فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue: 5, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
  • Maryam Nourizadeh, Katayoon Bidad, Mohammad Bagher Eslami, Shahnaz Rafiei Tehrani, Mostafa Moin Pages 459-461

    No Abstract

  • Jafar Farhadi, Mohammad Nouri, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Nasser Samadi, Zohreh Babaloo, Shahriar Alipour, Golamreza Jadideslam, Farhad Pouremamali, Alireza Khabbazi* Pages 462-472

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Although evidence about the pathogenesis of BD is growing, the actual cause of this disease is unclear. Both genetic and epigenetic factors are claimed to play significant roles in BD. Epigenetic factors such as age, gender, smoking as well as exogenous factors like diet, infection, stress are related to the onset and clinical manifestations of BD. DNA methylation refers to a major epigenetic element which influences gene activities with catalyzing DNA using a set of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts). DNA methylation status of many genes in patients with BD is different from that of healthy people. For example, cytoskeletal gene, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) loci, Long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), and Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) repetitive sequences are different in the DNA methylation status in patients with BD and healthy controls. In this paper we reviewed, according to previous studies, the mechanisms of epigenetic, the epigenetic factors involved in the BD, and especially the effect of DNA methylation in the Behcet’s disease. Future studies are needed to identify the capability of specific DNA methylation alterations in BD in order to predict disease manifestations, medical course, and response to treatment.

    Keywords: Behcet’s disease, DNA methylation, Epigenetics
  • Somaye Mami, Sara Ghaffarpour, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Tooba Ghazanfari* Pages 473-478

    Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure injures different organs such as the lungs and leads to short and long term complications Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has the main role in altering fibroblast activities linked to airways remodeling. Latency TGF beta binding proteins 1 (LTBP1 facilitates localization of TGF-β in the extracellular matrix. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6 (Smad6) negatively regulates TGF-β signaling, thus establishing a main negative feedback loop. In this study, we investigated the expression of LTBP1 and Smad6 in the lung tissues of SM-exposed and control individuals. Lung formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of SM-exposed (20 samples) and control groups (20 samples) were collected from archival pathology department of several general hospitals. The total mRNA of lung FFPE tissues was extracted. Quality of the extracted mRNA was evaluated by an Agilent Bio analyzer and RNA was quantified using a Nano Drop. LTBP1 and Smad6 expression levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. LTBP1 expression levels did not change between the two groups (p=0.626), howeverSmad6 expression levels were significantly higher (2.6 fold) in SM-exposed individuals compared to the control group (p=0.001). Our results revealed that Smad6 may be involved in lung tissue remodeling process in SM-exposed patients. Smad6 regulates fibrotic alterations in lung tissue and its function as negative feedback mechanisms in TGF-β.

    Keywords: Latency TGF beta binding proteins 1 (LTBP1)_Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6 (SMAD6)_Sulfur mustard_Transforming growth factor
  • Abbas Dabbaghzadeh, Marzieh Tavakol, Mohammad Gharagozlou* Pages 479-486

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a noninvasive marker of inflammation, used for monitoring asthma. The aim of this study was to compare FeNO, asthma control test (ACT), and lung function test (spirometry) in children aged 8-15 years. This observational, cross-sectional study was performed on76 asthmatic children (age, 8-15 years), who were referred to the Department of Immunology and Allergy, Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013. Patients were matched for sex and age. The recruited patients were selected via consecutive sampling. FeNO was measured with a portable electrochemical analyzer and forced spirometry was performed according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. The ACT questionnaire was used and completed for all the patients. The mean FeNO was 28.5±29.1 ppb, and the mean ACT score was 19.8±3.6. FeNO was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (r, 0.232; p=0.049) or 25-75% maximum expiratory flow (MEF 25-75) (r, -0.304; p=0.009). FeNO showed no significant correlation with ACT score or FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p>0.05). Additionally, there was no significant correlation between FeNO and changes in FEV1 and MEF 25-75% before and after the administration of bronchodilators (p>0.05). To improve asthma control, childhood ACT, FeNO, and spirometric tests can be used as complementary tools in clinical practice to detect children with poorly controlled asthma.

