in gaining access to food as well as their ability to control food resources and processing them has resulted in the distinction and superiority of human beings over other animals. A symbolic approach to food could be traced within humans’ cultural lifetime and the beliefs of pioneering anthropologists. In this regard, James Frazer could be mentioned in particular, who narrates the symbolic applications of food and its resources in different aspects of human life among diverse nations, cultures, and societies. The difference in food-related preferences and tastes in all dimension, formed through the habitus of various classes and strata, is regarded by Pierre Bourdieu as a means for identifying distinctions as well as the reproduction of hierarchies and differences. At a macro level, food could also be a sign of power or weakness of various social strata. In his book, Bourdieu points out that similar to their tastes in music, arts, and clothing, the wealthy exploit food to assert distinction from lower strata. Such an influence of food is reminded by Mainz as sweetness and power through his works. These approaches are used in the present study as a set of inspiring, sensitizing ideas and beliefs, so as to provide a closer understanding of the subject at hand.
    3. Method
    Obtaining answers and a clear image of posed questions require a long, profound exploration of the culture being studied. Since ethnography seeks to understand intended phenomena through the perspective of those who are closely related to the subject, it is used in this study as the appropriate method for discerning the significance and implications that bring about gender and its interpretations among nomads. The research strategy of ethnography is used as a means to understand the significance and living environment through the views of actors who gain access to the living experiences of nomads and obtain the intended meanings. For data collection, ethnographic interviews and a participatory observation of employed techniques are required. As James Spradley had intended, the ethnography in this study is used as a process involving endless cycles of reviewing and dealing with new questions that introduce tremendous dynamism and flexibility to ethnography, in line with collecting massive data so as to reach a thorough understanding of the subject at hand.
    4. Results and Discussion
    Findings show that in the studied society, food involves numerous symbolic and sociocultural levels and applications. In this society, food is considered as a component in which countless implications are present in various dimensions of the society’s sociocultural life. Gender is a significant component in food production, distribution, and consumption, which has brought about a different form of power to women regarding access and consumption of food products. Being close to food products and resources is an important symbol for women. Additionally, the food system is an important element for demonstrating gender-related features of a culture during the stages of production, distribution, and consumption. In case of the society studied in this inquiry, women and their extent of influence in family are expressed majorly through the extent of power and authority over the management of food resources, which could be bestowed upon their relatives (esp. female members) by women as a gift. Men employ the strategy of arranging parties and catering in order to obtain influence, power, and social status. Food is used by both men and women in various ways to gain access to a social base, friendly relationships, and power.
    5. Conclusion
    Food is an effective means to build distinctive identities for men and women. Such distinct, gender-related identities have offered different levels of access and relations for men and women with respect to food. In a nomadic society, the empowerment of gender-related norms could be seen in daily interactions involving the food system; norms that, the majority of times, are reflective of biological differences and their implications. The impact of gender and its implications can always be seen on how men and women are present in such a food system along with the extent of their powers.
    Keywords: Food System, Gender, Femininity, Masculinity, Power, Lak Nomads
  • Fardin Mohammadi* Pages 73-103
    1. Introduction
    Through enlisting the help of discursive tools, including media, discourses depict various institutional units, such as family, in a variety of contexts, like that of a television show. The present study aims to answer the following questions. How is the institution of family represented in television series?• What discourses are prominent? • How do these discourses interact? • And what institutional and societal processes do the discourses belong to? The study was conducted using one of the most popular Iranian TV shows, Setayesh.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    In response to this question, the theory of critical discourse analysis of Norman Fairclough was used as a conceptual framework. Fairclough believes that discourses help to reproduce power. He points out through the concept of multi-functional language that texts and discourses are socially constructed, and that language has different functions. The function of the idea of language is to create knowledge systems. In contrast, the function of the personality of discourse is to boil down social subjects to identities or relationships between them. Fairclough defines this very complex relationship using the concept of discursive order. The discursive order of a social realm implies the imposition of a variety of discourses and the relationships among them in this domain. For this reason, Fairclough believes that a discursive order is not a stable system, but an open one which changes with circumstances.Fairclough believes that in discourse analysis, one should consider not only discourse ordering, but also the communicative event. A communicative event is a sample of language use, such as newspaper articles, cinematic videos, video interviews, and political speeches. Each communicative event consists of three dimensions; namely, text (speech, writing, visual image, or a combination of these), the discursive operation that involves the production and use of the text, and social action, all of which should be addressed in communicative discourse analysis. Top of FormBottom of Form
    3. Method
    In this research, the critical discourse analysis method (with emphasis on Fairclough’s framework) was used to answer the research question, and the analysis unit was also a dialogue between actors. Given that this method has three stages; namely, description, interpretation, and explanation, words’ values were initially defined at the stage of description (empirical values, relation, and expression). Then based on them, the type of discourses used in the series were identified. In the interpretative phase, the contents of the text were also interpreted and situational texture, type of discourse, and discourse order were determined. Finally, they were identified in the stage of explaining the social foundation and social ideas that played a role in the formation of above-mentioned discourses, and the way to determine the social structures of discourse was shown.
