فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fauzia Aslam, Hammad Akram * Pages 43-44
  • Amin Safari, Mostafa Behjati *, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mojtaba Jaafarinia Pages 45-50

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is considered as an important and developing area in the medical community. Since these patients can reach maturity and have children, the role of genetic determinants in increasing risk of CHD is extremely evident among children of these patients. Because genetic studies related to CHD are increasing, and each day the role of new genetic markers is more and more clarified, this review re-examined the effects of gene mutations in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) as an important pathological model among other CHDs. Due to the complexity of heart development, it is not astonishing that numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, and many genes are involved in pathogenesis of TOF. This review focuses on the jag1, nkx2.5, gata4, zfpm2/fog2 and cited2 genes previously reported to be involved in TOF.

    Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Tetralogy of Fallot, Gene mutation
  • Mohammad Haddadi*, Javad Payam Pages 51-55
    Introduction

    Repeated heat shock (HS) stresses reduce the reproduction rate of Drosophila flies. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells against irreversible damages inducing heatinduced.Oxidative stress declines protective function of HSPs. Diploschistes ocellatus lichen aqueous extract possesses a strong antioxidant potential in vitro. Antioxidants can preserve HSPs function. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigated the cytoprotective effects of D. ocellatus aqueous extract against HS-mediated deleterious effects on reproductive function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Methods

    Three different types of culture media including control, 30% lichen extract, and 60%lichen extract were prepared. Adult D. melanogaster flies were placed on Delcour medium and allowed to lay eggs for 2 hours. Then the eggs were equally distributed between the culture media. After flies completed their life cycle, the adult enclosed flies were exposed to HS. To assess reproductive function, the newly emerged adult flies were transferred to the freshly prepared regular culture medium every three days for 3 times and finally adult offspring born to these flies were enumerated.

    Results

    HS negatively affected the reproduction rate in flies in control group. Quantification of adult enclosed flies born to the D. ocellatus extract treated flies showed that lichen extract could negate the deleterious effects of HS on reproduction function of D. melanogaster in a dose-dependent manner.

    Conclusion

    Diploschistes ocellatus aqueous extract attenuated the harmful effects of HS stress on reproductive function of D. melanogaster. The secondary metabolites present in D. ocellatus can be considered as a bona fide candidate in novel drug development to target reproductive diseases in which oxidative stress is involved. Moreover, it can be concluded that D. melanogaster is an ideal model organism to induce cellular stress in vitro and study therapeutic potential of lichen extracts.

    Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster, Diploschistes ocellatus, Heat shock proteins, Oxidativestress, Reproduction
  • Malihe Mohammadi*, Seyedeh Solmaz Moosavi Pages 56-60
    Introduction

    The association between the incidence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies(GADAs) and risk of diabetes in pregnant women is controversial. Here, our aim was to investigate the incidence and clinical relevance of GADA and its association with development of post-delivery diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    Methods

    This cohort study was conducted in Torbat–e Heydarieh (Khorasan Razavi, Iran) from October 2015 to March 2017. A total of 147 pregnant women with GDM were included in case group. The control group consisted of 147 healthy controls. A GAD diagnostic kit (Diametra Co.,Italy) was used for diagnosis of GADA. The history of insulin therapy and the development of diabetes one year after delivery were investigated.

    Results

    Of 147 pregnant women with GDM, 9 (6.1%) had GADA in their sera. 14.3% (21 out of 147) of women with GDM had history of insulin therapy. 33.3% (7 of 21) of women who had received insulin developed diabetes one year after delivery. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were observed in, respectively, 1 (0.7%) and 7 (4.8%) of women with GDM at one year after delivery.At one year after delivery, no women in GADA negative women was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. However, type 2 diabetes was observed in 2.9% of GADA negative pregnant women.Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were also noticed in, respectively, 11.1% and 33.3% of GADA positive mothers at one year after delivery.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of GADA was 6.1% in diabetic pregnant women. The GADA positivity and history of insulin therapy during pregnancy were significant risk factors for diabetes at one year after delivery. In addition, development of type 1 diabetes was higher in GADA positive pregnant women with GDM than GADA negative women.

    Keywords: Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, Prevalence, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus
  • Mohammad Shabani, Hamid Nejat*, Mohammad Reza Saffarian Pages 61-68
    Introduction

    The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and quality of life-based therapy on rumination were compared in patient with migraine. The present study also investigated the effectiveness of quality of life-based therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.

    Methods

    This quasi-experimental study with 3 (2 experimental and one control) groups was carried out with pretest-post test design. The study population consisted of all patients with migraine headache referring to Torbat Heidarie hospitals and clinics from June to July 2018. The samples were 45 patients who were selected by random sampling and then randomly allocated to 2 experimental groups and one control group each with 15 members. One experimental group underwent mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and the other received quality of life based therapy. The control group received no intervention. Research instruments were Ahvaz Migraine Questionnaire and Huksema and Maro’s Ruminative Response Scale. The tools were filled out by the participants before and after the interventions. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 22.

