- پیاپی 20 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/01
- تعداد عناوین: 7
ادبیات مقاومت، نوعی از ادبیات متعهد و ملتزم است که از یک طرف به شرح و بیان مبارزه جامعه در برابر آنچه حیات مادی و معنوی خود را تهدید می کند، می پردازد و از طرف دیگر، برای جامعه روحیه مقاومت در برابر هر گونه ظلم و تجاوز ایجاد می کند. این نوع ادبی در دوران معاصر، در ایران و جهان عرب به خاطر حوادث ناگوار پررنگ تر شده است. از میان شاعران معاصر که در این زمینه نوشته های بسیاری دارند، می توان به نصرالله مردانی در ایران و بدوی الجبل در جهان عرب اشاره کرد که بحران های سیاسی و اجتماعی جامعه خود را در آثارشان بازتاب داده اند.
این پژوهش برآن است تا به بررسی جلوه های ادبیات مقاومت در اشعار نصرالله مردانی و بدوی الجبل با روش توصیفی -تحلیلی و در چارچوب مکتب تطبیقی آمریکایی بپردازد. یافته های اساسی این پژوهش نشان می دهند که جلوه های مقاومت از قبیل وطن پرستی، دعوت به مقاومت، دفاع از ملت خود، استعمارستیزی، ظلم ستیزی، تجلیل از شهید، اعتراض سیاسی و اجتماعی و... در اشعار هر دو شاعر جلوه گر شده اند؛ بدون اینکه از یکدیگر متاثر باشند.کلیدواژگان: ادبیات مقاومت، مکتب تطبیقی آمریکایی، نصرالله مردانی، بدوی الجبل، استعمار ستیزی
جنگ از دیرباز یکی از مشئوم ترین و مذموم ترین رخدادها در جهان بوده؛ اما همین پدیده زشت هرجا که سمت وسو و صبغه دفاعی به خود گرفته، عملی شرافتمندانه و شجاعانه قلمداد شده است. با آغاز جنگ هشت ساله عراق علیه ایران، گونه تازه ای از ادبیات با عنوان ادبیات دفاع مقدس و جنگ در ایران پا به عرصه وجود گذاشت و داستان نویسان به تبع نوع رویکردشان به جنگ که شامل ارزش محور، جامعه محور، انتقادمحور، انسان محور و یا تلفیقی از آنها بود، به بازنمایی هنری برداشت ها و استنباطات خود از این واقعه عظیم پرداختند. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استناد به منابع کتابخانه ای، نقطه آغاز نگاه انسانی به جنگ و سیر رو به تزاید آن در طول جنگ و سال های بعد از آن را در ادبیات داستانی مورد بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار داده است. برآیند تحقیق نشان می دهد که علیرغم غلبه گفتمان حماسی و ارزش محور در بستر زمانی جنگ، برخی از نویسندگان از همان ماه های آغازین مخاصمه با رویکردی انسانی به آفرینش آثار داستانی پرداختند و با گذر زمان، خصوصا فاصله گرفتن از سال های جنگ، توجه آنان و دیگر نویسندگان به مضامین والای انسانی و موقعیت بغرنج انسان قرارگرفته در شرایط خاص جنگ، افزایش یافته و این روند در طول دهه 80 به اوج خود رسیده است.کلیدواژگان: ادبیات داستانی جنگ، گفتمان غالب، موقعیت ناپایدار، نگاه انسانی
ادب پایداری و مقاومت یکی از گونه های سرآمد، پذیرفته شده و مقدس در تمامی کشور هاست. در این میان، ادبیات اسارت که از زیر شاخه های مهم ادب جنگ است، در ادبیات سایر ملل، جایگاه درخشانی دارد. پس از انقلاب اسلامی، این گونه ادبی در ایران مورد توجه شاعران و نویسندگان قرار گرفت و آثار متعددی در این زمینه خلق و آفریده شد. یکی از وجوه اصلی ادبیات اسارت که تاکنون از دید پژوهشگران مغفول مانده، توجه به شیوه نامه نگاری اسیران جنگ تحمیلی است. این گونه از ادب اسارت، علاوه بر اهمیت محتوایی از نظر ساختار، سبک و زبان نیز حائز توجه است. در این مقاله، پس از بررسی نزدیک به شش هزار نامه از آزادگان، ویژگی های ساختاری و معنایی آنها به روش تحلیل محتوایی، طبقه بندی و تحلیل می شود. این نوع نامهها در تقسیم بندی هایی با عناوین سرلوحه دار، بی سرلوحه، الگویی (کلیشه ای) و منحصر به فرد جای گرفته است. در یک نگاه کلی باید گفت که در ادب فارسی، نامه های اسیران، ادامه دهنده سنت ترسلات اخوانی در ادبیات است؛ با وجود این، چنین نامه هایی از نظر ساختار، زبان، محتوا و نوع کارکرد، تمایزاتی با دیگر نامه های اخوانی دارد.کلیدواژگان: ادبیات اسارت، ادبیات پایداری، ادبیات جنگ، نامه های آزادگان