    Keywords: Asthma, Child, Nitric oxide, Spirometry
  • Maryam Vahidi, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Masoomeh Jannesar, Marzieh Mazinani, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Nazanin Khodayari Namini, Massoud Houshmand, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Leila Moradi, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin* Pages 487-492

    Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare disorder of immune dysregulation. FHL inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern is classified into five subtypes based on underlying genetic defects. Mutations in four genes including PRF1, UNC13D, STX11 and STXBP2 are responsible for FHL2 to FHL5 respectively. The cause of FHL1 is associated with mutations in an unknown gene located at 9q21.3-22. This study aims to report the clinical features and genetic results of nine Iranian patients suffering from -haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Nine patients (five males and four females) suspected to FHL whose genetic evaluation of PRF1 and STX11 revealed no mutations, were entered the study to investigate UNC13D mutations. Primers were designed to amplify all coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of the gene. PCR products were then sequenced and analyzed by sequence analysis tools including BLAST. The most frequent clinical manifestations observed in the patients were fever and hepatosplenomegaly. In this study, five mutations were detected in UNC13D including four novel mutations (c.1434_1446delACCCATGGTGCAGinsTGGTGCT, c.1933C>T, c.1389+1G>C and c.2091+1G>A) besides to a previously reported deletion (c.627delT). The pathogenicity of the missense mutation was assessed using online prediction tools including SIFT and PolyPhen2. The study results may provide valuable information for genetic counseling especially for those who have a history of immunodeficiency diseases in their family and can be used for prenatal diagnosis.

    Keywords: FHL3, Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, UNC13D
  • Alireza Mardomi, Hadi Hossein Nataj, Narjes Jafari, Nabiallah Mohammadi, Saeid Abediankenari* Pages 493-500

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) has been shown to be up-regulated in a variety of malignancies. So that, its expression is associated with poor prognosis and invasiveness. Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells against virus-infected and transformed cells. Especially they play a key role in tumor immune surveillance. Whereas it was not well understood whether SDF-1α modulates anti-tumor immune response or not, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of SDF-1α on the cytotoxic properties of peripheral blood NK cells. Human peripheral blood NK cells were freshly isolated using MACSxpess system and cultured in the presence or absence of recombinant human SDF-1α or SDF-1α plus CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. CD107a degranulation assay was conducted through the co-culture of NK cells with K562 cells. The percentage of CD107a positive cells was assessed by flowcytometry. Effect of SDF-1α was also examined on the mRNA levels of NKG2A and NKG2D as indicator examples of NK cell inhibitory and activating receptors, respectively. SDF-1α significantly decreased the degranulation activity of NK cells (p=0.04). The mRNA content of NKG2D was down-regulated under the influence of SDF-1α (p=0.03). Moreover, AMD3100 exhibited a trend in recovering the NKG2D mRNA level to its un-treated state (p=0.05).  The present study reveals that SDF-1α has a negative impact on NK cell activity and might is involved in tumor immune-suppression. Thus, it can be concluded that microenvironment manipulations targeting SDF-1α may reinforce current cancer therapies by disturbing one of the immune-suppressive axes in the cancerous milieu.

    Keywords: Immunologic cytotoxicity, Killer cells, Natural, NKG2D, SDF-
  • Leila Siavoshinia, Mostafa Jamalan, Majid Zeinali, Ghorban Mohammadzadeh* Pages 501-510

    Targeting of cancerous cells with a high level of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions by drug immunoconjugates is a new approach for specific delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Our previous work indicated that idarubicin-ZHER2 affibody conjugate has a great potential for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing malignant cell lines but possible induced immune response against constructed conjugate was not addressed. In the current study, the possibility of induction of humoral and cellular immune responses against idarubicin-ZHER2 affibody conjugate in BALB/c mice was investigated. For assessment of the induced immune response, prepared and qualified idarubicin-ZHER2 affibody conjugate was administrated intravenously to BALB/c mice and the induced cellular immune response was evaluated by measuring secretion levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) cytokines by the splenocytes. Humoral response of treated mice was also assessed by measuring total immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer in mice sera. The obtained results showed that idarubicin-ZHER2 affibody conjugate at any examined concentrations could not induce secretion of IFN-γ as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. A mild increase in the level of regulatory IL-10 cytokine was seen in the treated mice although no dose dependency in the level of IL-10 production was observed. Furthermore, results showed that idarubicin-ZHER2 conjugate could not induce IgG production in the treated mice. Based on these findings, the idarubicin-ZHER2 conjugate can be considered as a candidate for the development of new therapeutics against HER2-overexpressing cancers although further in vivo studies are needed.

