فهرست مطالب

Applied Biotechnology Reports - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Sadegh Zarei, Javad Zavar Reza *, Hossein Zarei Jaliani, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh, Saman Sargazi Pages 45-49
    Introduction
    Resistance to selective small-molecule inhibitors has been a substantial factor for limiting the efficacy of ovarian cancer. Recent studies have revealed that proteasome inhibitors induce acquired drug resistance. The possible mechanisms underlying the resistance to carfilzomib (CFZ), a recently developed inhibitor of proteasome, has not been well studied. This experimental study has aimed to determine if CFZ induces drug resistance in A2780 ovarian cancer cells through p53- and caspase-3 dependent pathways.
    Materials and Methods
    The A2780CFZ cells were generated by continuous culturing of A2780S cells in the presence of CFZ for 4 months. The MTT cytotoxic assay was applied to compare the survival rates in A2780CFZ and A2780S cells. Also, the relative expression of p53 and caspase-3 genes were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The nonparametric ANOVA and Friedman tests were used for data analysis.
    Results
    A significant difference was observed between the viability of resistant- and sensitive-A2780 cells exposed to various concentrations of CFZ, indicating that A2780S cells have become resistant to this drug under long-term culture. Compared with A2780CFZ cells, the mRNA levels of p53 gene in A2780S cells were significantly increased after 12 (P = 0.008), and 24 hours (P = 0.034) . Also, no significant differences were observed regarding caspase-3 mRNA levels between both cell lines (P > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    The findings of this study suggest that regulation of p53 gene expression in A2780CFZ cells might be the possible primary mechanism for gaining resistance against CFZ, but this might be independent of caspase cascades activation. Further studies are required to find strategies for overcoming CFZ resistance.
    Keywords: Drug resistance, Proteasome Inhibitors, Carfilzomib, Ovarian Cancer
  • Ilyas Chikhi *, Fayçal Dergal, Djazia Meryem Gana, Mohammed El Amine Dib, Hanane Chaker Pages 50-54
    Introduction
    Solenostemma oleifolium is a species that grows in extremely dry conditions. It is widespread at the foot of cliffs and in rocky areas. It is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of diabetes, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, stomach pain, urinary tract infections and febrifuge. As a part of this research program on natural compounds with antioxidant properties, the main objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of essential oil of S. oleifolium.
    Material and Methods
    In this study, the aerial parts of the plant were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The isolated essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric-reducing power (FRAP).
    Results
    The essential oil of S. oleifolium was principally characterized by oxygenated monoterpenes (94.3%) represented by linalool (59.0%), α-terpineol (14.5%) and geraniol (12.4%), followed by small amounts of nerol (3.7%) and piperitone (3.6%). The results of the antioxidant activity of essential oil showed an interesting propriety in the quenching of DPPH radical, with an IC50 of 3.3 g/L. On the other hand, essential oil showed the presence of the reductive effect, which increased with an increase in concentration.
    Conclusions
    The results of this research showed that the S. oleifolium essential oil presented an interesting antioxidant property. Actually, it could be proposed as a new potential source of natural additives for the food or pharmaceutical industries.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Antioxidant activity, Solenostemma Oleifolium, DPPH, FRAP
  • Batool Hashemibeni, Malek Masoud Ansar, Azadeh Kabiri, Maryam Goharian, Parto Nasiri, Maryam Aliakbari, Masoud Ghorbani * Pages 55-59
    Introduction
    Damages to cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of orthopedist in medicine as the healing of defects in the tissue has a very slow process and is extremely difficult. Tissue engineering (using scaffold), cells and growth factors can be used as alternatives to improve healing. Alginate is an ideal scaffold which has been also approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The transforming growth factor β3 (TGF β3) increases the viability of the chondrocytes and secretion of extra cellular matrix. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TGF β3 in the viability and production of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and aggrecan by rib chondrocytes.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental study, isolated costal chondrocytes were encapsulated in alginate and cultured for 3 weeks. Then, samples were divided into 2 groups: TGF-β3 treated and control groups. Finally, the viability of chondrocytes and production of GAG and aggrecan in both groups were evaluated by MTT, GAG and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
    Results
    By 14 days, the results of the MTT showed that viability had significantly increased in the control group in compared to the TGF-β3 treated group. This is while by 21 days, the TGF-β3 treated group the viability had increased After 14 and 21 days, the GAG production in the TGF-β3 treated group had significantly increased in compared to the control group. The ELISA technique revealed that the production of aggrecan significantly increased in the TGF-β3 treated group at 14 days.
    Conclusions
    Results indicate that TGF-β3 can increase the growth of costal cartilage and the production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Accordingly, TGF-β3 is necessary for the regeneration of cartilage.
    Keywords: TGF-β3, Costal Cartilage, Chondrocyte
  • Mohammad Dehghani, Navid Nasirizadeh *, Mohammad Esmaeel Yazdanshenas Pages 60-68
    Introduction
    BIn the present study, a selective electrochemical sensor was developed to detect metronidazole (MTZ) through the modification of a screen-printed carbon electrode. Also, molecularly imprinted polyaniline (PANI) film layer/gold nanowire /reduced graphene oxide (GNW/rGO) was used to facilitate the charge transfer process and increase the specific surface area of the sensor.