    4. Results and Discussion
    At this stage, the value of the words was determined in terms of experimental and expressive values that supported the existence of two secular and religious discourses. The relation between the two discourses of secularism and religion is a contradictory one. In other words, this series reveals the opposition of two groups with two different discourses; one with a religious discourse and another with a socialist discourse. Each of these groups tries to compete with the other while faithful to its own discourse in order to achieve its goals, values, and aspirations. What leads to the confrontation between these two discourses is the way of raising children. The most important contrasts are: hiring/attracting, betrayal/loyalty, moral corruption / children's moral wellbeing, and generational sustainability/ mutation. In this communicative event, the strategy used by the secular discourse is the strategy of monetaryization and marketability, but the strategy used by religious discourse is the strategy of loyalty, ethical, and religious orientation. The problem of the new generation's style of education depicted in this series is not just the main theme of a series, but one of the parental concerns and one of the challenges of our society. The existence of different discourses in our society about the way the new generation should be brought up, and the different perspectives each of them has on the trainning style, has led to confusion among families and the youth themselves, insofar as the youth are faced with identity crises. Among the active discourses in society, religious and secular discourses are the most powerful. To overcome this dialectic, the ruling discourse has built series such as Setayesh through media. Therefore, the institutional framework of this text belongs to the institution of the family, but it is the domain of confrontation between the two institutions of religion and the market, and these two discourses are part of the conflict between religions and secularism.
    5. Conclusion
    The results of the research indicate that this series represents a discursive opposition between religious and secular discourses, and the main focus of this discursive opposition is the upbringing of children. By showing the superiority of religious discourse, the series introduces this discourse as the one which is better and superior for new generation's training style. Another result of the research is that the series is a depiction of social processes in Iranian society, because in Iranian society there is also a discursive opposition between secular and religious discourses, and every discourse aims at becoming the dominant one. The social process represents the class opposition that gives rise to these discourses. In the series, we witness the confrontation between two dominant forms of middle class people, namely a traditional religious middle class and the more modern, bourgeois class. To overcome this social conflict, the religious discourse proves its superioty through discursive means and invites previous adherents of non-traditional discourse to convert to the traditionalist discourse.
    Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Setayesh Seies, Religious Discourse, Secular Discourse
  • Hussein Akbari* Pages 105-132
    1. Introduction
    Today, the status of HIV/AIDS in Iran has transitioned from being covert to a centralized epidemic. It appears that the growth in HIV epidemic has been influenced by social changes that have occurred in Iran during recent years. As a social construct, or more particularly, a social stigma, HIV targets the individuals’ social status to various extents. Accordingly, a the question that arises is that considering the acute physical, spiritual, and social issues created by HIV in Iran, how, under what circumstances, and with what extent of knowledge do people engage in risky behaviors that potentially result in HIV transmission? The present study seeks to provide answers to these questions by studying the lived experiences of infected patients.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    In this study, the anomie theory put forth by Durkheim, Sutherland’s differential association, and Collins’ gender stratification were used as the theoretical frameworks. Risky behaviors were considered a result of the fading authority of sexual norms, learned behaviors, and gender discrimination according to theories put forth by Durkheim, Sutherland and Collins, respectively.
    3. Method
    Given the purpose of the study, i.e. extracting a theory with regards to social contexts of HIV infection, the grounded theory was used. In this approach, theories and data are directly extracted from the set of arranged collected data. According to Glaser, data should be used in theory, meaning that researchers should personally be involved in the data collection process. Similar to other qualitative approaches, data for grounded theory can be collected from a variety of sources. Data collection process entails interviews as well as observations. Data are collected until theoretical saturation is achieved. The foundation of analysis procedure is based on coding; in grounded theory, there are three basic types of coding including open, axial, and selective. Open coding is an interpretive process through which data are analytically broken into smaller units. The purpose of this is to provide new insights for the researcher by breaking data into smaller units and interpreting phenomena reflected from data. Selective coding is a procedure in which the entire classifications are unified around a “core category” while categories that require more explanations are placed under the title “further explanation”. This type of coding can be carried out at later stages (Corbin & Strauss, 1990). At the first stage, given the exclusivity, sensitivity, and difficulty of access to participants, purposive sampling was employed. Then, theoretical sampling was used in order to create the theory. Theoretical saturation was achieved at interview number 17, though the coding process was continued until interview number 19 so as to make sure there are no other new categories. In this study, 9 women and 10 men admitted to the behavioral healthcare center in Mashhad were examined. Information and data were collected through conducting open and in-depth interviews.