منظومه های حماسی دینی و مذهبی از جمله آثاری هستند که با وجود کمیت قابل توجه در ادب فارسی چندان مورد عنایت مصححان و پژوهشگران قرار نگرفته اند و شاید از دلایل کم توجهی به این آثار، ناشناختگی آنها در میان جامعه ادبی باشد. در طول تاریخ ادبیات فارسی، منظومه های حماسی دینی متعددی با موضوع وقایع دینی و جنگ های صدر اسلام، زندگی و شرح احوال ائمه اطهار و شخصیت های برجسته و تاثیرگذار مذهبی سروده شده است. از جمله موضوعاتی که منظومه سرایان دینی به آن نگاهی ویژه داشته اند، شرح احوال و قیام مختار بن ابی عبیده ثقفی به خونخواهی شهدای کربلا است. در این منظومه های دینی، قیام مختار و پایداری او در انتقام گرفتن از قاتلان امام حسین(ع) به شیوه حماسی و به تقلید از شاهنامه فردوسی به تصویر کشیده شده است. اغلب این منظومه ها به شکل نسخه خطی در کتابخانه ها نگهداری می شوند. تلاش نگارنده در این مقاله بر آن است تا با استفاده از دو روش کتابخانه ای و سندکاوی به معرفی اجمالی مختارنامه های منظوم ادب فارسی بپردازد. در این نوشتار تعداد چهارده منظومه حماسی دینی با موضوع داستان قیام مختار ثقفی معرفی گردیده است که قدیمی ترین آنها مختارنامه نگاهی آرانی کاشانی متعلق به قرن دهم هجری قمری است.کلیدواژگان: منظومه، حماسه دینی، مختارنامه، مختار ثقفی
احمد شاملو با بهره گیری از درون مایه های اساطیری نمادین و رمزآلود در آفرینش و ترسیم فضای اسطورهای در اشعارش همواره کامیاب بوده است. شاملو از شاعرانی است که هر چند میزان پرداختن وی به اسطوره و جنبههای حماسی نسبت به بعضی شاعران معاصر کمتر است؛ ولی توانسته است نمودهای زیبایی از اسطوره سازی را هر چند اندک در شعر خود عرضه کند و به ویژه در عرصه شعر پایداری، به بازآفرینی اسطوره های کهن و آفرینش اسطوره های تازه بپردازد. وی با خارج نمودن قالب اصلی اسطوره از فضای کهن اسطورهای خود، از آن به عنوان نمادی تاثیرگذار در صحنه سیاسی و اجتماعی بهره برده است تا شرایط نابسامان فرهنگی، سیاسی و اجتماعی جامعه مورد ستم خود را اصلاح کند. این جستارکه با روش تحلیلی- توصیفی انجام گرفته است، نشان میدهد که وی همواره با بهره گیری از نمادها در بازآفرینی اسطورهها توانمند بوده و با توجه به نیازهای جامعهاش به اسطورهآفرینی پرداخته است ؛ همچنین بسیاری از اشعار شاملو بر پایه بنمایه های اسطورهای بنا شده است. پژوهش هایی درباره شعر شاملو از دیدگاه نقد اسطوره شناختی صورت گرفته است؛ اما این مقاله، نخستین پژوهشی است که به گونه ای ویژه، نمادهای اساطیری مرتبط با ادبیات پایداری در شعر شاملو را مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار می دهد.کلیدواژگان: اسطوره، نماد، ادبیات پایداری، احمد شاملو
جغرافیای پایداری به گستره و حوزه جغرافیایی ای اطلاق می شود که شاعران یا نویسندگان متعهد در آثار خود به دفاع از مردم تحت ظلم آن خطه در برابر سلطه جویان خارجی یا داخلی برمی آیند. علی محمد مودب، یکی از شاعرانی است که در اشعار خود، نگاهی فراملی داشته و اندیشه های شعری اش متاثر از رویدادهای جهان پیرامون وی است. در این جستار، جغرافیای پایداری در شعر علی محمد مودب با شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و با بهره گیری از روش کتابخانه ای و سندکاوی مورد واکاوی قرار گرفته است تا به این سوالات پاسخ داده شود که چگونه مولفه های پایداری ملی و فراملی در شعر مودب بازتاب داده شده و به غیر از ایران، به موضوعات پایداری کدام کشورها پرداخته شده است؟ یافته های تحقیق حاکی از آن است که پایداری در شعر مودب به ایران منحصر نمی شود. وی در طرح موضوعات پایداری در شعرش، نگاهی عام و فراگیر داشته؛ اما به طور خاص بر موضوعات پایداری مرتبط با کشورهای خاورمیانه متمرکز شده است؛ از این رو، مودب در شعرش به فلسطین، غزه، لبنان، عراق، یمن، بحرین، سوریه، افغانستان، هائیتی و هیروشیما با رویکردی حمایتی پرداخته و در مقابل، نگاه انتقادی و اعتراضی خود را متوجه آمریکا، اسرائیل، انگلیس، روسیه، عربستان، مصر و ترکیه ساخته است.کلیدواژگان: جغرافیای پایداری، علی محمد مودب، ادبیات پایداری، شعر فراملی
یکی از مسائل دیرین جهان اسلام، مسئله فلسطین و اشغال آن به وسیله اسرائیل و انجام دادن جنایت های گوناگون در حق فلسطینیان، به ویژه کودکان آنهاست. مظلومیت و مقاومت بی نظیر کودکان فلسطینی در برابر این رفتارهای ناجوانمردانه به شیوه های مختلف در شعر شاعران جهان نمود پیدا کرده است. لطیف (هه لمه ت) هلمت، شاعر مقاومت کردستان عراق نیز، از جمله شاعرانی است که فراملیتی اندیشیده و فارغ از چارچوب سرزمینی خود، کردستان، به کودکان فلسطینی پرداخته است.وی با بهره گیری از توانمندی ادبی درد و رنج، شهادت و شجاعت آنها را در سروده های کودکانه به تصویر کشیده و در راستای بیان مظلومیت مردم فلسطین و مقاومت آنان، از تمام ظرفیت های شعر کردی بهره گرفته است. مقاله حاضر در پی آن است که به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی، سیمای کودکان فلسطینی در شعر هلمت را از دو منظر ساختار و محتوا مورد بحث و بررسی قرار دهد.
نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که در «دیوان مندالان» او، ما با دو سیمای متفاوت از کودکان فلسطینی روبه رو هستیم؛ نخست، سیمای مظلومانه آنها و دوم، سیمای مبارز و مقاوم آنان که علیرغم کودکی، استوار در برابر ناملایمات ایستاده و باعث ترس دشمنان شده اند. از نظر ساختاری و واژگانی نیز، شعر او ساده و روان است و وزن و محتوای اشعار با هم تناسب دارند.کلیدواژگان: شعر کردی، لطیف هلمت، دیوان مندالان (کودکان)، کودک فلسطینی، آوارگی، مقاومت
In the contemporary era, Iran and the Arab world faced bloody events such as the Constitutional Revolution against the Qajar tyrants, Islamic Revolution Against tyrannical regime of Pahlavi, Holy Defense during Iraq's Imposed War Against Iran, occupation of Arab countries by Western colonialism, successive Arab revolutions to gain independence and freedom, Zionist occupation of Palestine, affliction of Arab states with treacherous governments and Western colonial rule, all of which have been reflected in the literature of both nations.
Among contemporary Iranian poets, Nasrullah Mardani and among contemporary Arab poets, Badawi al-Jabal, have referred to the political and social crises in their societies and defended their nations in their words as weapons and have called them to resist the oppression of tyrannical and aggressive colonialists.2.Discussion
The literature of every nation is a mirror of all the events that have taken place throughout its history and resistance literature is part of this literature because each nation's struggle and strive against the threatening factors is reflected in its persistance and continuity.
This comparative study investigates and analyzes the reflections of resistance literature in the poems of two renowned poets, Nasrullah Mardani and Badawi al-Jabal.
The reflections of resistance were common in their poems: the theme of homeland and land is one of the main themes of resistance poetry in Persian and Arabic literature, patriotism, committment to the homeland and the universal patriotic outlook is abundant in the works of both poets. Both poets depicted the sufferings of people. They took up the issue of Palestine and defended it in their poems. The reflection of resistance and fight is the basis of resistance literature, which abounds in the poems of both poets. Both poets invite their nations to resist and fight against the enemies and they praise and describe the warriors and sometimes use epic tricks to stir up enthusiasm in people and warriors. The reflection of martyr and martyrdom is the fundamental basis of resistance literature, which is evident in both poets' works. Both poets have threatened the enemy in their poems. Utopia has been also featured in the poems of both poets. The difference is that the utopia in Mardani’s poems will be realized in the light of the coming of the promised Savior, Imam Mahdi, whereas the utopia in al-Jabal’s point of view is established based on the friendship and compassion among all mankind. Finally, protest also forms the basis of resistance literature in Iran and the Arab World, which is a common theme in both poets' works without being influenced by each other.Keywords: resistance literature, American comparative school, Nasralla Mardani, Badvi Aljabal, anti-colonialism
An Investigation and Analysis of the Appearance and Persistence of the "Human Look" in the Fiction Literature of the Imposed WarPages 27-601. Introduction
Considering that no work - especially, falling within fictional literature, written just months after the beginning of the war - containing the human view of war from the first literary reactions (1359) to the first half of the 90s has been under a careful step-by-step analysis, the significance of this study is undeniable considering the present gap.2. Methodology
The present study is based on a descriptive-analytical method, using library resources containing the human view of war and its evolution during the war and the subsequent years in fictional literature.3. Discussion
In this section, while offering some examples containing the human view in war stories from 1359 SH. till now, the researchers will investigate and analyze components like pacifism, interest in ending war, considering some human characteristics such as fear, the desire to continue living, considering all men in war equal from humanistic viewpoint, having transnational view, the fact that all men involved in war deserve life, etc., which have been reflected in stories of the Imposed War. The traces of this view first emerged in months after the beginning of war in the years 1359 and 1360 A.H., reached a notable bloom in stories of the 1370s SH. and reached its climax in the 1380s SH.4. Conclusion
Most of the stories and novels created in the 1360s SH,were often written in propaganda, propagative, and in response to the cultural and political tendencies of the time because of falling within the war context. Because the time requirement urged them to turn to an epic expression to make the ground for a more passionate presence and companionship of people on the difficult path of war. But in the meantime, from the earliest days of the war, and when there was still a surge of defense and persistence, some storytellers have seen the true evil and violent nature of war, with greater clarity and a wider horizon and a more human consciousness. Also, while legitimizing defense, they have expressed their desire for lasting peace throughout the world. Thus, the starting point of the human view toward war can be seen in the year 1359 SH, in the middle of war. This view was taken in The Scorched Earth by Ahmad Mahmoud and other writers of the 60sand such a view was extended more deeply and comprehensively to the works of other writers in the next years. As the war ended and its problems and consequences, such as destruction, displacement, the painful life of the disabled war veterans, etc., were more revealed, the hidden aspects of the war also became the focus of the fiction writers. In the 1380s SH, the human view toward war approached a naturealism in the works of a number of writers, leading to the expression of some major war taboos, and at times, formed into a sharp critical and anti-war pride. From the late the 1380s SH and the early the 1390s SH, there was a return to the defensive and epic view of the 1360s SH in war fictions. The fiction writers of these works strive to display the earthly atmosphere of war field, alongside all the sacrifices, devotions and inevitable human feelings of nostalgia, fear, and dependency in the warriors, and they depicted the warriors with all the negative and positive human traits, such as anger, fear, love, courage, etc.Keywords: War fictions, The dominant discourse, Unstable situation, Human view
Pages 61-961. Introduction
