فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology - Volume:11 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:11 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Shahin Akhondzadeh* Page 0

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that contributes to a large cascade of emotional, occupational, and cognitive impairments. Treatment involves combination of psychosocial rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy. In most cases, chronic antipsychotic therapy is required to treat symptoms, avoid relapse and attenuate episode recurrence 1-3. Despite the growing number of pharmacologic agents for the treatment of schizophrenia, many patients do not adequately benefit from or tolerate currently available antipsychotics 1-3. Existing typical and atypical antipsychotic medications are relatively equally effective in treating what are known as the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. What has been prominently lacking, however, is an agent that also treats the negative symptoms as well as substantial cognitive impairment 1-3. Despite growing numbers of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia, the management of this disorder remains to be a major challenge. Therefore, there is a need to find new strategies to improve treatment plans for schizophrenia patients. New studies have found that people with schizophrenia have differences in their gut biomes compared to people without the mental disorder 4,5. The researchers found a smaller subset of bacteria that were clearly different between schizophrenia patients and those without the disorder. They report that when they introduced samples of the subset from the schizophrenia patients into the biomes of healthy mice, the mice displayed behavior changes 6,7. The researchers claim that their results show that people with schizophrenia have differences in their gut biomes and that those differences may be associated with schizophrenia symptoms. They suggest that certain bacteria in the biome may be associated with schizophrenia-related symptoms due to interactions with microbiota gut-brain amino acids, and possibly lipid metabolic pathways. In conclusion, researchers have started to find interesting links between the naturally occurring bacteria that live in our guts, and things we’ve traditionally attributed to the brain. Things like our mood, feelings, and even thoughts 8.

  • Lia Farahi, Fatemeh Ghaemimanesh, Saeideh Milani, Seyed Mohsen Razavi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Hodjattallah Rabbani* Pages 270-276
    Background

    The overexpression of sortilin/neurotensin receptor 3 has previously been reported in various human solid tumors but not in hematological malignancies. Here, we report the overexpression of sortilin in leukemic cells from patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    Methods

    Flow cytometry was used to compare the expression of sortilin in CLL pa-tients (n=52) and healthy individuals (n=26). Also, in vitro apoptosis induction was assessed in CLL Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMCs) following directly targeting of sortilin.

    Results

    The results showed a significant expression of sortilin on the surface of CLL PBMCs (range from 2.2 to 71.5%) in comparison to healthy individuals (range from 0.03 to 7.4%) (p≤0.0001). The optimal cut-off value of sortilin expression was deter-mined at 7.2% with high sensitivity and specificity. Treatment of leukemic cells with anti-sortilin antibody could induce apoptosis without any effect on normal cells.

    Conclusion

    Apoptosis induction in CLL cells together with a significant correlation between the expression of sortilin and CD23 represent a possible functional role of sortilin in leukemogenesis of CLL cells. Therefore, sortilin might be considered as a promising novel biomarker in diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of patients with CLL.

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Biomarker, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Monoclonal antibody, Sortilin
  • Dina Dorrigiv, Manouchehr Vossoughi*, Iran Alemzadeh Pages 277-284
    Background

    Cancer is the first cause of death in developed countries. The heterogeneous nature of cancer requires patient-specified treatment plans. One reliable approach is collecting Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) and using them for prognosis and drug response assessment purposes. CTCs are rare and their separation from normal cell requires high-accuracy methods.

    Methods

    A microfluidic cell capture device to separate CTCs from peripheral blood is presented in this study. The CTC separation device applies hydrodynamic forces to categorize cells according to their sizes. The proposed device is designed and evaluated by numerical simulations and validated experimentally. The simulation modified design was fabricated by soft lithography which allows prototyping the device in a few hours. For experimental setup two solutions: 1) fixed cells spiked in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS), and 2) fixed cells in blood were used. The CTC separation device was validated by tracking the flow and separation of cancer cell lines in the solutions.

    Results

    It is demonstrated that the setup is capable of CTC enrichment up to 50 times.