    4. Results and Discussion
    Following the analysis of the findings, as set of categories were identified which included Abnormal character development during adolescence as the contextual condition, familial disorganization as the causal condition, low health literacy level as the meddling condition, deterministic interactions encouraging individuals to engage in behaviors which might cause infection, lifestyle prone to infection, and environmental conditions and interactions prone to unconventional behaviors during adulthood as interactions, and passive infection, infection with low degree of freedom, and active infection as consequences.
    5. Conclusion
    According to the description of causal, procedural, and consequential categories, HIV as a disease caused by familial disorganization coupled with health-related negligence as the core category covers the entire mentioned topics. Ultimately, considering the individual’s degree of freedom in engaging in risky behaviors, the behaviors leading to HIV infection follows three basic patterns including passive infection, infection with low degree of freedom, and active infection, each under the influence of various interactions.Passive infection in which the individual is of minimum authority in the occurrence of a risky behavior originates from severe poverty and traumatic life experiences which significantly restrain the individual’s power of decision-making with respect to controlling their risky behaviors, rendering them prone to infection. Active infection is, to a high extent, influenced by environmental conditions and the individual’s delinquent interactions during adolescence; to satisfy their sense of pleasure, the individual becomes involved in risky behaviors with high potentials of infection such as having numerous sexual relations and drug abuse. Infection with low degree of freedom is caused by interactions which can be regarded as a lifestyle prone to infection. An individual suffering from addiction or one under the influence of undesirable living conditions who has chosen a spouse with a drug injection background has a moderate authority in controlling their behaviors in line with HIV prevention.
    Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Grounded Theory, Social Contexts, Risky Behaviors
  • Mohammad Esmaeil Riahi* Pages 133-172
    1. Introduction
    Sociologists attempt to discover social patterns on the generation and distribution of mental health and disorders as they believe social structures of societies such as inheritance and biological features definitely restrict individuals’ behaviors. The stressful experiences leading to mental disorders could be associated with the social structures surrounding individuals as well as the position that they occupy in social structures. Accordingly, social structures can be classified into two general groups: the social stratification system (class, race, gender, ethnicity, and age) and social institutions (social statuses and roles) (Pearlin, 1989).In this regard, examining the social status and role of students who study at universities, seminaries and religious schools with the purpose of identifying their impacts on students’ mental health and disorders, can be considered an important subject in sociology. It appears that given the different social statuses and roles of university and seminary students, their diverse educational backgrounds in seminaries (religious sciences) and universities (nonreligious sciences) as well as being exposed to various stressors, examining the effects of the received stress by these two groups and understanding the moderating variables in this relation (social support and religiosity) could offer a valuable opportunity to observe the direct and indirect impacts of religiosity as a social variable on regulating stressors and, ultimately, the condition of their mental health and disorders.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    The theoretical model used in the present inquiry is Leonard Pearlin’s stress process model. Within the framework of sociological studies on mental health, this theoretical model is an attempt to describe and explain the causes behind the occurrence and prevalence of mental disorders resulting from stress, which itself is influenced by social environment. Pearlin et al. (1981) believe that social stress process could be considered a combination of three major conceptual realms including: 1) Stress sources (such as life accidents and life’s chronic pressures); 2) Stress mediators and moderators (such as social support, coping strategies); and 3) manifestations of stress (within a range of microbiological layers of stress to emotional manifestations and extrinsic behaviors). Subsequently, Pearlin (1989 & 1999) completed his social stress theory so as to incorporate in his model the “social context” in which the stress process takes place (Riahi & Rahbari, 2014). In line with the application of this theory, it could be stated that as university and seminary students occupy their particular different statuses in the former and the latter, playing their particular roles, they could be exposed to various stressors and tolerate different levels of stress (stress sources); this, in turn, could result in the students and seminaries’ suffering from a variety of mental disorders which could reduce their level of mental health (stress consequences). Nevertheless, the stressors related to the status and role of being a university/seminary student can be moderated through mediating factors (sources of coping with stress). In this study, religiosity and social support were examined and tested as the mediating and moderating factors, respectively, for the effects caused by the stresses of being a university/seminary student on the students’ mental health.
    3. Method
    The present inquiry is a quantitative study conducted as a cross-sectional research using the survey method. The total population of the study included the entire students (undergraduate or above) of various majors in Humanities studying at public, Azad, and Payam Nour universities in addition to seminary students (level two or higher) in Qom, Iran. Out of the total population of 56237, four hundred individuals were selected as the sample population using stratified sampling with disproportionate allocation.Standard scales were used in order to measure the independent and dependent variables of the study. Subsequently, Goldberg’s general health questionnaire containing 28 questions (GHQ-28), multidimensional scale of perceived social support (Zimet et al. 1988), life stress questionnaire (Thomas et al. 1993) , and religiosity evaluation model (Seraj Zadeh, 1998) based on Glock and Stark, (1965) (made compatible to Islamic religiosity) were employed to evaluate and operationalize variables of mental health, social support, stress, and religiosity.
