فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mitra Dolatkhah, Yadollah Omidi* Pages 195-197
  • Hossein Khani Meinagh, Hossein Mostafavi*, Norbert Reiling, Majid Mahdavi, Gholamreza Zarrini Pages 199-209
    Introduction

    With regard to the antimycobacterial activity of 2-pyrazinoic acid esters (POEs), recent studies have shown that both pyrazine core and alkyl part of POE interact with the fatty acid synthase type (I) (FAS (I)) precluding a complex formation between NADPH and FAS (I).

    Methods

    Considering this interaction at the reductase site of FAS (I) responsible for reduction of β-ketoacyl-CoA to β-hydroxyacylCoA, we hypothesized that POE containing a bioreducible center in its alkyl part might show an increased anti-tubercular activity due to the involvement of FAS (I) in extra bio-reduction reaction. Thus, we synthesized novel POEs, confirmed their structures by spectral data, and subsequently evaluated their anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (H37Rv) strain at 10 μg/mL concentration.

    Results

    Compounds 3c, 3j, and 3m showed higher activity with regard to the inhibition of Mtb growth by 45.4, 45.7, and 51.2% respectively. Unexpectedly, the maltol derived POE 3l having the lowest log p value among the POEs indicated the highest anti-mycobacterial growth activity with 56% prevention. Compounds 3c and 3l showed no remarkable cytotoxicity on human macrophages at 10 μg/mL concentration as analyzed by xCELLigence real-time cell analysis. In further experiments, some of the tested POEs, unlike pyrazinamide (PZA), exhibited significant antibacterial and also anti-fungal activities. POEs showed an enhanced bactericidal activity on gram-positive bacteria as shown for Staphylococcus aureus, e.g. compound 3b with a MIC value of 125 μg/mL but not E. coli as a gram-negative bacteria, except for maltol derived POE (3l) that showed an inverse activity in the susceptibility test. In the anticancer activity test against the human leukemia K562 cell lines using MTT assay, compounds 3e and 3j showed the highest cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 25±8.0 μΜ and 25±5.0 μΜ, respectively.

    Conclusion

    It was found that the majority of POEs containing a bioreducible center showed higher inhibitory activities on Mtb growth when compared to the similar compounds without a bio-reducible functional group.

    Keywords: Bioreducible center, Cytotoxicity, Fattyacid biosynthesis, Mycobacterial growthinhibition, 2-Pyrazinoic acid ester
  • Daria Franskevych, Svitlana Prylutska*, Iryna Grynyuk, Ganna Pasichnyk, Liudmyla Drobot, OlgaMatyshevska, Uwe Ritter Pages 211-217
    Introduction

    C60 fullerene has received great attention as a candidate for biomedical applications. Due to unique structure and properties, C60 fullerene nanoparticles are supposed to be useful in drug delivery, photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer, and reversion of tumor cells’ multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms involved in photoexcited C60 fullerene-dependent enhancement of cisplatin toxicity against leukemic cells resistant to cisplatin.

    Methods

    Stable homogeneous pristine C60 fullerene queous colloid solution (10-4 М, purity 99.5%) was used in the study. The photoactivation of C60 fullerene accumulated by L1210R cells was done by irradiation in microplates with light-emitting diode lamp (420-700 nm light, 100 mW·cm-2). Cells were further incubated with the addition of Cis-Pt to a final concentration of 1 μg/mL. Activation of p38 MAPK was visualized by Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was used for the estimation of cells distribution on cell cycle. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was estimated with the use of fluorescent potential-sensitive probe TMRE (Tetramethylrhodamine Ethyl Ester).

    Results

    Cis-Pt applied alone at 1 μg/mL concentration failed to affect mitochondrial membrane potential in L1210R cells or cell cycle distribution as compared with untreated cells. Activation of ROS-sensitive proapoptotic p38 kinase and enhanced content of cells in subG1 phase were detected after irradiation of L1210R cells treated with 10-5M C60 fullerene. Combined treatment with photoexcited C60 fullerene and Cis-Pt was followed by the dissipation of Δψm at early-term period, blockage of cell transition into S phase, and considerable accumulation of cells in proapoptotic subG1 phase at prolonged incubation.

    Conclusion

    The effect of the synergic cytotoxic activity of both agents allowed to suppose that photoexcited C60 fullerene promoted Cis-Pt accumulation in leukemic cells resistant to Cis-Pt. The data obtained could be useful for the development of new approaches to overcome drug-resistance of leukemic cells.

    Keywords: C60 fullerene, Leukemiccisplatin-resistant L1210cells, Photoexcitation, Cell cycle, p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase
  • Elham Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Khalaj Kondori, Zeinab Shaghaghi Tarakdari, Saeed Sadigh Eteghad, MahnazTalebi*, Sasan Andalib Pages 219-225
    Introduction

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causes structural and functional brain disruption. MS4A6A, TREM2, and CD33 gene polymorphisms loci have been found to be associated with the pathobiology of late-onset AD (LOAD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis of association of LOAD with rs983392, rs75932628, and rs3865444 polymorphisms in MS4A6A, TREM2, CD33 genes, respectively.