    Materials and Methods
    The molecularly imprinted PANI electropolymerization process and MTZ accumulation on the electrode were optimized using the response surface method. The modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).
    Results
    The performance of the proposed electrochemical sensor was analyzed, and it proved to have a linear range of 0.03–980.0 nmolL-1 and a detection limit of 0.015 nmolL-1. The selectivity tests of the nanosensor showed its higher specificity for MTZ, as compared to other similar molecules. Furthermore, the developed sensor was successfully applied to detect MTZ in tablets and urine samples with a good recovery percentage.
    Conclusions
    In comparison with other methods of MTZ detection, the proposed MIP-based electrochemical sensor offers a wider linear response and a lower detection limit.
    Keywords: Electrochemical sensor, Metronidazole, Molecularly Imprinting, Gold Nanowire
  • Kamaraj Murugesan *, Yabsera Tesfaye, Afrah Mahmmud, Esetna Tsegaye, Tigist Getachew, Yikerta Argaw Pages 69-72
    Introduction
    Fruit waste mediated biosurfactant (BS) embraces the considerable attention in this green chemistry era to provide an environment benign application. In this study, the impact of a shorter fermentation on the BS production was studied by employing selected fruit peels as a cheaper substrate.
    Materials and Methods
    The avocado, banana, lemon and pineapple fruit peel wastes were collected and used for fermentation along with water and molasses. The setup was treated separately with and without yeast in order to study its effects in fermentation.
    Results
    The effect of yeast as a catalyst in a shorter fermentation period has been found to be negative. The emulsification index (E24) values indicated that the fermented solutions of banana and lemon have better emulsification activity compared to the other fruit waste fermented solutions produced in this study. Foam formation, color removal, and seed germination values suggested that the BS production was very minimum and alcohol was found to be dominant in all the fermented solutions.
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that the fermentation periods of 30 days are not sufficient to produce the BS in higher quality and quantities by using fruit peels. This is while the fruit peels used in this study are capable to produce and can be used as renewable, eco-friendly, and economic substrates for producing BS in an appropriate fermentation period. Still, further studies are needed to elucidate the complete chemical reaction and the components involved in the experimental setup tested in this study.
    Keywords: Biosurfactant, Fruit Waste, Fermentation, Emulsification, Efficiency
  • Cyrus Jalili, Shiva Roshankhah, Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor * Pages 73-78
    Introduction
    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honey bee secretion with numerous medicinal properties and antioxidant activities. Morphine is a major risk factor in the development of functional disorders in several organ systems. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of RJ against morphine-induced damage to the prefrontal cortex of rats.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups: sham group, morphine group, RJ groups (100, and 200 mg/kg), and morphine + RJ groups. Treatments were administered intraperitoneally and orally for 20 days on a daily basis. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) method was applied to determine the total antioxidant capacity. The number of neurons and, dendritic spines were investigated by Golgi technique, and Griess technique was employed to determine the serum nitrite oxide level.
    Results
    Morphine administration significantly increased the nitrite oxide level and total antioxidant capacity, and reduced neuronal dendritic spines and neurons compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). In all RJ and Morphine + RJ groups, the number of neurons and neuronal dendritic spines were elevated significantly, while nitrite oxide level and total antioxidant capacity were reduced compared to the morphine group (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    RJ administration protected animals against oxidative stress and nitrite oxide. It also improves some prefrontal cortex parameters including number of neurons and dendritic spines because of the morphine.
    Keywords: Royal Jelly, Prefrontal Cortex, Morphine
  • Ameneh Jafari *, Bemanali Jalali Khanabadi, Naser Nejadi, Behrouz Farhadihosseinabadi Pages 79-82
    Introduction
    The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of lipids to Cu-induced peroxidation in diluted plasma and its relation with plasma lipids and lipoproteins in a group of healthy men.
    Materials and Methods
    In 100 healthy men volunteers (age range 20-55 years with a mean of 36.8±10.3 years), fasting plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)], total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were assayed. The Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation was evaluated. Lipid oxidation was estimated by monitoring the change of conjugated dienes in the diluted plasma following the addition of Cu2+. The kinetic curves of the accumulation of lipid peroxide products were prepared, and a number of quantitative parameters including lag time, time of maximal oxidation rate (T-max), and maximal accumulation of absorbing products (OD-max) were evaluated.
    Results
    The TG concentrations were positively correlated with lag time and T-max (r=0.33, P < 0.01 and r=0.24, P < 0.05) respectively. Also, TC and LDL-C were positively correlated with OD-max (r=0.28, P < 0.01 and r=0.26, P < 0.05 respectively), and HDL-C was negatively correlated (r=-0.23, P < 0.05) with T-max. No significant correlation was observed between other variables and lipid oxidizability parameters.
    Conclusions
    Results of this research indicate that TG increased the resistance of LDL and VLDL against initiation of lipid oxidation. In addition, HDL-C induced the susceptibility of lipid oxidizability.
    Keywords: Diluted Plasma, copper, Lipid Oxidizability, Healthy men