    4. Results and Discussion
    According to the descriptive findings, 60.9% of respondents were identified as seemingly suffering from mental disorders (69.9% and 52.6% for university and seminary students, respectively), while 59.9% involved high levels of religiosity (36.7% and 81.8% for university and seminary students, respectively). The results obtained from path analysis using regression coefficients denote the highest general impacts of variables namely; stress (beta coefficient of 0.643), social roles of university/seminary students (-0.261), social support (-0.146), and religiosity (-0.077) on mental health, respectively. As a result, it can be predicted that the highest extent of mental health were observed in respondents who were less stressed, seminary students, received more social support, and more religious. 5. ConclusionAccording to the main hypothesis of the study based on Pearlin’s stress process theory, the occupation of social statuses by university/seminary students and playing the roles related to such statuses could, directly or indirectly (through mediator and moderator variables), result in differences regarding their levels of mental health. The results obtained in the present study which represent the difference between the respondents’ level of mental health and demonstrate a better mental health in seminary students compared to university students confirm the stress process theory; accordingly, when playing the social roles related to their social statuses, individuals (seminary students compared to university students) are primarily exposed to a lesser extent of stressors while having access to different extents of sources to cope with mental pressures (social support, esp. religiosity). In this case, i.e. receiving less stress on one hand and having access to more sources of coping with stress on the other have led to a reduction in seminary students’ vulnerability against mental pressures compared to university students, ultimately enhancing the former group’s extent of mental health.
    Keywords: Mental Health (Disorder), Religiosity, Social Support, Stress, Stress Process Model
  • Gholamreza Malekzadeh Pages 173-212
    1. Introduction
    Since the banking industry of Iran is a relatively competitive market and consistently offers diverse products and services to attract new customers and maintain current customers from all banks, there is no high security for the sale of bank products and services, and since this is the result of the loss of current bank customers, banks have to spend a lot on attracting new customers. Designing new products and services is only part of the way to attract new customers and keep current customers, and innovation in providing services, products, and bank programs is another way of attracting and retaining customers. It is obvious that employees are one of the main pillars of achieving these goals. In other words, attracting and educating innovative staff and finding the features and requirements for innovation is one of the most important issues for managers of the banking industry.The ability of employees to innovate in providing services and improving the quality of services and the quality and novelty of the services provided by the banks affect the attitude of customers towards the level of services superior to the other competitors, and it is evident that the lack of attention to this important point means sharing the market and even the organization's downfall.
    2. Theoretical Framewor
    kEmmons (2000a) defined spiritual intelligence as “the adaptive use of spiritual information to facilitate everyday problem solving and goal attainment.” Spiritual intelligence depends on the mindset of people and its relation to the peripheral world. Spiritual intelligence includes the capacity for deep understanding of existential questions and insights into multiple levels of consciousness. It goes beyond the conventional psychological development and its self-awareness involves awareness of the relationship to the exalted existence of other individuals and all beings (Amram, 2005).On the other hand, individual innovation emphasizes the level of creativity and self-innovation that the organization uses to solve problems, and its key indicators are finding better solutions for doing work, welcoming unpredictable situations and uncertainties in work, examination of innovative methods in the work and experience of innovations that have not been tested and approved (Rajaei Pour et al., 2013). Since organizational characteristics influence the individual innovation of employees, the goal of any organization for success should be to engage everyone in the innovative processes of the organization (Kantor, 1988).Frese and fay (2001) argue that job performance is one of the variables that has received considerable attention in many developed countries. Psychologists consider job performance as a product of human behaviors and believe that motivations and needs affect individuals' performance and, ultimately, economic growth and development. Variables that are related to employee job performance are personal initiative, religious orientation, and organizational social capital.
    3. Method
    Since in this research, the effect of spiritual intelligence on job performance with the mediating role of individual innovation has been investigated and analyzed, this research in terms of the purpose is an applied research and considering that in this research, the questionnaire is used for measuring variables in order to answer the scientific question in the real world, and determining the amount and type of influence between variables it is a survey research. The statistical population of the research is Mehre Eghtesad Bank employees of Khorasan Razavi province.A questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to collect information about the variable of spiritual intelligence, as an independent variable in this research, the questionnaire of Raeese et al. (2014) with four dimensions of general thinking and beliefs, the ability to confront and deal with problems, addressing ethical issues and self-awareness and love and interest, for information gathering about the individual innovation of employees, the individual innovation inventory (Hurt et al., 1977) and for collecting data on the job performance variable, the Patterson job function questionnaire (1997) with three dimensions have been used.