    Results

    The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and quality of life-based therapy significantly improved rumination in patients with migraine. In addition, the effectiveness of the 2 interventions was not significantly different.

    Conclusion

    The educational interventions based on modifying basic cognitions, replacing negative intrusive thoughts with positive thoughts, and avoiding and neutralizing intrusive thoughts through mindfulness-based cognitive methods and interventions based on improving quality of life resulted in a substantial improvement of rumination and frequent intrusive thoughts. Indeed, changes in cognitive reactions to pain and altering beliefs and expectations are the main mechanisms for improving headache.

    Keywords: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, quality of life-based therapy, rumination
  • Ghazaleh Ilbeigi, Ashraf Kariminik*, Mohammad Hasan Moshafi Pages 69-74
    Introduction

    Given the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains, many researchers have been working to produce new and efficient and inexpensive antibacterial agents. It has been reported that some nanoparticles may be used as novel antimicrobial agents.Here, we evaluated antibacterial properties of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles.

    Methods

    NiO nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave method. In order to control the quality and morphology of nanoparticles, XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electronmicroscope) were utilized. The antibacterial properties of the nanoparticles were assessed against eight common bacterial strains using agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacteria to nine antibiotics was obtained by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.

    Results

    The crystalline size and diameter (Dc) of NiO nanoparticles were obtained 40-60 nm. The nanoparticles were found to inhibit the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with higher activity against gram-positive organisms. Among bacterial strains, maximum sensitivity was observed in Staphylococcus epidermidis with MIC and MBC of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The bacteria had high resistance to cefazolin, erythromycin, rifampicin,ampicillin, penicillin and streptomycin.

    Conclusion

    NiO nanoparticles exhibited remarkable antibacterial properties against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria and can be a new treatment for human pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Keywords: Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles, Bacteria, Antibacterial Activity
  • Mostafa Dehghani, Mostafa Cheraghi, Mehrdad Namdari, Valiollah Dabidi * Pages 75-80
    Introduction

    Pedometer feedback home-based cardiac rehabilitation (PFHCR) programs have been effective in augmenting exercise tolerance. Our aim was to investigate the effects of PFHCR on cardiovascular functional capacity in patients with myocardial infarction (MI).

    Methods

    Forty MI patients were divided into two intervention and two control groups (n=10)in a randomized controlled trial. The intervention group received a PFHCR program including routine medications along with continuous exercise program, whereas the control group received traditional care without PFHCR. Baseline evaluations and cardiovascular stresses were controlled during the 8-week follow-up rehabilitation program in all patients. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA and paired sample student’s t-test (P ≤ 0.05).

    Results

    At baseline, no significant differences were observed between the groups. After eight weeks of PFHCR, the intervention groups had significantly higher metabolic equivalent(P = 0.001), VO2max (P = 0.001), total exercise times (P = 0.001), and total distance traveled(P = 0.003) when compared with the control groups. However, no significant intra-group or inter-group differences in variables were observed between the men and women.

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that PFHCR exhibited significant optimal effects on the cardiovascular functional capacity in MI patients.

    Keywords: Cardiac rehabilitation, Myocardial infarction, Functional capacity, Exercise Test, Coronary heart disease
  • Mina Mir, Jalileh Kordi, Zahra Rashki *, Omid Tadjrobehkar, Hamid Vaez Pages 81-85
    Introduction

    Staphylococcus aureus is known as the causative agent of various infections in humans, and the nasal cavity is the main anatomical site for storing and spreading this pathogen in health care workers (HCWs) in hospital settings. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are resistant to many antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal carriage of HCWs in a referral hospital in Zabol.

    Methods

    A total of 277 HCWs of Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol participated voluntarily in this study from March to September 2017. Demographic information was collected using questionnaire. Bacterial isolates were collected from anterior nasal canal using cotton swabs. MRSA isolates were detected by Oxacillin Screen agar and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance was assessed by the disk-diffusion method.

    Results

    In total, 10.8% of HCWs were carriers of S. aureus and 46.7% of the isolates were found to be MRSA. Laboratory staffs were the most frequently colonized HCWs. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and gentamicin. The highest resistance rate (64.3%) of MRSA isolates was observed against erythromycin.

    Conclusion

    Our findings showed that gentamycin and rifampin might be useful to eradicate S.aureus. Regular screening of HCWs and assessment of antibiotic resistance profile are essential to prevent MRSA dissemination in hospitals.

    Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Nasal cavity, Antibiotic resistance