From long ago, letters have served people as a great, substantial communication resource and an efficient tool. They have also helped people in communicating with each other and conveying their desires and thoughts to others. Letters can be considered as the most important tool for conveying thoughts and opinions as they could save people from dissociability and redeem them from mental isolation. Letter writing is a process in which a communication is formed between two or more people by sending a paper work for a person to another or others. Letter writing can be accomplished in any subject. In primitive age, letter writing was done in paper, but today, with the improvement of technology and invention of tools, such as computer, internet, cell phones, etc., letter writing in paper and traditional correspondence have faded and have partly given their way to these tools. Overpassing the social function of letters, we can define this word according to Amid Dictionary as ‘a written subject that is addressed to a particular person and is usually sent to a receiver through post and in an envelope; or it is a paper letter on which some matters are written’. Letter writing has been of great importance in history and in Iranian and Islamic civilization; As it is recorded in literary and historic texts. This importance was to an extent that Iranians even in the pre-Islamic period, it had ordinances and special standardizations for secretaries and techniques (Rastegar Fasaei, 2001: 194-195). Centuries after Islam, letter writing propounded among secretaries in Arabic with Iranian-Islamic style by accommodating the principles of letter writing in Persian and Arabic, and the letter writers being influenced by the Quran and letters of prophets and caliphs to the kings of neighbor countries and Islamic agents and functionaries (Khatibi, 1996: 309 – 361). In the middle of Qajar era and the introduction of writers like Fazel Khan Garousi, Mirza Malkum Khan, and more importantly, Qaem Maqam Farahani, the style of letter writing transformed in Persian literature to an extent the sentences of letters became shorter and the extravagance in using rhetorical features was minimized in Qaem Maqam’s letters alongside the simplicity of language and its closeness to natural speech (Aryanpour, 2008: 65). Simplification of the structure and language of letters, whether in administrative letters or in friendly and family letters, which were the consequences of literacy growth, lead to more extension in letter writing as one of the main communication tools in decades after revolution, particularly during the imposed war. A point that this article delves into.2. Methodology
Considering the point that freedmen's letters form an important part of war and holy defense documents and also these important documents have not been collected and codified in an authentic and formal collection yet, also having utilized the library and quite rich sources of Payam-e-Azadegan publication and corresponsive sites, the main method the researcher has used was collecting the documents and works of martyrs and martyrs and veterans affairs foundation, and has used more than six thousand letters.3. Discussion
3-1. Letter 3-1-1. Classification of captivity letters Apart from the common classifications in the field of literature and correspondences, captivity letters can be divided into the following types based on their form, their general or particular nature, the addressee and the content: 1- Letters with frontispiece 2- letters without frontispiece 3- pattern letters (stereotype) 4- exclusive letters.
3-1-2. Letters with frontispiece They are letters with a special slogan and mark of an organization, imperial system, company, factory, etc. Frontispieces which were accommodated to captives for writing letters, were papers in white and blue, which were 21 centimeters long and 14 centimeters wide. They were endorsed with sender and receiver’s address and the letter had been divided into two parts. Its top was for the captive’s text letter and the addressee could reply the letter at the bottom of the paper. These papers belonged to the International Committee of the Red Cross and had a particular form:
3-1-2-1. The blue frontispiece This kind of frontispiece was given to captives who met the Red Cross representatives and wanted to write letter for the first time, or it was given to captives who were prohibited from writing letters for a period of time and were uninformed of their family. These kinds of letters were unilateral and the captive only could write a letter at the bottom of it and inform his family about his health.
3-1-2-2. The white frontispiece These letters were open and they have to be passed and checked by censorship office of Iraq while exiting or entering Iraq and they were usually controlled by members of militia organization – that were known as feudists among people.
3-1-3. Letters without frontispiece These letters do not have any frontispiece and sign like general papers, such as paper of notebooks or other kinds of simple or lineolated papers. They were also mostly used for friendly and family correspondences. Naturally, it was not possible to use ordinary papers for letter writing in captivity period and letters had to be written in particular forms. But, using letters without frontispiece in front was common among fighters some of whom acceded to camps as a document with captives.
3-1-4. Pattern letters (stereotype) According to Moein dictionary, stereotype letters are kind of letters that are written in a particular framework and usually has similar style and structure. Thus, it can be said that most of the captivity letters are stereotypes because they are written in a particular format with specific structure. The paper of the letters are the same, flat and equal in size, the volume and space of letters are limited and their content is about greetings. Pattern letters can be studied from two general aspects: 1- their addressee and its application 2- their dominant framework in the structure form.
3-1-4-1. Classification of pattern letters based on the addressee and application: Considering the addressee and application, pattern letters are categorized into personal or family letters, friendly letters, letters to politicians, letters to enemies, testaments and power of attorney.
3-1-4-1-1. Personal letters (family) Personal letters are letters that a captive wrote to his immediate family members, which include father, mother, sister, brother, spouse and child. Among these, there were correspondences between the captive and his other relatives as well.
3-1-4-1-2. Friendly letters Friendly letters can be considered as continuator of the tradition of Akhavani letters in ancient literature. But there is a difference between these two kinds of letters that friendly letters of captives are much simpler than Akhavani letters in ancient literature structurally and also in the way they express a statement.
3-1-4-1-3. Letter to Imam Khomeini: Though captives were given only two paper sheets for each correspondence to Iran, they sometimes wash their hands of their family and write a letter to their spiritual father, Imam Khomeini, due to the abundance of captives' passion for the Islamic system of Iran and government representatives, especially Imam Khomeini.
3-1-4-1-4. Letter to enemies: The other main types of captivity letters based on the addressee are letters which were written to the enemies of the Islamic Revolution and the opposing forces. These letters are distinct from family letters in their epic tone and their collective state. Also, word choice in these letters is somehow different from other letters, based on the purpose of their writing.