    Keywords: Cytokine, Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Idarubicin-ZHER2 affibody conjugate, Immune response, Immunoglobulin G
  • Mahdieh Mehrab Mohseni, Jafar Amani, Mahdi Fasihi Ramandi, Forouzandeh Mahjoubi, Mahyat Jafaria, Ali Hatef Salmanian* Pages 511-522

    Human epithelial growth factor receptor2 (Her2) and polymorphic epithelial mucin (MUC1) are tumor-associated antigens that have been extensively investigated in adenocarcinomas. Generally, each of these molecules was used separately for diagnosis of adenocarcinomas and as an injective vaccines in cancer therapy researches, but not in the chimeric form as an edible immunogen. In this study, Her2, MUC1, and a novel fusion structure were expressed in the seeds and hairy roots of transgenic plants appropriately. The mice groups were immunized either by feeding of transgenic seeds or hairy roots. All immunized groups showed a considerable rise in anti-glycoprotein serum IgG and IgA, and IFNɣ cytokine. However, the animals received chimeric protein showed significant higher immune responses in comparison to ones received one of these immunogen. The results indicated that the oral immunization of an animal model with transgenic plants could effectively elicit immune responses against two major tumor-associated antigens.

    Keywords: Breast cancer, Edible vaccine, HER2, Immunogen, MUC1, Transgenic plant
  • Tayebeh Nowras, Mohammad Fereidouni, Hamidreza Safari, Mohsen Naseri* Pages 523-532

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the autoimmune diseases that affects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes myelin loss and axonal damage. Recent studies have shown the important role of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of MS. One of the plants in the Astersa family, which has therapeutic benefits is Artemisia dracunculus L. or Tarragon. In this study, the role of aqueous extract of Tarragon in suppressing Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and ameliorating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was investigated. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 female mice by Hook kit MOG35-55/CFA Emulsion PTX and one group was treated with Tarragon at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Mice were euthanized on day 33 post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing Th1, Th17 and Treg cells by flow cytometry. We provided evidence that Tarragon (500 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated clinical scores of EAE. We did not observe significant alterations in T cell differentiation to Th1, Th17 or Treg in the spleen of mice during EAE. This is the first experimental evidence showing that administration of aqueous extract of Tarragon reduces the severity of EAE, but the protective effect of Tarragon is independent of alteration in T cells in the spleen. These results suggest other mechanisms for the effectiveness of this extract in improving the EAE process.

    Keywords: Artemisia dracunculus, EAE, Tarragon, Th1 cells, Th17 cells, Treg cells
  • Amin Farzanegan Gharabolagh, Taravat Bamdad*, Mehdi Hedayati, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi Pages 533-542

    There is a relationship between the life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the synthesis and hemostasis of lipids as well as lipid metabolism and interferon (IFN) regulatory system. This study was aimed to examine the effect of fluvastatin and IFN-ƛ in the expression of mediators involved in lipid metabolism and HCV proliferation in patients with rs12979860 CC polymorphism. Thirteen patients with HCV and five controls with rs1297986CC polymorphism were included in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients and controls were treated by fluvastatin, IFN-λ or fluvastatin+IFN-λ. Assessment of IL-28B polymorphism, RNA extraction, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed. The mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), and HCV core as well as measurement of ABCA1 protein level were evaluated before and after treatment. The results indicated that IFN-λ +fluvastatin acted as an inhibitor in mRNA expression of SREBP1c; while acting as an inducer in the expression of ABCA-1. The results of ABCA1 assay showed a significant increase of this protein after treatment with fluvastatin and IFN-λ compared with untreated cells (p=0.02). Moreover, the mRNA expression of HCV core was suppressed in all experimental groups treated with fluvastatin, IFN-λ or their combination which was more significant after treatment with fluvastatin+IFN-λ (p<0.001). The results of this study demonstrated the significant effect of treatment with fluvastatin+IFN-λ in PBMCs of HCV patients with rs12979860 CC polymorphism. According to the drug resistance of viruses and prevention of virus-induced steatosis in patients with HCV, using regulatory agents of lipid mediators in parallel with current medications could be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy.

    Keywords: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)_Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1)_Fluvastatin_Hepatitis C virus_Interferon lambda_IL-28B_Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c)
  • Hamed Fouladseresht, Atefe Ghamar Talepoor, Shirin Farjadian, Shahdad Khosropanah, Mehrnoosh Doroudchi* Pages 543-553