    4. Results and Discussion
    The study of the spiritual effect on the performance of the bank employees shows that spiritual intelligence affects the performance of the bank's employees positively and confirms this hypothesis. In other words, the higher the spiritual intelligence of the staff, the better their job performance.On the other hand, the results of the research show that individual innovation has a positive and significant effect on the job performance of the employees of the said bank; in other words, improving individual innovation can lead to the improved job performance of the bank's employees. Also, spiritual intelligence has a positive and significant effect on the individual innovation of the bank's employees. In other words, as spiritual intelligence increases, their individual innovations also increase.The effects of spiritual intelligence on performance, spiritual intelligence on individual innovation and individual innovation on job performance are significant and the mediating role of the variable of individual innovation is a minor mediation and the hypothesis of mediation of research is confirmed.
    5. Conclusion
    In this study, it has been proved that spiritual intelligence has a positive effect on the performance of employees in the workplace. At the same time, individual innovation of employees affects job performance, and the freedom to act in providing a new and innovative way, and its application, as well as participation in decision making, will increase the motivation of the staff and will lead to more effort and better result. Innovation and innovative environment with organizational flexibility lead employees to innovation which involves a problem-solving process, and the same process often forces an employee to provide a solution to improve work practices. This is a complement to learning and is the result of an individual's desirable performance in the organization. To create a supportive environment for creating a learning cycle in order to improve the performance of employees, management tasks can be considered from a range of views.
    Keywords: Spiritual Intelligence, Individual Innovation, Job Performance
  • Korosh Gholami* Pages 213-235
    Introduction
    Following their graduation and when accepting their professional role, nursing students enter an environment which involves conditions and values that are relatively different compared to the atmosphere at universities while sensing a large gap in this regard. Subsequently, novice nurses cannot become properly adapted to these conditions as a result of the present contradictions between expectations and the reality of such a work place. The present study was conducted in line with explaining the process of accepting the role of nursing as well as its facilitating and preventive factors through the view of nurses.

    Theoretical Framework


    One of the factors that is influential in increasing work efficiency is congruence between an occupation and the individual’s expectations. As a result, job conflict or contradiction is an organizational variable that negatively affects the individual’s job performance. A number of different factors result in conflicts such as individual or characteristic issues, system failure, organizational relations, problems related to the organizational structure, lack of resources, facilities and weak management. The present study was conducted using the qualitative method, the grounded theory, and the lived experience approach along with the views of 15 nurses obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews. There are various definitions and interpretations regarding this theory which can simultaneously be regarded as a method. Considered as the founders of this theory, Glaser and Strauss believe that this is a constant comparative analysis method based upon the idea of the possibility of the formation of a theory of social sciences according to systematic data, derived from the social context, and an orderly and logical means of data collection and analysis so as to obtain a theoretical framework.
    Method
    The qualitative method allows researchers to take a close look at the data through which they are able to obtain the analytical and conceptual aspects. The total population of the study included 122 nurses (113 official and contractual nurses and 9 interns) currently working at Imam Khomeini hospital in Khalkhal, Iran, with a minimum of 1-year working experience. The number of subjects in qualitative studies cannot be predicted at the beginning. The sample population is indicated using the collected data and its analysis; and sampling is continued until data reaches saturation. Subsequently, 15 nurses at this hospital were interviewed based on data saturation. In this study, the participants were initially selected purposefully and then chosen based on constant comparative analysis of data, emergence of conceptual classes during data analysis, and in accordance with the requirements of the study in a theoretical manner. The process of selecting the participants continued until conceptual and theoretical saturation was reached. After each interview was conducted, the researcher would write down the data and compare it to the previous interview. Then, similar data was integrated and placed in a group; for each class, a title was selected which was representative of the codes placed within that class. This process was repeated in subsequent interviews where the appeared codes at each interview were compared and contrasted with the previous interview code; in case of finding similarities or disparities, they would be placed in previously-formed classes or a new class, respectively.
    Findings
    The analysis of interviews conducted with the participants on the experiences of nurses regarding the process of accepting the nursing role resulted in the extraction of four stages including: Motivation, Obstruction, Rethinking and Role Correction, and Adaptation.