3-1-4-1-5. Testament: Freedmen’s will to their family and friends usually made part of the letters; however, in captivity literature we sometimes face letters in which captives devote a whole letter stating their commendations and wills. There are not much absolute wills in captivity literature and wills of Mahmoud Amjadian (a martyr freedman) and Ma'sumeh Abad (a freedman) can be named as two examples.
3-1-4-1-6. Power of attorney: Considering the point that some of the captives had properties, houses, cars, etc., before they became captivated, they had to reveal and clarify the quality of occupation for their family. Therefore, the International Committee of the Red Cross coordinated with the Islamic Republic of Iran, gave the captives particular papers titled as power of attorney, which were authentic to Iran government and its content was indispensable to the addressees. If a captive want to write a power of attorney then he filled one of those papers and sent it to his family. For brevity, I avoid exemplifying an instance in this article.4. Conclusion
Studying about six thousand letters of freedmen, it was concluded that they can be divided into different types as: letters with frontispiece (in blue and red), letters without frontispiece, pattern letters and exclusive letters. There are some main patterns in captivity letters which are repeated in most of captives' letters. If pattern letters are considered as the most important general kind of captivity literature, it will be noticed that they are continuator of the style of Akhavani letters in previous centuries of Persian literature in their structure, frequent frameworks, in the way they begin, the text form of the letters and their end. The distinction between captivity letters and ancient correspondences are caused by the diversity in their expression and simplicity of words, and how they get close to colloquial language and abundant use of words related to accents. This distinction has special sight in letters where political and revolutionary thoughts of writers were posed and also in descriptions of the condition and qualification of camps.Keywords: Captivity literature, Letter writing, Freedman letters, Pattern letters, Letters with frontispiece
Religious epic collections have less been the focus of scholars, despite the fact that a high number of them exist in Persian. Perhaps one of the reasons may be that they are not well recognized among the literati. During the history of Persian literature, various religious epic collections have existed with different subjects, like special religious events, the wars of the beginning of Islam, the biography and life style of religious clergymen and other recognized religious figures. One of the subjects that religious literati had special attention to is Mokhtar Ibn-e Abi Obeydeh Thaqafi’s biography and retellings about his uprising to avenge the Karbala catastrophe and its martyrdoms. In these religious collections, Mokhtar’s uprising and his persistence in getting his revenge from the murderers of Imam Hossein has been depicted through epic poetics and in imitation of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. Most of these collections are manuscripts that are kept in libraries. The aim of this study was to present a general introduction to Mokhtarnameh collections in Persian literature through library research and documentation. In this study, four religious epic collections on the uprising of Mokhtar Thaqafi were introduced, among which Negahi Arani-Kashani’s Mokhtarnameh was the oldest, dated back to the tenth century A.H. Key words: Poem collection, Religious epic, Mokhtarnameh, Mokhtar Thaqafi1. Introduction
In terms of the type of hero and subject matter, epic is divided into four categories: national and mythological, historical, religious and mystical. Among these four categories of epic, poetic religious epics will be discussed in this article. Poetic religious epics are works that describe the religious events in the form of Mathnavi in a narrative way. Some of the poem collections mentioned in this study still exist in literary form in libraries. Introducing them can provide an appropriate context for the correction and research, and it can also provide the public with the scientific, literary, historical and religious benefits of epics. Furthermore, it is important to examine the content of these works from the perspective of resistance literature.2. Methodology
The method used in this article is based on library and document research. Little information exists in the sources and lists about the poem collections mentioned in this study, and it was not possible for the author to see the existing manuscripts to complete the existing information. Therefore, the data pertaining to each poem collection are based on limited resources. Some of the poems that narrate Mukhtar's story exclusively describe Mukhtar's uprising and are often published under the general title 'Mokhtarname'. Others deal with the narration of Karbala happenings, and they end with a description of Mukhtar's uprising to take revenge on the killers of the martyrs of Karbala, e.g., Elham Kermanshahi's Ferdows Garden and Reza Qolikhan Hedayat's Manhajalehdaya. In the present study, we will only introduce the first group.3. Discussion
According to the information obtained from sources and book lists, since the 10th to the 14th century AH, fifteen Mokhtarnamehs were written by Persian-speaking poets of Iran and the subcontinent, from which Arani Kashani's Mokhtarnameh written in poem in the 10th Century is the oldest as well as the most recognized one. If Makhzanol Dorrar’s claim that Qatreye Isfahani’s Mokhtarname contains 104,000 verses is not true, it is likely that Jafari's Mokhtarname that is known to have a thickness of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, is the largest Mokhtarnameh introduced in this research. Then comes the Mokhtarnameh of Yazdi's Burhanpuri and Khamoosh Yazdi in the second place with a volume of about thirty thousand verses. 'Ronaghe Anjuman' by Sohbat Lari is the smallest poem collection with almost 1800 verses. The contribution of Persian-speaking poets of the subcontinent on poeticizing Mokhtarnameh is also noticeable, and about half of these poem collections have been written by these poets.4. Conclusion
This study aims to introduce the poems that depict the story of the uprising of Mokhtar Ibn-e Abi Obeydeh Thaqafi in an epic style. These poems and their poets are often unknown and neglected. The Mokhtarnamehs of Salem Sabzevari in the 11th Century, Mirza Arjmand Azad Kashmiri (Delgoshanameh), Mirza Abotrab Esfahani, Burhanpuri, Ghane Tatwi and anonymous poet in the 12th Century, and Sohbat Lari's poems (Ronaghe Anjuman), Tamkin Shirazi (Nishat Al-Qolub), Ja'fari, Maftoon Danbali (Homayoun-Namah), Qatre Esfahani (Fatahnameh of Mokhtar), and Mirza Abdul Rahim Nayini (Bahjah al-Mu'minin) in the thirteenth century were poeticized. The Shoayi Qajar and Khamosh Yazdi’s Mokhtarnames also belong to the 14th century AH. Thus, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries A.H. is the peak of Mokhtarnameh writing. The poems that have a copy now are all composed in the form of Mathnawi and Bahre Moteqareb, imitating Ferdowsi's Shahnameh. Apparently, only Sohbat Lari's poems (Ronaghe Anjuman) has been published in print, and other manuscripts are kept in form of handwritten manuscripts in libraries.Keywords: Poem collection, Religious epic, Mokhtarnameh, Mokhtar Thaqaf
Myths are collective dreams that, as a result of many years of similar experiences of human ancestors, have deposited in the deep layers of human's collective unconscious. They have risen from the depths of human's existence in various forms such as religious ceremonies, individual dreams, art and literature and they have created symbols that manifest the whole nature of human being, creation and human history. One of the most important points of connection between modern poetry and Persian classic poetry is its use of myth and symbol to pay for poetic concepts because the language of myth and symbol makes the poem rich, prominent and enduring. Myths and mythical symbols are one of the most important tools in modern Persian poetry, through which the poet can express various goals and in addition to increasing the charm and spirit of poetry, the poet indirectly expresses what he or she cannot or does not want to express clearly.