    Conclusion

    The presented CTC enrichment method reduces costs by eliminating the use of antibodies. The high-throughput method has the potential to be used in preclinical studies of cancer.

    Keywords: Circulating tumor cells, Computer simulation, Microfluidics, Prognosis
  • Mohammad Taghi Moradi , Ali Karimi *, Mehrdad Shahrani , Leila Hashemi , Mohammad Saleh Ghaffari Goosheh Pages 285-291
    Background

    Influenza virus, associated with high level of morbidity and mortality, has been recently considered a public health concern while the choices for the control and treatment of the disease are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate activity of pomegranate peel extract and its fractions against Influenza A virus in vitro.

    Methods

    In this research, ethyl alcohol extract of pomegranate peel was prepared and subjected to fractionation with different polarities. The potential in vitro anti-influenza A virus activity of the extract and fractions was assessed using Cytopathic Effect (CPE) reduction assay, Hemagglutinin Assay (HA), and 50% Tissue Culture Infectious Doses (TCID50) method in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells.

    Results

    The crude pomegranate peel extract and its n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions had the highest inhibitory effect against influenza A virus with IC50 value of 6.45, 6.07 and 5.6 μg/ml in MDCK cells, respectively. Our results also showed that, the production of virus was significantly reduced upon treatment with crude extract, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Based on our results, the ethyl alcohol extract and its polar fractions of pomegranate peel can inhibit influenza A virus replication in vitro. Therefore, further characterization of its active ingredients and the mechanism of action should be carried out.

    Keywords: Antiviral Agents, Pomegranate, Punica granatum L
  • Foozieh Javadi, Pooneh Rahimi, Mohammad Hossien Modarresi, Azam Bolhassani, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat* Pages 292-298
    Background

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major issue of public health. It seems of paramount importance to find an effective vaccine against HCV infection. The best vaccine candidate should induce robust cellular responses. The aim of the current study was to evaluate immunogenicity effects of novel conjugated dendrimer G2 with the recombinant NS3 antigen as a vaccine candidate for eliciting Th1- oriented cellular responses.

    Methods

    Female BALB/c mice were immunized with different regimes especially with NS3 conjugated with G2 dendrimer. The humoral responses (Total IgG and IgG isotyping) and cellular responses (Ex vivo IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot assays, in vitro CTL assay and proliferation) were evaluated and compared in immunized mice.

    Results

    The results indicated that induced specific total IgG in all mice groups immunized with rNS3 formulated with different adjuvants and IgG2a subclass was the predominant isotype in rNS3-G2 (p≤0.05). For preliminary evaluation of cellular response, ex vivo ELISpot assay has shown that the higher frequency of IFN-γ producing cells was in groups immunized with rNS3+M720 and rNS3-G2 (p= 0.0012) than control groups. Finally, the rNS3-specific CTLs activity showed the highest percentage of specific lysis (LDH release) of the target cells in rNS3-G2 and rNS3+M720 groups.

    Conclusion

    In the present study, as our knowledge, this is first time that the immunogenicity of nanodendrimer G2 as a biocompatible adjuvant with the HCV-NS3 antigen was evaluated. The results showed high capability of the regimen to induce strong Th1-orinted cellular response in mice model, indicating the dendrimer G2 as a novel adjuvant candidate for HCV vaccine studies.

    Keywords: Dendrimers, Hepatitic C virus, Mice, Vaccines
  • Reyhaneh Farrokhi Yekta, Nasrin Amiri Dashatan, Mehdi Koushki, Masoomeh Dadpay, Fatemeh Goshadrou * Pages 299-307
    Background

    Gastric Ulcer (GU) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder induced by various factors and Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) as one of the most common reasons. Due to the absence of appropriate molecular markers for GU, the aim of this study was to utilize a metabolomics approach in order to find potential metabolite markers for the disease.

    Methods

    Stomach tissue samples from indomethacin-treated rats and normal controls were used to perform a 1H-NMR metabolomics study. The altered metabolites were identified using random forest multivariate analysis.