    Discussion and Conclusion
    Accepting the nursing role is a process which involves shifting from a balanced state, passing through an unstable state and gaining a new balanced state, in which at least two aspects (the nurse and the atmosphere) are taken into account for novice nurses. Role acceptance is a process-oriented phenomenon which leads to the engagement of individuals as a response to change. Furthermore, as a stressful experience and a period of stress, doubt, fear, and conflicts and a process formed in response to change, this process entails a complex set of responses to the new role which involves an invisible, hidden, difficult, challenging, hard, stressful, and complicated nature through a period of instability, vulnerability, and inevitability. This process includes aspects such as change, difference, and engagement. Some would go through such a period fast, while others would take slower steps by tolerating various problems and shortcomings. In this period, nurses are engaged in restoring their roles and changing their characteristic structures. In addition to identifying the features of the role acceptance process, this analysis also revealed motivation, obstruction, rethinking and role correction, and adaptation as well as facilitating factors and barriers against successful shifts. During the process of role acceptance, nurses may suffer from numerous undesirable emotions, particularly a sense of insecurity, instability, and obstruction due to their lack of sufficient practical skills, inconsistency between the hospital’s environment and nurses’ expectations, and new requirements which are consequences of the status quo; nurses would then be involved with role correction by reforming and rethinking their roles and performances, mitigating the present instability and adapting to their work place. Accordingly, they would become a part of treatment process, playing their clinical roles, accepting hospital and work place norms, and cooperating with medical teams. Consequently, an understanding of the features of this process results in the elevation of the position, significance, and application of this notion within the nursing profession, particularly for novice nurses; it could also be employed as a tool to conduct more examinations and research as well as expanding the body of knowledge revolving around this profession.
    Keywords: Accepting the Nursing Role, Qualitative Study, Facilitating Factors, Preventing Factors
  • Seyed Reza Eslami* Pages 237-267
    Introduction
    As a source of cognition, identity is an important concept within human societies. Identity is a mental requirement of humans and a prerequisite to any type of collective life. According to Giddens, modern social entities profoundly influence the identities of people, and nobody is of a single, unique identity. This means that identity flexibility has significantly grown within the modern framework which denotes the emergence of novel platforms for identity genesis. Today, the phenomenon of globalization influences various aspects of cultural life such as gender attitude of knowledge, official education, identity, and lifestyle. In the last decade, without lifestyle and social identity, i.e. without specific frameworks that reveal similarities and differences, people in a society would have been incapable of making significant and sustainable connections among one another. Unquestionably, the expansion of modern lifestyles and its confrontation with conventional lifestyles in Iran have resulted in a set of changes occurring within the cultural identity.

    Theoretical Framework

    As a pioneer to Richard Jenkins, Mead regards the “subjective I” or individual identity as different from the “objective I” or social identity; both of these “I”s are formed through social experiences and activities. The “subjective I” represents the sensitivity of physique to the image of others’ opinions while the “objective I” is an organized set of hypocritical comments by others. According to Giddens, personal identity becomes more increasingly significant in modern societies in which all humans are to answer important questions regarding their identities and inevitably make important decisions. He believes that given the process of modernization and the expansion of social environment through mass media, the possibility of identification within the restricted and determined social framework is on the decline. According to Bourdieu, class constitutes volume and different types of capitals while habitus is the medium through which people within each class are connected to one another; lifestyles are formed based on such common habitus. He believes that various tastes across classes regarding how to use leisure, body, clothing, and speech among many other things indicate features of identity based on gender (feminine or masculine), social class (lower class, upper class) and other individual and social attributions.

    Method

    Given the purpose and nature of the study, the meta-analysis method was used. The present paper is an applied inquiry and a quantitative study, given the employment of meta-analysis method as well as the nature of data. The population of the study included domestic studies conducted on the relation between lifestyles and social identity, published in domestic scientific and research journals. Among the numerous existing studies, 20 were selected which contained the criteria for examination in the present study. Checklists used to select suitable papers with the present meta-analysis and extraction of proper information included the name of authors, year of implementation, sample population, sampling method, statistics, and level of significance. The results of studies taken into account in this examination were of the necessary conditions, methodologically. Data from each study was codified and then inserted into CMA2 software, followed by the calculation of effect size and meta-analysis hypotheses. 
    Results and Discussion
    According to the results obtained from the test (Q=905/654, P<0.01), the null hypothesis stating homogeneity between the conducted studies was rejected with a 99% confidence level while the hypothesis on the heterogeneity of studies was confirmed. In addition, the squared index, “I” supports the fact that nearly 97% of dispersions are real, originating from the entire studies and related to heterogeneity between them. Consequently, their integration with the fixed effects model can be justified and random effects model should be used so as to integrate the results. Mean effect size of lifestyle (random mixed effects) on social identity in the case of the present study is 0.420. Since the estimated size is within the confidence range, the impact of lifestyle on social identity is confirmed. According to the results of Egger's linear regression test, cross-section and the 95% confidence distance are 2.189 and 0.912, respectively. Considering the p-value as a single 0.079 domain and a double 0.136 domain, then the null hypothesis expressing the symmetry of funnel chart and absence of bias in dispersion is confirmed.