In fact, we can say that symbolism in literature is "the art of expressing thoughts and emotions, not through direct description, ... but by the way they refer to them and the use of unexplained symbols to create those emotions and thoughts is in the mind of the reader. "(Chadwick, 1996, 11), The poet's use of this power has always put poetry and literature into an atmosphere of political and social vitality and movement. Today's modernist poets, with their overtones and mere references, present their own myths and narratives. In other words, in the process, "myth becomes a midwife who gives birth to the poet's infant thoughts." (Horri, 2009, 22) Therefore, recreating myths in poetry is one of the most beautiful and artistic uses of myth. In such recreation, the goal is to link the past to the present and to provide backgrounds in the field of mythical insight. Through this link, it presents its readers with a specific social and political perception. By reflecting on the points mentioned above, one can understand the significance and value of the mythical criticism of a literary work because when: "The individual dream is to be considered a myth, every genuine literary work is in fact a literary masterpiece of the collective human dream." (Ismaeilpour, 2003, 43) Mythological elements are one of the enduring symbols in contemporary poetry at various points in Iranian history. It expresses the ideals and feelings of the nation where the poet leaves and is dependent on. Resistance literature is "a kind of committed literature created by people and intellectual leaders in society against what threatens their material and spiritual life" (Basiri, 2009, 26) and is the literature in the context of people's lives and risen amid not only war, but also social changes (Mohammadi Roozbehani, 2010, 28). With the beginning of the 19th century, Persian poetry and literature also entered a new society and had new themes which were named by contemporary writers and researchers as 'jihadist literature', 'anti-colonial literature' and 'resistance literature' (Taheri Khosroshahi, 2011, 5).2.Methodology
This study aims to investigate the themes of resistance and the myths associated with this field in Shamlou's poetry and, by in-text analysis, show the poet's new look at various myths. It has used an analytical-descriptive method and a symbolic approach. In fact, this research seeks to answer the following questions:1. What are the reasons for Ahmad Shamlou to embody symbolism in his poems of resistance?
2. Which themes of resistance literature have been more emphasized in Ahmad Shamlou's poetry and have been mostly studied from mythical view?
3. Has Ahmad Shamlou been more concerned with the unaltered narration of old myths or has he sought to create and construct new myths?3.Discussion
Resistance poetry is a dynamic and transcendent art that has brought honor to literature against injustice and oppression. The era of oppression and despotism that precedes the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran is a reflection of contemporary human suffering in poetry and Ahmad Shamlou is one of the poets of this era. Reflections of resistance poetry can be found in much of Shamlou's work. The flow of desire for freedom in his poems is evident as he considers freedom to be precious to man. The coup of Mordad 28, 1332 was the most important event in Shamlou's poetry, which can point to the failure of the national movement, the collapse of the Tudeh Party, the formation of the SAVAK, and the despotism of society.4.Conclusion
After the political events of 1332 in Iran, there was a sense of frustration and sadness at the community level, especially among the intellectuals that gave up idealism and switched to cryptography and ambiguity, and as a result, a kind of social and political literature. Shamlou's poetry contains a variety of socio-philosophical thinking, which is distinguished by allegory and by symbols and myths. Shamlou's poetry is a reflection of all the social and political issues of the day. The beauty, the conciseness, the ability to deliver the aim, the publicity and accessibility of symbols to everyone, all made Ahmad Shamlou to choose a symbolism during the era of tyranny instead of expressing his thoughts and intentions directly and explicitly.
Recounting social and political issues and expressing the moods and passions and the introspective and philosophical occupations, most of the attention is drawn to the myth in poetry. Rather than simply imbuing or narrating, without changing the old myths, he himself has created myth. Shamlou with the help of expressive techniques from a word, event or historical figure and revolutionary fighter, makes a superhero or a great mythical event. In ways such as mythological descriptions, the combination of various myths, myth-breaking or taking advantage of the features of time, myths, and mythical symbols.