    Results

    ROC curves showed that the random forest model had a good predictive performance with AUC of 1 for the test and 0.708 for the training sets. Seventeen differentially expressed metabolites were found between GU and normal tissue sample. These metabolites included trimethylamine, betaine, carnitine, methionine, acetylcho line, choline, N,N-Dimethylglycine, cis-aconitate, tryptophan, spermidine, acetylcarnitine, creatinine, pantothenate, taurine, isoleucine, glucose and kynurenine.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study demonstrated that metabolomics approach could serve as a viable method to find potential markers for GU. Surely, further studies are needed for the validation of the results.

    Keywords: Gastric ulcer, Indomethacin, Metabolomics, Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Mina Fathi Kazerooni, Gholamreza Tavoosidana* Pages 308-316
    Background

    There exists a dramatic rise in liver failure and numerous patients undergo liver transplant for life-saving reasons annually. Introducing alternatives to allograft transplantation is necessary due to present limitations. Recently, a noninvasive stem cell population from Menstrual blood-derived Stem Cells (MenSCs) has been identified. There is an increasing interest in the application of MenSCs in tissue engineering; however, the fact that these gender-specific stem cells are safe for use in male sex is still not well defined.

    Methods

    In this research, a model of acute liver failure was created in male and female immunocompetent Balb-C mice through intraperitoneal injection of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and MenSCs were transplanted intravenously 48 hrs after induction of liver injury to evaluate their therapeutic potential. All mice were sacrificed on days 1, 7, and 30 post-transplantation to examine biochemical and molecular markers and pathological appearances.

    Results

    Results showed the liver engraftment of MenSCs by immunofluorescence staining using anti-human mitochondrial antibody in both male and female treated groups. The restoration of serum markers of liver injury, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, as well as expression levels of liver-specific genes, tyrosine aminotransferase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, were more significant in the female treated group compared with the male treated group on day 7 (p<0.05); however, after 30 days, there were no significant differences. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining of liver sections demonstrated the considerable liver regeneration post cell therapy in both groups. Notably, data has shown that MenSCs could engraft into injured liver tissues and result in the same effect in the regeneration of liver function in both genders.

    Conclusion

    Results of this study introduce MenSCs therapy as an attractive alternative approach for liver repairing and regeneration which has no gender constraints.

    Keywords: Gender, Failure, Regenerative medicine, Stem cells
  • Mahsa Ghiaghi, Flora Forouzesh *, Hamzeh Rahimi Pages 317-324
    Background

    LHX1 is an important transcription factor for the HDAC8 gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Sodium Butyrate (SB), as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the expression of LHX1 gene in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Methods

    HT-29 and HCT-116 cell lines were treated with 6.25 to 200 mM concentrations of SB at 24, 48, and 72 hr. The cytotoxicity effect on cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The 50% Inhibiting Concentration (IC50) was determined graphically. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the LHX1 mRNA expression level.

    Results

    Our study revealed that SB inhibited the proliferation of these cell lines in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values for HT-29 cell line were 65, 18.6, and 9.2 mM after 24, 48, and 72 hr of treatment, respectively. The IC50 values for HCT-116 cell line were 35.5, 9.6, and 10 mM after 24, 48, and 72 hr of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, real-time PCR findings demonstrated that the LHX1 mRNA expression in treated HT-29 cell line significantly increased in comparison with untreated cells (p<0.05). However, in treated HCT-116 cell line, SB led to a significant decrease in the level of LHX1 mRNA (p<0.05), as compared to untreated cells.

    Conclusion

    In this study, different effects of SB on LHX1 mRNA expression level were revealed in two distinct human colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Keywords: Colorectal cancer, HCT-116 cells, Histone deacetylase inhibitors, Humans
  • Farzaneh Rahmani, Vahid Ziaee, Raheleh Assari, Maryam Sadr, Arezou Rezaei, Zeinab Sadr, Seyed Reza Raeeskarami, Mohammad Hassan Moradinejad, Yahya Aghighi, Nima Rezaei * Pages 325-333
    Background

    Alteration in serum expression of Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) and IL-10 have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki Disease (KD). Inconsistent reports exist on the association of IL-10 polymorphisms with KD susceptibility and Coronary Artery Aneurysms (CAA).