    Conclusion
    According to heterogeneity analyses of the study, it was discovered that there are moderating variables that affect the relation between variables including lifestyle and social identity. Heterogeneity among the effect sizes across the initial studies could be caused by the fact that operational definitions and evaluation methods or the representation of dependent and independent variables are vastly different in various studies, while their results could also be different. On the other hand, it is possible that studies involve different designs or even be different in terms of methodology. As a result, the role of gender is examined as the mediator or moderating variable. The results showed that the effect size in random model is higher for men compared to women (0.567 vs. 0.486). This finding represents the effect of gender on the observed effect size. Perhaps, this difference denotes the fact that men have accepted and experienced the modern lifestyle more than women, which means that the new lifestyle is substantially more established for men compared to women; in other words, lifestyle has been generalized for men to the extent that it has surpassed the present distinctions across social identity levels. Regarding women, however, since the distinctions in their social identity influences their choice of lifestyle, it can be observed that the less important their social identity, the more they are inclined towards a new lifestyle. Subsequently, the social identity of women is weakened with the prevalence and expansion of novel lifestyles among them.
    Keywords: Meta-analysis, Lifestyle, Social Identity, Effect SizeReferences
  • Susan Bastani Pages 269-303
    1. Introduction
    The New Age spiritualities and their popularity in Iran have drawn the attention of many scholars during the past few years. From the mid-1990s, some signs of spiritual phenomena appeared in Iran whose roots might be traced to the movements of the second half of the twentieth century, especially in Western industrial societies, which were called the "New Age spirituality". This wave spread rapidly in Iran, several books were published in Persian, several conferences were organized, and the communities emerged. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, the present paper is interested in the lifestyle of people in Tehran who participate in the communities of New Age spiritualties, seeking a way of living in which they will be able to combine spiritual practices with prosperity, success, and perfection. We examine the social class, cultural status and activities, and the lifestyle of the members of two communities, one based on a psychological approach and the other one mystical. The aim of this paper is to analyze how social origin and lifestyle of members weigh in motivation for joining these communities.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    A key feature of "New Age spiritualties" is a syncretic approach to the beliefs and practices from a range of resources, such as traditional religions, mysticism, esotericism, metaphysics, oriental disciplines and practices, holistic medicine and alternative medicine, psychotherapy and parapsychology, self-help and motivational psychology, techniques of "personal development", and even quantum physics ( Drury, 2004; Flere & Kirbis, 2009; Heelas, 1996; Heelas & Woodhead, 2005; Hérvieu-Leger, 1993, 2001; Houtman & Aupers, 2007 Rindfleish, 2005 ).Various studies have discussed the characteristics of the members of the communities of New Age from different aspects of life in different societies (Flere & Kirbis, 2009; Hanegraaff, 2005; Heelas, 1996; Laliberté, 2009; Rindfleish, 2005; Sutcliffe, 2006). Some of these studies have also pointed to the association between increasing the consumerism and tendency toward different forms of the New Age spiritualties. In the domain of sociology of consumption and lifestyle, we lean toward Pierre Bourdieu’s theory for studying social reproduction among the middle class in Iran and the ways in which cultural capital is developed, as a factor for achieving social distinction (Bourdieu, 1985).
    3. Methodology
    This analysis is based on the study of two women communities of New Age spiritualties in Tehran: one with a psychological approach (Hasty , specialized in the field of “personal development”) and the other one with a mystical approach (interpretation of the poems of Rumi and the verses of Quran). We have applied both qualitative and quantitative methods such as an ethnographic approach with participant observation, document analysis, interview and questionnaire for gathering data.
    4. Results and Discussion
    The demographic analysis of the respondents shows a homogeneity in age, social origin, level of education and social status within the population of each community and a similarity between the two communities. According to our data, these women who belong mostly to the upper middle class of the Iranian society, can be characterized by the consumerist lifestyle.The majority of members of these communities attempt to convert their economic capital to the cultural capital in different domains. For example, they endeavor to rise their qualification in different educational ways (academic or nonacademic). They read books and magazines very often, participate in training classes and workshops and seek the symbolic value of the cultural productions in different fields. In addition to these cultural consumptions, they try to have something to say and offer to intellectual domains. They try to shape their special lifestyle by distinguishing themselves from others, especially the lower classes. Thus, joining the communities of New Age spiritualties is another manner of picking up whatever they need in their everyday life.After studying different aspects of lifestyle of the members of these communities, we noted that most of them try to accumulate different forms of cultural capital and develop strategies for converting parts of their economic capital to cultural capital. On the other hand, it seems that the consumptive behavior of members of these communities is also implemented in cultural, relational or spiritual fields.
    5. Conclusion
    Based on the results, it is possible to argue that beside all the functions of New Age spiritualties communities in Iran, members’ tendency toward these communities is an attempt to develop their cultural capital and to distinguish themselves from others in their social networks. These new spiritualties can therefore be analyzed as a kind of cultural consumption, associated with other choices of these individuals related to their lifestyle. From this perspective, tendencies toward these communities, among the middle class in Tehran, at least in a certain period, can be considered as a distinctive way to develop cultural capital and to acquire legitimacy in the society.