Shamlou avoids slogans and by deepening and combining poetry with the spirit of society and the fight against oppression, especially in the despair after the 1332 coup, his poetry serves the fight for human freedom and the defense of human aspirations. He is victorious with his symbols and innovations in the poetry of resistance poetry. With using mythical symbols, he has adapted and expressed the state of society of his time. Shamlou has been in the midst of social-political events and he has tried to make the epic of his time with the help of mythical symbols. The main themes of resistance literature which have been more focused in Shamlou's poetry and have been dealt with in terms of myth and symbol are commemorating the fighters and the martyrs, blowing the spirit of hope and victory in society, reflecting the influence of tyranny and oppression in society and depicting the face of the oppressed.Keywords: Myth, symbol, Resistance literature, Shamlou, Mythological criticism
Works devoted to resistance literature are often portrayed as a form of orientation against invading the homeland or obstacles on the way of national-religious ideals realization. In the meantime, the homeland in the poems of some poets finds meaning in a broader level than their community, city, and geographical area. Geography is an area that is divided according to several factors such as climate, land surface, religion, etc. Therefore, it can be said that resistance geography encompasses the level, scope and geographical area in which poets or writers, in their poetry or prose, defend the oppressed peoples of that country against foreign invasive forces or tyrant rulers. Ali Mohammed Mo'addab is one of the poets who has chosen resistance as the theme of his poetry in its national and transnational dimension and his poetic thoughts and emotions are influenced by world events around him. Given the influence of resistance literature on the general culture of society and the fact that Ali Mohammed Mo'addab has devoted a considerable portion of his poetry to resistance themes, it is important to read and examine these poems in greater depth.2.Methodology
In this paper, the geography of resistance in Ali Mohammad Mo'addab's poetry has been analyzed in a descriptive-analytic method using library and documentary approach. In order to answer the questions posed in this study, i.e., how have national and transnational resistance components been reflected in resistance poetry? and which countries other than Iran have addressed resistance issues?3.Discussion
Ali Mohammad Mo'addab is a contemporary Iranian poet, writer and journalist. He has had two approaches in his poems in introducing resistance themes in his poetry. In a general and comprehensive view, he has dealt with the nations that have been oppressed and fought against throughout history. In fact, Mo'addab has looked at the conditions of people in Iran, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen, Bahrain, Afghanistan, Haiti and Japan. In his poems of resistance, he has addressed both the Islamic Revolution and the issues of eight years of sacred defense. Therefore, issues regarding Imam Khomeini, war and martyrdom in his poetry are particularly prominent. Mo'addab is an ideological poet and he writes his poems based on a clear ideology. Much of Ali Mohammad Mo'addab's poetry is devoted to the issue of Palestine. He is one of the first poets to point out the Syrian war and ISIL attack in his poems. He has also looked at Lebanon in his poetry and he has referred to the testimony of the fighters of that land. To this end, he uses the language of peace, a common language throughout the world. In his terms, all those who have been oppressed are of one homeland and one race, and he stands up and defends their sorrows. Even eight years of war between Iran and Iraq does not prevent him from ignoring the Iraqi people and their current terrible conditions. Mo'addab takes a critical stance in responding to the conditions prevailing in Afghanistan in his poetry.
Ali Mohammed's second approach in expressing the themes of resistance is to address the domineering and transgressive countries such as the United States, Britain, the Quds occupation regime and their tribes, including Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Mo'addab has exposed the crimes of the hegemonic countries. In the meantime, his criticism and protest are more focused on America that in the last century, it has cast its shadow on the international community, and especially the Middle East and it doesn't do anything to achieve its goals. Mo'addab, as a staunch defender of Palestinians, is a serious critic of the Quds occupation regime. He has also mentioned British domination in Iran and India in a symbolic expression in his poem. He has also condemned the air strikes and the Saudi invasion of Yemen, Syria and Bahrain. Egypt has been noted for its proximity to Palestine in his poetry. Mo'addab in his poems has criticized the Arab countries, especially Egypt.4.Conclusion
The expression of resistance issues in Ali Mohammad Mo'addab's poetry can be examined at both national and transnational levels. He has followed two approaches in stating these issues. First, he appears as a supporter of the oppressed. Second, he appears as a as a protester, he aims at exposing the crimes of the aggressive and the world arrogant. Addressing the values and aspirations of the Islamic Revolution and eight years of sacred defense encompasses much of Ali Mohammed Moaddab's poems of resistance. In terms of transnational resistance issues, Palestine and Gaza have the most frequency, in a way that Mo'addab, in addition to his other collections of poetry, has devoted a special collection to this theme entitled 'The Bombing Trip'. He is also the first Iranian poet to stand up for Syria and record ISIL's crimes against its people in his poems. Lebanon, Afghanistan and Iraq are other Islamic countries, the people of which Mo'addab has defended. Considering the imposed war, this act by mo'addab indicates that patriotism is widespread in his poetry and that he has considered all the oppressed of one land and one race. Muslims and non-Muslims are not different in Mo'addab's eyes; Hence, he did not ignore people of Haiti and Hiroshima and their massacre. Mo'addab has chosen to expose the crimes of America, Britain, Russia and Saudi Arabia as his poetry's mission. It therefore recounts the damage they have incurred to Iranians and other Muslim nations throughout history. His point has always been to criticize the indifference of Muslim countries, especially Egypt and Turkey, and the news media in response to the atrocities committed and the oppression perpetrated on Muslim nations. In a nutshell, the geography of resistance in Ali Mohammad Mo'addab's poetry has a wide domain across the globe and in the center of the Middle East.Keywords: Geography of resistance, Ali Mohammad Mo'addab, Resistance literature, Transnational poetry
One of the long-standing subjects in the Islamic world is the issue of Palestine and its occupation by Israel and committing various crimes against Palestinians, especially their children. The Palestinians' state of being oppressed and the incomparable resistance of Palestinian children against these unfair behaviors have been reflected in various forms in the work of poets around the world. Latif Halmat (Helmet), the poet of resistance in Iraqi Kurdistan, is among the poets who has a transnational view, and has focused on Palestinian children regardless of his territorial framework, Kurdistan. Having made use of his literary power, he has portrayed their sufferings, martyrdom and bravery in his childlike poems and he has used all the potentials of Kurdish poetry to express Palestinians' state of being oppressed and their resistance. The present article seeks to describe the Palestinian children's image in Halmat’s poetry from a structural and content perspective using a descriptive-analytical method.
