فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:5, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Mahdi Raeesi, Narges Eskandari, Roozbahani, Tahoora Shomali * Pages 410-418
    Objective
    Biebersteinia multifida is one of the native plants of Iran and its root is used in folk medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the gastro-protective effect of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant's roots against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.
    Materials and Methods
    The following five groups of seven rats were included in this study: control (C), gastric ulcer (GU), control omeprazole (CO) and two treatment groups (the latter 3 groups were rats with gastric ulcer that orally received omeprazole, 20 mg/kg, or the root extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg (BM 150and BM 300, respectively) 1 hour before ulcer induction). One hour after ulcer induction, blood sampling was performed and after sacrificing animals, the stomachs were immediately removed. Gastric mucosal injury was studied grossly to determine the number and area of gastric ulcers. The level of nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in gastric mucosa as well as serum TNF-α were determined.
    Results
    In GU group, severe mucosal injuries were observed (pThe lesions in CO and treatment groups were much milder than GU group by regarding ulcer area and number (p  In treated (BM 150 and BM 300) groups, the gastric mucosal TAC and NO level were significantly higher than GU group (p
    Conclusion
    B. multifida possesses gastro-protective effects against ethanol-induced ulcer model; this effect is at least partly related to plant’s antioxidant and NO production accelerating properties.
    Keywords: Biebersteinia multifida, Peptic ulcer, Rat, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory
  • Hossein Ranjbar *, Akram Ashrafizaveh Pages 419-427
    Objective
    This systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus) on sexual dysfunction and its subscales (dimensions) among men and women.
    Material and Methods
    PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, as well as Scientific Information Database (www.SID.ir) and Magiran (as Persian databases) were searched without any time and language restrictions. Statistical pooling was done using the random effects model.
    Results
    A total of 5 studies comprising 173 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The analysis showed a statistically significant positive effect of saffron on sexual dysfunction (Std diff in means=0.811; 95% CI, 0.356–1.265) and its subscales (Std diff in means=0.493; 95% CI, 0.261–0.724). Heterogeneity indexes such as Cochran Q index and  indicated a heterogeneity among the included studies (Q=9:981, df:4, (p=0.041),I2=59.92%). There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies.
    Conclusion
    In general, saffron was proven effective in improving sexual dysfunction and its subscales among participants; this effect was different on different dimensions of sexual dysfunction. Further studies are required to extend these initial findings.
    Keywords: Saffron, Crocus sativus, Sexual, Sexual dysfunction
  • Amir Hooshang Mohammad Pour, Mostafa Dastani, Roshanak Salari, Sohrab Radbin, Soghra Mehri, Maryam Ghorbani, Asieh Karimani, Masoumeh Salari * Pages 428-435
    Objective
    Inflammation along with oxidative stress plays an important role in the development, progression, instability and rupture of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Several studies introduced curcumin (diferuloylmethane) as a wonderful chemical in Curcuma longa (turmeric) with appropriate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The effect of curcumin on inflammatory biomarkers was assessed in several clinical trials. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of curcumin on three pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with unstable angina.
    Materials and Methods
    Forty patients with unstable angina who met the inclusion criteria, participated in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in the treatment group received nanocurcumin 80 mg per day for 5 days and the control group received placebo 80 mg per day for five days. Blood samples were obtained before the administration, and also 1, 2 and 4 days after taking the treatment. Serum concentrations of Myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) biomarkers were measured by ELISA.
    Results
    There was no significant difference in concentration of these biomarkers before the administration and 1, 2 and 4 days after the start of the trial, between the two groups; however, the concentration of IL-18 on the first day significantly varied between the groups.
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of this study, administration of nanocurcumin capsules at the dose of 80 mg per day for 5 days, did not significantly decrease inflammatory biomarkers in patients with unstable angina.
    Keywords: Curcumin, Interlukein-18, Myeloperoxidase, Matrix metalloproteinase-9, Unstable angina
  • Hajieh Shahbazian, Reza Amani, Foroogh Namjooyan, Bahman Cheraghian, Seyed Mhmoud Latifi, Sara Bahrainian, Ataallah Ghadiri, Armaghan Moravej * Pages 436-445
    Objective
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common health problems worldwide. Studies have shown that saffron and its derivatives may have therapeutic potentials in T2DM through reducing plasma glucose. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of saffron extract on serum anti-inflammatory and antioxidant variables in T2DM patients.