    Methods

    In the present study, 113 LOAD patients and 100 healthy unrelated age- and gendermatched controls were selected. DNA was extracted from blood samples by the salting-out method and the genotyping was performed by RFLP-PCR. Electrophoresis was carried out on agarose gel. Sequencing was thereafter utilized for the confirmation of the results.

    Results

    Only CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism revealed a significant difference in the genotypic frequencies of GG (P=0.001) and GT (P=0.001), and allelic frequencies of G (P=0.033) and T (P=0.03) between LOAD patients and controls.

    Conclusion

    The evidence from the present study suggests that T allele of CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism is associated with LOAD in the studied Iranian population.

    Keywords: Late onset Alzheimer’sdisease, LOAD, MS4A6A, CD33, TREM2, Polymorphisms
  • Halyna Kuznietsova*, Oksana Lynchak, Natalia Dziubenko, Tetyana Herheliuk, Yuriy Prylutskyy, Volodymyr Pages 227-237
    Introduction

    Oxidative stress has been suggested as the main trigger and pathological mechanism of toxic liver injury. Effects of powerful free radical scavenger С60 fullerene on rat liver injury and liver cells (HepG2 line) were aimed to be discovered.

    Methods

    Acute liver injury (ALI) was simulated by single acetaminophen (APAP, 1000 mg/kg) administration, on a chronic CLI, by 4 weekly APAP administrations. Pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS; initial concentration 0.15 mg/mL) was administered per os or intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg (ALI) or 0.25 mg/kg (CLI) daily for 2 or 28 days, respectively, after first APAP dose. Animals were sacrificed at 24th hour after the last dose. Biochemical markers of blood serum and liver autopsies were analyzed. EGFR expression in HepG2 cells after 48-hour incubation with C60FAS was assessed.

    Results

    Increase of serum conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin (up to 1.4-3.7 times), ALT (by 31-37%), and AST (by 18%) in non-treated ALI and CLI rats were observed, suggesting the hepatitis (confirmed by histological analysis). Liver morphological state (ALI, CLI), ALT (ALI and CLI), bilirubin (CLI), α-amylase, and creatinine (ALI) were normalized with C60FAS administration in both ways, which may indicate its protective impact on liver. However, unconjugated bilirubin sharply increased in ALI animals receiving C60FAS (up to 12 times compared to control), suggesting the augmentation of bilirubin metabolism. Furthermore, C60FAS inhibited EGFR expression in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

    Conclusion

    C60FAS could partially correct acute and chronic toxic liver injury, however, it could not normalize bilirubin metabolism after acute exposure.

    Keywords: C60 fullerene, Acetaminophen-inducedliver injury, EGFR, HepG2cells
  • Preetham Jinadatta*, Sharath Rajshekarappa, Kiran Sundera Raja Rao, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura Subbaiah, SudheshShastri Pages 239-249
    Introduction

    Gnetum ula is a notable medicinal plant used to cure various ailments. The stem part of the plant is used traditionally to treat jaundice and other disorders. The present work is to investigate the in vitro hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of stem of G. ula (GUE) and its isolated compound gnetol.

    Methods

    Column chromatography was carried out for GUE and various column fractions were obtained. DPPH and reducing power assays were performed for GUE and column fractions. The potent fraction was characterized, interpreted and tested for in vitro hepatoprotective activity on the BRL3A cell line. In silico docking studies of gnetol compound on the protein TGF-β (transforming growth factor – β) and Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor α (PPARα) was carried out.

    Results

    DPPH scavenging and reducing power assay showed that the fourth column fraction has antioxidant potential than other fractions. The fourth column fraction was characterized to obtain gnetol compound. BRL3A cell line was used for the toxicity study of GUE and gnetol. Both, the extract and the isolated compound were found to be nontoxic with CTC50 value more than 1000 µg/mL. At the concentration of 200 µg/mL, GUE and gnetol offered cell protection of 50.2% and 54.3%, however, silymarin showed 77.15% protection at 200 µg/mL concentration against CCl4 treated BRL3A cell line. The docking results of the ligand molecule TGF-β showed that gnetol has the binding affinity of -7.0 and standard silymarin being -6.8. TGF-β showed good hydrophobic interactions and formed two hydrogen bonds with the amino acids. For PPARα protein, gnetol showed the binding affinity of -8.4 and silymarin with -6.5. Hydrogen bonding and good hydrophobic interactions against the amino acid molecules in relation to the PPARα protein are shown.

    Conclusion

    Gnetum ula stem extract and its isolated compound are safe and offered significant hepatoprotection against CCl4 induced toxicity. Isolated compound gnetol exhibited a potent antioxidant activity offering protection to liver damage. However, in vivo studies need to be carried out to validate the traditional use of G. ula.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, Gnetol, Gnetum ula, Hepatoprotective, TGF-β, BRL3A