The results show that in his Mendalan divan we are confronted with two different images of Palestinian children: the first is their oppressed image and the second is their militant and resilient image, which, despite their childhood, have stood firm against adversity and has frightened their enemies. Also, in terms of structure and vocabulary, his poetry is simple and fluid, and the rhythm and content of the poems fit together.2.Methodology
The research methodology of this research is descriptive-analytical, which was done in three steps. Firstly, the researchers precisely studied the resources related to resistance literature and Latif Halmat's Mendalan divan and identified the required data for conducting research among the verses of the book. Secondly, the researchers reviewed and analyzed the content of the verses based on the collected data. Finally, this research attempts to answer the following questions:1. How is Palestinian children's image reflected in the poetry of Latif Halmat?
2. How is the structure and content appropriate in Latif Halmat's poetry about Palestinian children?3.Discussion
Resistance literature has been linked to destiny of nations, and has encompassed a considerable part of their literary history. The history of resistance literature goes back to the distant past because of the important themes of resistance, such as trying to preserve life and honor, protesting against injustice, resisting oppressors and their violence, inviting to fight against bullying and aggressive enemies, etc. It has been and is one of the basic concepts of human life.
In Persian literature, from epic to constitutional poetry, enduring themes has been found in the poetry of poets, as well as Kurdish literature and divans of ancient and contemporary Kurdish poets are full of poems, writings and examples of patriotism, discrimination and resistance against compulsion, etc., which is in the context of resistance literature.
Resistance literature is tied to Palestine and Palestinians. Pictures of Palestinian youths and children being killed every day, homelessness and appalling living conditions in camps, as well as their struggle and resistance to usurp enemies, familiarize the world's minds with Palestinians' sufferings and cause poems to be described by Palestinian, Arab and non-Arab poets. Also among the many different themes about Palestinians' resistance, the pitiful image of Palestinian children is a very important matter, which have not been addressed in poets' divans.
Latif Mahmoud Barzanji, known as Latif Halmat (1947), is a first-generation Iraqi modern-day poet and co-author of Shirko Bekas, Abdullah Pashio, and Rafiq Saber. He is one of those poets who lived through the years of the Ba'athist regime and he saw the ten-year war (1961 to 1970) and pursued the policy of repression, killing, imprisonment, mass deportation, of Kurds by the Iraqi government (Kuchera, 1377, p.434) and he understood the painful catastrophes of Halabja's chemical bombing, the genocide of Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan known as Anfal, in which "about 50,000 villages were destroyed, one million people were displaced and 180,000 people were killed collectively" (Sajjadi, 2017, 134). In other words, touching on similar Palestinian conditions In the Kurdish land made him pay attention to Palestinian children and tried to speak about children's suffering in children's language in his Mendalan divan.
The study of Halmat's poetry about Palestinian children confronts us with two faces of the children of this land:2-2-1. The oppressed image of the Palestinian child:
This section of Halmat's poems includes topics like 'crime, destruction and dictatorship, 'cruelty and murder', 'displacement and homeland' and 'bombardment', each with its own depiction of sufferings. Palestinian children:2-2-2-Palestinian Child's resistant image:Another part of Halmat's children's poems is dedicated to the representation of Palestinian child's bravery against Zionists' occupation. The first poem, written at the beginning of the Mandalan divan, deals with the issue of Beirut and Palestine and the firm stature of its children against the aggressors. In this section, three themes are discussed with examples: 'revenge', 'struggle' and 'resistance'.3.Conclusion
The study led to the followingresults
1. Unlike other Kurdish poets who have not paid much attention to the Palestinian issue, Latif Halmat has taken steps to address the sufferings of Palestinian children as a humanitarian issue.
2. Palestinian children's Image in the poetry of Latif Halmat is two-sided, in other words, in his divan, we have two images of Palestinian children. First, their oppressed face which shows their suffering, devastation, displacement, bombing and killing, while there is no savior. The second is the militant image of Palestinian children, which can be clearly seen in their angry look and furious revenge.
3. Structurally, the poems and a story in the Mendalan divan have a simple and far-reaching literary complexity, and the poet has successfully attempted to avoid using far-fetched metaphors and complex terms, according to the world of his audience and to make a better connection with the audience
4. Also, in terms of the rhythm and speech tone, Latif Halmat has been successful to match the musical rhythm with the content. At the time of showing the oppressed image of Palestinian children, he uses soft tones such as Motaghareb and Ramal, and to show their fighting power and resistance, he uses an epic tone a syllable meter with a sharp rhythm.
5. Halmat does not neglect Palestinian girls in his poems. In a beautiful poem, he portrays a Palestinian girl in a warlike frame, who abandons the prosperity and joys of life and is killed for defending the homeland. Finally, the poet dedicates his poem to her.
6. Latif Halmat in Palestinian children's poetry mostly uses the narrative and one component of the narrative style, namely, dialogue between individuals and characters involved in the story, and even in prose text, he uses the monologue style, and the story's character does heartache and review memories with himself, and it helps the poet to convey some messages to the target audience, i.e., children in an indirect and simple way, and more precisely, through the use of fictional setting - which is familiar and understandable for the child -.
7. The poet uses contradictions to express his intentions, and in particular, to show the evil face of Zionists. This means that he uses innocent natural elements such as butterflies, pigeons and kites, to which he attributes the cruel deeds of the Zionists, in order not to become embraced in the mind of the audience and to be drawn to the opposite point, the Zionists.Keywords: Kurdish poetry, Latif Halmat, Mendalan (kids) divan, Palestinian child, Homelessness, Resistance