    Materials and Methods
    This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on 64 T2DM patients. Participants received either 15 mg of saffron or placebo capsules (two pills per day) for 3 months Anthropometric indices, homocysteine, serum anti-inflammatory and antioxidant variables and dietary intake were assessed pre- and post-intervention.
    Results
    After 3 months of treatment, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) increased significantly in both group (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA),highsensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin 10(IL-10) after the treatment period (p>0.05). Homocysteine decteased significantly in control group (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Our results showed no improvement in homocystein levels, antioxidant status and inflammatory biomarkers in T2DM patients after treatment with saffron.
    Keywords: Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Saffron, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Biomarkers
  • Milad Iranshahi, Faegheh Farhadi, Babak Paknejad, Parvin Zareian, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Masoumeh Karami, Seyed Reza Abtahi * Pages 446-453
    Objective
    The present study was conducted to find cytotoxic compounds from oleo-gum-resin of Ferula assa-foetida (asafoetida).
    Materials and Methods
    A dichloromethane extract of asafoetida was subjected to different chromatography analyses (including column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) to isolate its bioactive sesquiterpene coumarins. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated through 1H-NMR spectra interpretation and comparison with those reported in the literature. To measure the cytotoxic activity of pure compounds, a non-fluorescent substrate called resazurin (alamarBlue®)was used in this study. Human breast and prostate cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and PC-3, respectively) and a normal human embryonic stem cell (NIH) were treated with different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL) of pure compounds.
    Results
    In this study, 10 sesquiterpene coumarins were isolated from oleo-gum-resin of F. assa-foetida and cytotoxic activity of 6 compounds was tested against MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines and NIH cells. Badrakemin acetate (7), ferukrinone (8) and deacetyl kellerin (10) were found for the first time in the oleo-gum-resin of F. assa-foetida. Gummosin (4) showed moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 30 and 32.1 µg/mL against PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. None of the isolated compounds showed toxicity against NIH as a normal human cell line.
    Conclusion
    The preferential cytotoxic activity of gummosin against cancer cell lines is reported for the first time in this study.
    Keywords: Ferula assa-foetida, Apiaceae, Gummosin, Cytotoxicity, MCF-7, PC-3
  • Reyhaneh Sotoudeh, Mousa, Al, Reza Hajzadeh *, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Azita Aghaee Pages 454-464
    Objective
    Effects of Commiphora mukul and Commiphora myrrha ethanolic extracts and Terminalia chebula hydro-ethanolic extract combination were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
    Materials and Methods
    Male Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly assigned into: control; diabetic; diabetic+metformin (300 mg/kg); diabetic+dose 1 of herbal combination (438 mg/kg of C. mukul+214 mg/kg of C. myrrha+857 mg/kg of T. chebula); diabetic+dose 2 (642 mg/kg of C. mukul+214 mg/kg of C. myrrha+642 mg/kg of T. chebula); and diabetic+dose 3 (857 mg/kg of C. mukul+438 mg/kg of C. myrrha+1714 mg/kg t of T. chebula). All treatments were given orally by gavage. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). At the end of study (day 28), blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile; as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiol content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined.
    Results
    In diabetic rats, plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and LDL-C, as well as hepatic MDA levels were elevated but plasma HDL-C and insulin, and hepatic thiol content and SOD and CAT activities were reduced compared to control (p<0.01-p<0.001). In diabetic+dose 3, plasma TC, TG, and LDL-C and hepatic MDA level decreased (p<0.001), while plasma HDL-C and insulin, and hepatic thiol content, and SOD and CAT activities increased compared to diabetic (p<0.01-p<0.001). Treatment with dose 1 and 2 improved such abnormalities in diabetic rats except for insulin level (p<0.05-p<0.001). The herbal combination effects were comparable to those of metformin. Metformin did not significantly change serum insulin and HDL-C levels, and hepatic SOD activity; however, serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, as well as hepatic MDA levels, thiol content and CAT activity were improved compared to diabetic (p<0.05-p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    These results indicate that this herbal combination acts as an anti-diabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent and it may be suggested as a beneficial remedy for diabetic patients.
    Keywords: Anti-diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Antioxidant, Commiphora mukul, Commiphora myrrha, Terminalia chebula
  • Mohabbat Ahmadi, Mahnaz Taherianfard *, Tahora Shomali Pages 465-473
    Objective
    Zataria multiflora (ZM) is a plant with ethnopharmacological value which was recently tested to reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ZM essential oil on spatial cognitive and noncognitive behavior, as well as hippocampal tau protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) concentrations in rats with AD.