    The relationship between high levels of anti-Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis commends a possible similar association in other vessels. We aimed to investigate the association of VZV-seropositivity with coronary artery atherosclerosis. We recruited 88 newly diagnosed patients with more than 50% stenosis in at least one of the main coronary arteries. As the control group, 99 age-matched individuals with normal/insignificant coronary artery findings were included. Clinical, paraclinical, and demographical data were gathered at the time of sampling. High‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured by nephelometry. VZV-seropositivity was determined by measuring of anti-VZV IgG level in plasma. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the correlation of data with coronary vascular atherosclerosis. The frequency of VZV-seropositivity was significantly higher in the atherosclerosis group compared to the controls (OR=1.88; 95%CI=1.03-3.44). The plasma levels of anti-VZV IgG were significantly higher in patients with atherosclerosis (Median=2.70, IQR=1.53-4.30 AU/mL) than in the controls (Median=2.10, IQR=1.70-3.10 AU/mL, p=0.034). The hsCRP levels in patients and controls were 5.19±2.00 and 1.51±1.07 mg/L, respectively. The correlation between hsCRP and anti-VZV IgG level in plasma was observed (r=0.40, p<0.001). The levels of hsCRP and anti-VZV IgG increased based on the number of diseased vessels but only the difference in hsCRP levels reached a significant level (p<0.001 and p=0.168, respectively). Our data suggest that VZV-seropositivity and hsCRP elevation jointly increase the risk of atherosclerosis. The multifactorial nature of atherosclerosis; however, leaves more options for the inflammatory milieu to be generated.

    Keywords: Atherosclerosis, C-reactive protein, Immunoglobulin G, Varicella-zoster virus
  • Zeinab Emruzi, Pegah Babaheidarian, Mahmoud Arshad, Hannes Stockinger, Ghasem Ahangari* Pages 554-566

    Many observations showed that hypercholesterolemia can disrupt immune response. Statin drugs that were used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia patients can interfere in the regulation of the immune response and cytokine secretion. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the immune response among treatment-naïve patients with hypercholesterolemia and healthy subjects. The secondary goal of the study was to determine whether atorvastatin can reverse the detrimental effect of hypercholesterolemia on the immune system. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 50 patients afflicted with hypercholesterolemia who were treatment-naïve along with 50 sex/age-matched hypercholesterolemia patients receiving atorvastatin, and 50 sex/age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative PCR and ELISA methods were used for gene and protein expression analysis of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 related cytokines. Additionally, the expression of the cluster of differentiation (CD) markers on T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells was measured by flow cytometry method. The results showed that hypercholesterolemia and atorvastatin down-regulated the expression of Th1-related cytokines and elevated the levels of Th2-related cytokines. The expression of cell surface markers, CD25 and CD69, was significantly decreased in the treatment-naïve, and atorvastatin groups. It seems that atorvastatin is not able to repair the deleterious effects of hypercholesterolemia on the immune system. Moreover, elevated levels of cholesterol along with the administration of atorvastatin tilt the Th1/Th2 balance in favor of Th2 and reduce T cell activation.

    Keywords: Atorvastatin, Cytokine, Hypercholesterolemia, Immune response
  • Zahra Nafei, Nasrin Behniafard*, Farzane Shefai Pages 567-571

    Phenobarbital is still one of the most commonly used medical treatments for different types of seizures. It has numerous different side-effects. Antiepileptic hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is a rare and potentially life-threatening adverse reaction to aromatic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. Its characteristic features are fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy with different severity of hematologic abnormalities. This case report presents a 26-month-old girl that developed fever, disseminated maculopapular rash, petechiae and thrombocytopenia two weeks after the initiation of phenobarbital prescribed for febrile seizure prophylaxis. The patient was admitted in our center with the impression of hypersensitivity syndrome, so phenobarbital was discontinued and her treatment was resumed with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin. After a few days, all symptoms improved and the platelet count was normalized. Thrombocytopenia is a rare complication of hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital in children. Paying attention to this point can prevent the life-threatening adverse effects of this highly consumed medicine.

    Keywords: Child, Hypersensitivity syndrome, Phenobarbital, Thrombocytopenia
  • Hamza Elfekih*, Faten Hadjkacem, Mouna Elleuch, Dorra Ghorbel, Nadia Charfi, Fatma Mnif, Nabila Rekik, Mouna Mnif, Mohamed Abid Pages 572-583

    Insulin therapy is an essential treatment for type 1 and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Hypersensitivity reactions have been described since the first administration of insulin, the same as any other therapy. Despite being a rare situation nowadays, it requires careful intra-hospital monitoring and multidisciplinary management. Here, we present a case of a 57-year-old patient with type 2 DM, an average glycemic control, and both penicillin and insulin allergy. Heunderwent a desensitization protocol which allowed successfully dismiss him with intermediate-acting insulin.

    Keywords: Desensitization, Immunologic, Diabetes mellitus, Hypersensitivity, Insulin
  • Ali Kutlu*, Derya Unal Pages 584-588