    Methods

    A number of 110 paediatric patients with KD and 140 healthy individuals were recruited to investigate the frequency of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGF-β C/T at codon 10 (rs1982073), C/G at codon 25 (rs1800471) and IL-10 A/G at -1082 (rs1800896), C/T at -819 (rs1800871) and A/C at -592 (rs1800872) and their respective genotype and haplotypes. A comprehensive search was performed in MEDLINE and SCOPUS using the keywords of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor beta, and Kawasaki disease. Moreover, previous studies investigating the TGFβ and IL-10 polymorphisms in KD were evaluated. Review Manager Version 5.1 Software was used to perform meta-analysis.

    Results

    There was no significant association between allelic or genotypic variants in the mentioned polymorphisms in TGF-β or IL-10 with KD or CAA. The only significant haplotypic variant was TC variant at codon 10, and 25 of TGF-β polymorphisms were associated with higher risk of KD. Meta-analysis of a total number of 770 patients vs. 1471 healthy controls showed no difference in the frequency of any of the IL-10 genetic variants in KD patients, regardless of the presence of CAA.

    Conclusion

    Polymorphisms of TGF-β or IL-10 are not associated with additional risk for KD in Iranian population. IL-10 polymorphisms at -1082, -819 and -592 positions are not associated with KD, nor do they predict coronary artery aneurysm formation.

    Keywords: Cytokine, Interleukin-10, Kawasaki disease, Single nucleotide polymorphisms, Transforming growth factor-beta
  • Mahdieh Salimi*, Somayeh Sedaghati Burkhani Pages 334-338
    Background

    Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that lacks expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptor and does not overexpress human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor protein. TNBC is associated with special characteristics, including aggressiveness, poor prognosis, and treatment response. Non-invasive blood-based molecular markers such as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) variables have been shown to be putative markers in breast cancer prognosis.

    Methods

    The cfDNA quantity and integrity were assessed in a case-control study of 96 breast cancer patients including 46 triple negative and 50 non-triple negative compared with 50 unaffected controls. A quantitative real-time PCR approach based on the quantification of two amplicons of the β-actin gene with different lengths (99 and 394 bp) was used to evaluate the integrity index 394/99.

    Results

    Both cfDNA integrity index and quality were significantly elevated in breast cancer patients but integrity index can be considered as the more reliable diagnostic marker. The statistically significant increase of cfDNA quantity and integrity was observed in TNBC patients, somehow associated with nodal metastasis (p<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Elevated cfDNA concentration and integrity index in breast cancer patients compared with normal control and significant difference observed between TNBC and non-TNBC may be considered as a possible effective non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic molecular marker in breast cancer.

    Keywords: Cell-free DNA, Real-time PCR, Triple negative breast neoplasms
  • Renganathan Senthil, Singaravelu Usha, Konda Mani Saravanan * Pages 339-343
    Background

    Conformational flexibility of proteins remains as one of the major events in protein-protein/DNA/ligand/small molecule binding to achieve its biological function in the cell. The availability of high-resolution structures of protein complexes is a valuable resource for researchers to understand the mechanisms behind such interactions and it is found that the flexibility of amino acid residues at binding sites is crucial for many important functions in the cell.

    Methods

    In this article, our statistical method (PreFRP) developed based on fluctuating amino acid residues and various amino acid indices related to flexibility/rigidity were used to study the importance of fluctuating amino acid residues in thermonucleases from pathogenic bacteria, cell penetrating peptides and intrinsically disordered proteins responsible for many neural disorders.

    Results

    The results from our analysis reveal the importance of fluctuating amino acid residues in folding and binding of proteins. The role of moderate and high fluctuating residues in themonucleases, cell penetrating peptide and disordered regions are discussed in detail.

    Conclusion

    Therefore, our analysis will help in understanding the importance of fluctuating amino acid residues in proteins which undergo a conformation change phenomenon.