    Materials and Methods
    Thirty-five adult male Sprague Dawley rats (300±30 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (intact rats); sham (received intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of normal saline); AD control (rats with AD that did not receive any treatment); vehicle control (rats with AD that orally received tween-80, 5% (ZM essential oil vehicle) for 20 days) and experimental (rats with AD that orally received ZM essential oil 100 µl/kg/day for 20 days). AD was induced by bidirectional microinjection of β amyloid 1-42 (10 µg/2µl). Tau protein and TNFα concentrations were measured by ELISA methods. Spatial cognitive and noncognitive behavior were determined by Morris water maze (MWM) test.
    Results
    ZM essential oil significantly improved latency time, time spent in the target quarter and cognitive behavior of rats with AD compared to control and sham groups (p<0.05). Hippocampal tau protein and TNFα concentrations were significantly higher in both AD control and vehicle groups compared to control and sham groups respectively (p
    Conclusion
    ZM essential oil improves spatial learning and memory of rats with AD as assessed by MWM test. These effects are associated with decreased concentrations of hippocampal tau protein and TNFα.
    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Zataria multiflora, Morris Water Maze, Tau protein, TNFα
  • Maulana Alkandahri, Afiat Berbudi *, Novi Vicahyani Utami, Anas Subarnas Pages 474-481
    Objective
    One of the biggest health problems in the world, which occurs in more than 90 countries, is the spread of malaria. Cep-cepan leaves (Castanopsis  costata), was empirically used as an antimalarial herb in North Sumatra. Since its use has not been scientifically studied, we investigated the antimalarial activity of extract and fractions of C. costata against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) in a mouse model.
    Materials and Methods
    This experimental study was conducted using 32 male Balb/C mice. PbA inoculation was performed intraperitoneally with 106 parasites/mouse. Immediately after parasitemia reach >2% (day 0), the mice were treated orally with daily artesunate (36.4 mg/kg/day) (positive control), ethanolic extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day), and the fractions of water, ethyl acetate and n-hexane (108 mg/kg/day each) for 5 consecutive days (from day 0 to 4). Parasitemia inhibition was observed to determine the antimalarial activity of each type of C. costata extract and fractions.
    Results
    The administration of C. costata leaves ethanolic extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the growth of PbA in Balb/C mice (42.66%, 66.2 1% and 80.99 % inhibition, respectively) (p<0.05). Similarly, all C. costata fractions also produced antimalarial activity against PbA with administration of the ethyl acetate fraction presenting the highest activity (79.85 % inhibition).
    Conclusion
    The C. costata leaves showed antimalarial activity against PbA. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this effect and the active compounds involved. Our current study revealed that C.costata could be a potential candidate to be used as a new antimalarial drug.
    Keywords: Malaria, Castanopsis costata, Antimalarial drugs, Plasmodium berghei
  • Zahra Zaherijamil, Narjes Rezaei, Mohammad Hashemnia, Shirin Moradkhani, Massoud Saidijam, Iraj Khodadadi, Heidar Tavilani *, Ebrahim Abbasi Pages 482-490
    Objective
    The effects of kiwifruit on the histology and cell size of adipose tissue in hyperlipidemic models have not yet been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of kiwifruit on the adipose tissue cell size and activity as well as the gene expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in high-fat diet (HFD) fed hamsters.
    Materials and Methods
    Forty-two male Syrian hamsters were divided into six groups. Control normal (CN) hamsters received normal diet, control HFD (CHF) were fed with a HFD plus a normal diet (15% butter fat + 0.05% cholesterol + a normal diet). Two groups were fed with normal diet including kiwifruit (1.86; Nd.1 or 3.73 g/kg; Nd.2) and two groups were fed with HFD including kiwifruit (1.86;HFd.1or 3.73 g/kg; HFd.2), for 8 weeks.
    Results
    Histological examination of adipose tissue showed that the cell size was significantly reduced in the kiwifruit-treated groups (low and high dose) in comparison to their control groups (p<0.05). Kiwifruit supplementation (low and high dose) in normal and HFD groups significantly increased gene expression of CETP in adipose tissue. Kiwifruit had no significant effect on serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Although, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration increased in HFD-fed hamsters supplemented with 3.73 g/kg of kiwifruit (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Kiwifruit consumption reduces the size of adipocytes and increases the expression of CETPgene in adipose tissue cells. Despite the increases in CETP expression in adipose tissue, its activity in serum was not changed following kiwifruit supplementation.
    Keywords: Actinidia, Adipose tissue, Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, High fat diet