    Keywords: New Age Spiritualties, Cultural Capital, Lifestyle, Consumption, Distinction
  • Zahra Tabibi* Pages 305-343
    1. Introduction
    Femininity refers to an identity imposing a set of rules on females. When children become aware of their sexual identity as a male or female, they need to acquire the requisites of this role in order to complete their identity. In other words, they figure out that they should learn about the definitions and parameters of femininity and masculinity to accomplish their gender role.These definitions affect the way people function in different situations of life. Therefore, addressing women's roles in the family and society is a way of understanding the definition of femininity, since femininity is an image that is realized in individuals' roles. It is important to note that the literature has given little attention to this concept from the children's perspective.The patterns of male and female roles are not universal; in this regard, femininity and masculinity vary according to each culture. As such, the conceptualization of feminine and masculine concepts from a child's perspective would facilitate the comprehension of social structures and bring about the possibility of modifying these structures. The adoption of a qualitative and phenomenological approach is also a facilitative way toward obtaining a richer understanding of the concept of femininity. In the literature, little attention has been given to individuals' thoughts, feelings, and knowledge about belonging to a particular gender group or femininity and masculinity.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    Gender is a concept describing the cultural meanings assigned to each of the social classes of males and females. When individuals integrate these cultural meanings into their mental state, gender becomes part of their identity. Individuals perceive their gender identity based on the cultural meanings of femininity and masculinity. Thereafter, they think and act in accordance with their given gender role. These cultural meanings of gender show themselves as gender schemas. Gender schemas provide a framework to define gender for a person and to act accordingly. Sandra Bem believes that the child has an active role in the development of the concept of gender. The child comes to mental associations based on the gender through social interactions.According to different studies conducted in various cultures, femininity can be primarily defined at the public and private domains. This concept is largely affected by the sociological perspective regarding the issue of women and capitalist system. The public domain related to femininity determines the social roles, such as occupation and education, while the private domain considers the family and household environment rather than social activities.
    3. Method
    This study was conducted on 83 children (i.e., 43 females and 40 males) within the age range of 3-6 selected from 12 kindergartens of Mashhad, Iran, using a qualitative approach and an interpretive phenomenological analysis. Phenomenological investigation reveals the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals with regard to a concept or phenomenon and emphasizes the participants' shared experience of that phenomenon.Phenomenology is not only a description, but also an interpretative process in which the researcher interprets the meaning of lived experiences. The study population was selected using purposive sampling method, combining maximum variation and homogeneous sampling techniques. The main research instrument was a semi-structured interview entailing painting, ready-made images, games, and e-book fitting the children's knowledge, competence, interest, and the place they live in. The data were analyzed using the method put forward by Dickelman et al. (as cited in Abedi, 2010).
    4. Results and Discussion
    In the present study, the woman was described as someone who functions at home and cooks for the family; she deals with housework, such as cleaning, dishwashing, vacuum cleaning, and doing the laundry, in addition to caring for, feeding, and playing with children. She pays attention to the needs of others and, if someone gets sick, she takes care of him/her. For this woman, children and home affairs are always important. In the eyes of the children, the social status of the women is described as follows: when the woman leaves the house for work, she usually goes to school and teaches or works as a doctor or a nurse at a hospital. The children assume that females cannot perform many jobs such as firefighting, butchery, presidential roles, managing, police service, and being a pilot. Furthermore, girls' games, the kind of the toys they chose to play with (e.g., dolls, kitchen utensils, and cosmetics), the kind of the games they opted for (e.g., playing a grown up to take the role of a mother with who is cooking and caring for other or playing the role of a teacher or a doctor), and their wishes to be teachers, mothers, or nurses in the future, are all in line with the activities defined as feminine in adulthood.Children express reasons for their answers. They connect specific attributes to each gender by observing the environment, receiving environmental messages, and conforming to the femininity recommended at home, kindergarten, and community. Some of the attributes assigned to females included caregiving, cowardice, and disability in financial, physical, cognitive, and functional fields. This caregiving was especially observed at home and in relation to people in need of attention and care.In the same vein, regarding the workplace, the types of occupation attributed to women (e.g., teacher, nurse, and doctor) can be considered as activities entailing caring for children and people who are injured and in need of help. In the eyes of children, fear and disability of women are associated with the out-of-home tasks and the activities that require high courage, intelligence, strength, money, and safety. Although women are capable of caring for others, they fail to adequately protect themselves and their surrounding environment and cannot control and manage situations.
    5. Conclusion
    The feminine image in the current culture depicts the female as a caring entity in the private sphere and an incapable being in the public domain. This image of female is one that has been challenged by biological, psychological, sociological, political, philosophical, and especially feminist perspectives from the past to the present with little if any changes. The scientists have tried to give an explanation for this image. The image ultimately constitutes the patterns of communication between the two genders.
    Keywords: Femininity, Child, Qualitative Research, Private, Public Realm